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Vol. VIII. 



'^i No. 1. 



t'fR&Y 



tt^W H% 



A JOURNAL OF 



FOR INDIA AND 



ITS DEPENDENCIES 



EDITED BY 

ALLAN HUM 
1879. 



r 



t; 



/ 



(Rultntiix^ 



^<r 



AND PVBLISHBO BY A. ACTON, CALOTITA CBNTBAL PKESS COMPANY, LIMITKD. 



JUST PUBLISHED. 
Pabt Fibst 

09 

A HISTORY OF THE BIRDS OF CEYLON, 

BY 

Captain W. Vikobnt Lkgob, b.a. 



Boffal Qto. Part one coDtains 846 pages and exquisite 
colored plates of 1 5 species. The work will be completed in 
two more parts^ both nearly ready for issne, and will contain 
altogether about 900 pages and figures of from 45 to 50 species 
peculiar to the Island. 

Frice^to those who have not yet been recorded as subsoribersi 
£2-0-0 per part. 

Apply to the Author : Ounwharf Barracks, Portsmouth. 



NOW PUBLISHING IN PARTS 

A MONOGRAPH OF THE CINNYRIDiE OR SUN BIRDS, 



G. E. SHELLEY. 

Apply to Author, 82| Cheaham Flsoe, London i or, B. Quaritch, 15, PiccadiUf, 

London. 



AMONOGBAPH OF THE BTJOBROTIDJE ; or, Family of 
the Hornbills. By D. G. Elliot, F.B.S.E., Ac. 

It will be issued in Nine Parts— the first eight to contain mx 
Plates eacb with the accompanying letterpress, and the ninth to 
comprise the remaining Plates, Introduction, lAst of s^ib- 
scribers, &c. 

The size will be Imperial Quarto. 
The price will be One Oainea eadi Fart. 

Intending Subscribers are requested to send their namea to Mt 
R. H. PoBTBB, 6, Teuterdon Street, Hanover Square, i:K>ndon, W. 




CALCUTTA : 
FBIVTIO AND PUBLIBHID BT ▲. ACTOIT, AT THB CALCUTTA CIBTBAZ. PBBH, 

6, OOUBCIL BOUBB 8TBBBT. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. VIII 




No. 1. — April. 



Page, 
Slemkkta&t Skxtcb o7 ths Ostboloot of BIED8, with 
fear plates, by B..Ljdekker, B. A., Oeologicjil Survey 

of IndiA ... ... ••• ••• 1 

A 7IB8T TbKTATITB L18T OF THB BiBDB OF THB WEBTERV 

HALF OF THS MaLAY pRHnTBULA ••• ... 37 

Bbcbbtly-dkscbibbi) Species ... ... •.. 72 

A Bough Tebtatitb List of the Bibda of India ... 73 

llTDBX TO THE LIST OF THB BiBDS OF IkdIA ... ... 123 



Nos. 2 — S.-^Oetoher. 



Thb Bibbs of the Webtebb Half of the Malay Fbbib- 

SULA, (Second Notice) ... ... ... 151 

Notes on the kidificatiob of some Bubmesb Bibbs, No. 

Ill, by Eugene W. Oates ... ... ... 164 

Ffbtheb botes OB THE BiBBs OF Tekassebih... ... 168 

The ibfluence of Baibfall on the bistbibxttiob of 

MiGBATOBY Wabebs abd Wateb Bibbs, by O. Yidal... 170 

The Stablibos of Ibbia, by the Editor ... ... 175 

Notes ob the list of the Bibbs of Ibdia, by W. T. Blan- 

lord ••• ••• ••• ... ... 176 

BxFLY TO Mb. Blabfobb*s cbiticisms of the list of thb 

Bibbs OF Ibbia ... ••• ... ... 185 

Notes ob some Tebasserim Bibbs, by C. T. Bingham ... 190 

iEoiALTTis hiaticbla, Lin. ... ... ... 197 

Ckbiobbis TEiOfiBCKT, J. E. Oray ... ... 201 

A COBTBIBBTIOB TO THE Obbitholoqy OF Nefal, by J. Scully 204 

Bibbs Nestibg ob the Eabtebb Nabba, by S. B. Doig ... 369 

Note ob Hobobbis fulyitebteb, Hodgs., by W. E. Brooks 879 

Ok the bibificatiob of Dbomab abbeola ... ... 881 

Fcbtheb obsebtatiobs ob Phyllobcopus tibibabus abb 

plumbeitabsus, also ob Begdloibes buiiii, by W. E. 

Brooks ... ... ... ... 885 

Fbbtbsb abbitiobs to the Sibbh Atifabba, by E. A. 

Butler, and note by the Editor ... ... 388 



11 



Fage. 

fiBBCRIPTION OF ▲NOTHKB jN^EW BeGULOIDES, bj W. E. 

Brooks ••• ••• ••• ••• 3^^ 

Novelties? — 

Lams iDnomipatus ... ••• — 894 

Sturnia incognita ••• ••• ••• 396 

Mb. Sha.bpb's Catalogue op the Bibdb in the Bbitish 

Museum, Vol. IV. -.. ... — 897 

A MoNOGBAPH OP the CmnTBiDJi, by Capt. Shelley, (Second 

Notice) ••• ••• ••• ••- ••• 899 

Captaht Leoge'b "Bibdb op Cetlov," (Second Notice) ... 4Mk 

Notes. — 

The identity cf^ReXXirnkmsjiAetixxA and Rallus pay- 

kuUi, with a tramlatUm of the original d^cription 

of thi* latter ... ... ••• 406 

IHffieultiee in regard to Oeese that require elucida- 
tion ... ••• ••• ... 407 

Our Burmese Thriponax to etand ae feddeni, and not 

crawfurdi, which latter is guite distinct ... 409 

On the plumage of old examplcM of Butorides 

javanicus ... ••• ... 410 

Swifte of the Apns tgpe, (C. pallidas and pekinensis) 411 

On the female of Q^rqoedula falcata ... ib. 

The European Solitary Snipe ... ••• 412 

The female of Querquedula glocitans ... ... ih. 

Motacilla japonica, Swinh. ... ... 418 

Motaoilla ocularis, common at MouUnein •.. t^. 

LlTTBBS to THK EdITOB.— 

A correction. Alpbed Newtov ••• ••• ib. 

Halcyon chloric on the West Go^st. Q*. Vihal •.. 414 
The original edition of Fennaat's Zoology. Alpbed 

Newtov ••• ... ... «•• 415 

Elanu^ ccBruleuCf (two letters). J. Datidson ... ib. 

Nidification of Elanue ccenUeuC' J. H. Yule ... 416 
Acio butlcri and Caprimulg^8 iamaricic. H- B. 

Tbibtbam ... ... . — «•* 417 

Pifierenoes in tho oolours of irides. H. J. Baivbt ib* 
Water-hen inhabiting a hole in a bank^ J. Coox- 

BUBV ... ••• ••• ... 4Ld 

The Pink-headed Duck near Luckttow. Q-BO. Beib ti« 

Sexing eggs. EuGEinE Oaties ••• .,. 419 

On the Diagnoiia of Indian Ghsese. A. O. Hitmb ib. 



No. G.-^D^ember. 



Notes ok Falco atbicepb akb Falco pebegbieatob, by 

J. H. Oumey .*• ••• ... ••# . 42B 

Notes ok Tubdus dissimilis, Blytb, by Henry Seebohm ••# 487 



Ill 

Pago. 

^cciPiTEB TTBOATVs, by R. Bowdler Sharpe ••• ... 440 
Oir AcciprrsB gulabm akd Accipitbb yiboatus, by J. H. 

Guniey ... ... •.. ... 443 

Oh Baza. 8UMATbbk8I8 aitd Baza cexlohkhbu, by J. H. 

Gurney ••• ... ... ••• 444 

Thb E0KLA88 Fhkasahts of thb Himalayas .. ••• 445 

OccASioKAL N0TB8 FBOX SiKBiM, No. 2, by J. A. Gammie 450 

SbTSMATUBA LBUCOCBPHAIiA ••• ••• ... 456 

M'OTBS ON THB NiDIFICATION OF BOMB HoBNBILLS, by C. T. 

Bingbam, Esq. ... ... ••• ... 459 

OBHITHOLOeiCAL ObSBBYATIOKS IN SiKHIM, THB FuNJAB 

AND SiND, by W. Edwin Brooks ... ... 464 

The Oamb Bibds of India, Addenda et Cobbiobnda ... 489 



On the occurrence of Querquedula formosa, near 

JJemn% «•. ••• ... ••• 4v4l 

Sterna leucoptera, in India^ Oeyhn^ and the Anda- 
mans ... ... ... ... 495 

Microhieraz latifrons, in the Nicobars ••• 497 

NiehoUon^e name Zosterops buztoni ie eynonymoue 
with and muet give place to Z. auriTenter, Hume.. ib. 

The Malaecan Miglyptes is probably distinct from 
the Javan tristis, and if so should stand as 
grammithorax ••• ... ••• ib, 

SylYia minuscula, the true name of the Indian 
Miniature White Throat ... ... 498 

Wharton^s rectifications of certain ornithological 
names ... ••• ••• ... to* 

IjBTTSBS to thb Editob— 

King Crow eating an lor a; Wood-pigeons in 
Sind; Common and Pin-tail Snipes— E. A. 

BUTLBB ... ••• ... ... 500 

The Pink-Headed Duck— A. O. Hum R ... 501 

Montifringilla blanfordi and JUandellii in Sikhim — 

L. Mandrlli .•• ... ... 508 

This Number to issue in April 1880 ... ••• ib. 



••• ••• ••• ••• 



PREFACE. 



Thk completion of this yolume has been inordinately 
dehiyedi from circumstances entirely beyond the Editor's 
control. 

When the first-half of this last number had been printed off, 
the ESditor fonnd himself suddenly translated to a new official 
sphere^ involving a wholly new set of duties. A medical man who 
for a dozen years had been practising exclusively as a consulting 
surgeon would find it a little perplexing to have to take up 
suddenly an enormous practice of a brother physician. The 
change in the Editor's case was even greater^ and consequently 
for the first few months it was impossible for him to find 
even a moment's time for any thing outside his official work. 

As soon as the new work had been mastered, he put through 
the Press the second volume of '^ The Game Birdsy"' and this 
disposed of was able at last to attend to Stray Fbathbss. 

This irregularity of publication is a great drawback to 
Stray Fbathxrs, and no one regrets it more than the Editor, 
but no one can command all circumstances ; and, if all were 
known, the real matter for surprise would be, not that Stray 
FsATHEBS is at times, as now, behind time, but that it is ever 
published at all. 

ALLAN HUME. 
March iSrd, 1880. 



STRAY FEATHERS. 



VolVni. APRIL 1879. No 1. 

ftkmentBrs J^ketcj^ of t||e Sstcolosg of §trb5. 

With/our plates. 



Bt B. Lydbrkeb^ B.A., Geological Subykt of India. 



Pbeface. 

I HAVE been asked by Mr. Hame to coctribate to '^ Stbat 
Fbathebb" an elementary sketch of the general osteology of 
birdsy in order that ornithologists in India, who have no oppor- 
tnnity of obtaining works devoted specially to that subject, may 
thereby be able to arrive at a general idea of the stmctore and 
homologies of the bird-skeleton. 

Many ornithologists content themselves merely with a know- 
ledge of the external parts of birds, and remain entirely un- 
acquainted with the internal anatomy. As far as regards the 
distinction between closely-allied species of birds, this superficial 
knowledge is probably in most oases sufficient, because the 
variations in the internal anatomy of most allied groups of 
birds are in general very small. When, however, the naturalist 
desires to compare the relationships of more distantly-related 
avian groaps, le will not be able to arrive at a truthful condu- 
sion, unless he be acquainted, at least to some extent, with their 
internal as well as their external structure. The present sketch 
does not pretend to go into any details regarding the osteological 
anatomy of the various groups of birds, but is merely intended 
to enable the student to determine for himself the names and 
homologies of the bones of any birds which he may come across. 
With tms knowledge, the student will be perfectly able to insti- 
tute for himself comparisons between the homologous bones of 
different birds, and to draw his own conclusions as to their 
relationships, as thereby indicated. 

Before reading this sketch I would strongly recommend the 
reader to obtain for himself the skeleton of any common bird, 
such as a crow or a kite (which he can easily prepare by macer- 
ating the body of such bird, or by placing it over an ants' nest,) 



2 ELBMBNTAR7 SKETCH OF THJB OSTEOLOOT OF BIRDS. 

and comparing it with the descriptions given below. He will^ in 
this manner, be able to arrive at a far more thorough and sound 
knowledge than he would merely by studying the figures given 
here. If this imperfect and hasty sketch should induce any 
Indian ornithologist to take up systematically the study of the 
osteology, and ultimately of the anatomy of the soft parts of 
birds, (which still oficrs a wide field for research) it will have 
fully attained its object. 

I must add that I have not written this sketch for students 
in England, who have abundant means of access to text books and 
memoirs. I must also disclaim any attempt at originality in the 
matter of this sketch, or in the manner of its treatment, since 
I have no claim to any special knowledge of the subject. The 
sketch is mainly written from my own ordinary knowledge of 
Avian anatomyi which has been originally in great part 
derived from the writings of others, ana more especially from 
those of Professor Huxley, from which I have borrowed to a con- 
siderable extent. The figures used in illustrating this sketch have 
also been borrowed from the memoirs of other authors, to whom 
I owe apologies for having copied such figures without having 
obtained previous permission. The delay necessary to obtain 
an answer from Europe must be my excuse for this omission. 

I have appended below* a list of some of the more important 
Works and Memoirs on the Osteology of Birds^ which may be 
useful to such ornithologists as desire to enter more fully 
into the subject. 

In making use' for the first time, of each scientific term em- 
ployed in this sketchy I have appended in a note its original 
meaning and application. It must, however^ be observed that 
the names of most bones were originally applied to the bones of 
the human skeleton, at a time when Comparative Anatomy was 
virtually unknown. Consequently when we come to consider a 
class of animals so far removed from man^ as are birds^ the 
original meaning of the names used is frequently inapplicable, 
and the student will therefore very often find it preferable to 
consider such names as purely abstract terms. 

Indian MusExniff^ Calotttta ; Biohabd Lydekkbb. 

February, 1879. 

• Eyton— *'Otteo1o^a Avium." 

Foster and Balfour — " Elements of Embrjology." 

Oarrod— '* Shuognathous Birds" ; Proo. Zool. Soo., Lon., 1S73. 

Huxley — " Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals." 

Huxley.—*' Classifieation of Birds." Proo. Zool. Soc., Lon., 1867. 

Milne-Edwards— *'Oiseaux Fosstles de la Franoe." 

Honell— ** Students' Manual of Comparative Anatomy." Pt. II. 

Owen— <* Anatomy and Physiology of Vertebrates," VoL IL 

Parker— Artide, « Birds" Osteology ; Enoyclop«dia Britannica. 

Parker.—" ^githognathous Birds?^ Trans. Zool. Soc, Lon., Vol IT. 

Parker and Bettany— *• Morphology of the SkuU." 



KLEMBNTABY 8KBT0H OF THE OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 3 

General Characters. — ^The oBseous system of birds is generally 
remarkable for the lightness and delicacy of its structure, an,d also 
for the extent to which many of the component bones have been 
soldered together by ^' anchylosis/'^ These two characters are 
induced by the necessity for a low specific gravity in the bones, 
in order that they may be suitable for an aerial life, coupled 
with the equal necessity for firm bases of bony support for the 
powerful muscles necessary for flight. The lightness is attain- 
ed by the permeation of most of the bones by air cavities, 
which are in direct communication with the tubes of the luncrs, 
and therefore also with the external air. In some kinds of 
birds this permeation of the skeleton by air is carried to such 
an extent that even the toe-bones are hollowed. Other birds, 
however, such as the Ostrich, which are not formed for flight, 
have the larger bones filled with marrow, as in mammals. 

The requisite strength, which, as we have said, is of equal 
importance with lightness in the bones of birds, is attained 
both by anchylosis and by the structure of the bones them- 
selves, which are generally more compact and close-grained 
than are those of other animals. In consequence of this com- 
pact structure, the bones of birds are generally distinguished 
from those of other animals by their whiter color and more 
porcellanous appearance. The compact structure is in conse- 
quence of a larger relative proportion of mineral over organic 
matter which enters into their composition. In such bones as 
are not permeated by air, this white color and compact struo- 
tnre is not nearly so noticeable, owing to the proportionally 
greater quantity of organic matter which is present. 

The Skull — In order to arrive at a thorough knowledge of 
the skull of a bird, and its homological relations, it would be 
necessaiTy in the first place, to study the development of the 
skull of foetal birds ; and, secondly, to study in considerable 
detail the skulls of the mammalia, because since the bones of the 
skull were mainly named, first of all, from the mammalian 
skull, we must naturally go back to that, if we wish to arrive 
at the original meaning of the terms. It would, however, be 
beyond the scope of the present sketch to attempt such a task. 
Taking, however, the adult bird-skull, and surveymg its general 
form, we shall be able to arrive at a fair general idea of its struc- 
ture, though some points in relation to the original compound 
structure of certain bones must be taken by the reacter on 
trust. The adult bird-skull is generally noticeable for its 
smooth and rounded cranial portion, and for the great extent 



* Anchrloa*, fnm AvicvXo9» crookad, and so probablj a crooked or irregular 
rniioii. The term is applied to the miion by bony matter of two or more origmaUy 
die tinct bonee. 



4 ELEMfiNTABT SKiCTGH OF THE OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 

to which the original forms and relatioDs of the component bones 
have been obscured by anchylosis. 

Fowl's SkulL — On plate II are given five views of bird sknlls ; 
figures I and 2 being slightly enlarged lower and upper views 
of the skull of the common fowl. I propose first to take a 
general survey of the bones shown in these two last-named figures, 
and then to notice a few respects in which some of these bones 
are modified in other groups of birds. 

Commencing with the hinder part of the skull, we find that this 
portion is articulated to the back-bone or vertebral column (pi. I. 
O.V.) by a single hemispherical condyle* (pi. II. en.,) 
which is called the occipital condyle, and which is formed 
entirely from the basi-oceipUal^ bone (b.o.^, which occupies 
the hinder part of the base of the skull. The presence 
of this single occipital condyle serves at once to distinguish 
the skull of a bird from that of a mammal, in which there are 
always present two condyles, which are formed in great part by 
the ex-occipital bones (e.o.) Beptilest on the other hana, agree 
with birds in having but one occipital condyle. The hinder part 
of the skull of the ^ult bird consists of an apparently single 
bone, which surrounds the foramen§ for the passage of the spinal 
chord. In the young bird, however^ as in the young and fre* 
quently in the admt mammal, this apparently single bone 
consists of foar completely distinct elements. || In the under 
view of the fowl-skull (fig. 1) the general position of these four 
bones is indicated. Below the spinal foramen, we have the basi- 
occipital (b.o.), extending as tar forward as the transverse 
suturelT which runs across the base of the skull^ the two ex-occi- 
pitals (e.o.) laterally^ and the single supra-occipital (s.o.) 
above. Occasionally^ as in the skull of the common Goose, 
vacuities occur in the occipital bone above the foramen magnum. 



• Condrle, from KOvZvXofff « knuckle; applied in Anatomy to anj articular bony 
surfkoe of a more or lew fpherical form. The occipital condyle ia ao called from beinr 
placed on the " oocipnt." 

t Ban-oodpital. The term **m oceipitalii," or ocdpital bone, was orieinally 
applied in human anatomv to the large bone, pierced for the panage of the spinal 
chord, which forma the baae of the skull (occiput.) It was snbsquently found that 
this bone realW consisted of four anohylosed bones. Two of them form a pair on 
either side, and were hence called ea-oecipUaU («v, from) : another which forma 
the top of the oodput was termed Bma^oceipital {mnpra^ above,) : while a fourth 
which occupied the base was termed the boH-oeciirital [bawU, base of.) 

J I The term reptile in this sketch is used in its scientific meaning, as being equi* 
ent to the dass Bbptilia, and as eioluding the frogs and newts, (Aicfhibza) 
whidi are popularly classed aa reptiles. 

§ The term /broMeii, meaning an aperture, is apnlied in osteology to any aperture 
in a bone which serves to transmit a nerre or blood-TCaseL The Kiamen refened to 
above is the/brasMii magnum, or great foramen, which transmits the spinal chord and 
vessels to the brain. 

II The term element in osteology is applied to any bone which is formed fhmi a 
single primitiTe point of ossiftcation. 

f Satue, from mo, Isew, is the line of junction of two bones. 



SLBMSNTABT SKETCH OF THE 08TE0L00T OF BIRDS. ^ 

which indicate the original boundaries between the supra* 
and ex-oooipitals. Anteriorly the basi-occipital (b.o.) may be 
seen to be produced into a long pointed style running along the 
base of the sknll, the anterior portion of which is termed the 
spienoidal rostrum* (sph.r.) Between this sphenoidal rostrum 
and the basi-occipital there is really intercalated another bony 
element which corresponds to the ban-sphenoid (b.sph.) of mam- 
mals ; anchylosis, however, has entirely obliterated the ori- 
ginal dirisions between these bones. The sphenoidal rostrum is 
considered to be the representative of the parasphenoidf of 
reptiles^ — a bone whnh is not found in the mammalian 
skull. 

The lateral border of the hinder portion of the palatal as- 
pect of the skull is formed on either side by a slender bony rod 
(pi. II q. j.)# which is mainly composed of two elements, the 
gnadrato-jupalX (q. j.) posteriorly, and the jugal^ (j.) anteri- 
orly ; the second of these bones corresponds to the cheek-bone 
(jugal) of man and other mammals, while the former is unrepre- 
sented in the mammalian skull. On its inner aspect the quadrato- 
jogal style posteriorly presents an articular facet which fits loose- 
ly into a hollow of the miadrate^ bone (qu.) The latter bone is 
somewhat square-shaped inferiorly ; while superiorly it forms a 
flattened plate giving off two processes, one of which is directed 
upwards and inwards towards the orbit^ while the other^ which 



* Sphenoidal roitmm, and bad-Bplieiioid. The o§ tphsnoide of human anatomy (firom 

9^4 K a wedge, and eiios likeness, in allusion to Its shape) was applied to a large 
irfeffolarly-shaped bone which occupies the base and sides of the human skull in front 
of UB occiput, and which extends upwards to the orbits. This bone was divided into 
time portions, the body (forming the base of the skull in front of the basi*ooeipital) and 
^be mater and Ut»«r wings, the latter transmitting the optic nerre. Subsequently, by 
Ihe light of Comparative Anatomy, it was found that the sphenoid really was a complex 
Voae, and that it consisted of two median and three lateral pairs of elements. The two 
median demento were contained in the so-called body, and were named hoH-tphenoid 
mad pre-^pkmoid (jfra, in front of) ; the two pairs of^^ wings likewise each conmsted of 
a pair <^ elemento ; the greater wings were called aliMphenoid* (a barbarous word 

derived from the Latin ala a wing, and Sf^i' ) while the lesser wings, as being con- 
nected with the orbit, were termed orbito'tphenoidt (also a barbarous word, ^rived 

firom the Latin orbit, the socket of the eye, and 9f Vy \ The other two bones, formine 

Crt of the so-called sphenoid, were called ptoiygoids, and will be again noticed 
low. 

The leader unacquainted with human anatomy will, perhaps, find some difficulty 
in following the above ; but it is not of much importance in bird osteology, and it 
will be bettor, when the various sphenoidal bones are named in reference to the bird 
•knll, to take them as abstract terms, without caring much for their original derivation. 

t Para-sphenoid ; iropay by the aide of, and sphenoid. 

i See note ||. 

§ Jugal, firom jngnm, a yoke, so named because this bone in man unites two pro* 
jeeting processes of the maxiUa and sauamosal (eiis infrci^) 

n Qaiidrato, from of quadratnm, tne <* square-shaped bone ;" a bone connecting 
the lower jaw of birds and reptiles with the skull, ana so named from its shape. The 
name gnadratO'jngdl indicates a bone connecting the quadrate with the jugal. 



6 ELKMBNTART SEBTCH OF THB OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 

is blunter, passes upwards and backwards, and fits loosely into 
a hollow in the sguamosal (sq. fig. 2)''*' element of the skulL 

The squamosal bone is that which surrounds the aperture of 
the ear, and with which are closel j connected the petrosal^ and 
tympanic bones which contain the internal ear. The squamosal 
in birds very often gives off a short process which descends down- 
wards over the quadrate. Inferiorly the quadrate bone presents 
two oblique condyles on its anterior border, which serve for the 
articulation of the lower jaw or mandible (m.n. pi. 1). The 
intervention of the quadrate bone between the mandible and 
the squamosal element of the skull is a peculiarity of the skulls 
of birds and reptiles. In mammals the mandible always articu- 
lates directly with the squamosal itself, and the quadrate bone 
is supposed to be represented by the malleu9\ of the internal 
ear, which is wanting in the ear of birds, where the ineuB and 
stapen^ are alone present. 

The lower jaw or mandible of birds, in its young state con- 
sists of several distinct elements, but these with the exception 
of the anterior or dentary piece, are firmly soldered together in 
the adult ; the vacuity which occurs near the posterior extremity 
of the mandible indicates, however, one of the original lines of 
separation. The two ramiQ of the mandible are almost always 
anchylosed together anteriorly. The posterior or articular extre- 
mity of each ramus may be either abruptly truncated, or produced 
backwards into a curved process. In the compound nature of the 
mandible, birds agree with reptiles and differ from mammals, 
in which each ramus consists of a single element. 

The quadrate also articulates by an ascending process with 
the prootic^ and alisphenoU^ which are small bones 
generally anchylosed with the squamosal, and which need not 
occupy us further here. The antero-intemal angle of the 

• Sqnatnonal, £rom •quamtL a scale, applied, from ito flat ihape and articalatioii, 
to the bone of the akuU which articulates with the lower jaw in mammals, and sub- 
sequently to the corresponding^ bone which articulates with the quadrate in birds 
ana reptiles. In human anatomy the squamosal was called the squamous part of the 
temporal heme. 

f Petrosal and tympanic, two bones connected with the organ of hearing : tha 

former named fiom its solid structure ( iffTpoy ^ rock) ; the latter from its oontainin^ 
the drum of the ear (tympanum). 

X Malleus, a hammer : applied to the larger of the internal bones of the ear, so 
named from its shape. 

§ Incus, an anTil ; stapes, a stirmp— names applied to the smaller bones of the 
internal ear, and so namea firom their snape. The internal ear of the bird also con* 
tains a third rod-like bone called the eolwaMa, which does not occur in mammals. 

11 Bamus, a branch ; — applied to the two horisontal bars of the mandible. 

^ Prootic, one of the bones forming the chain around the ear, which can only be 
shown in fastal skulls. 

•• Ali-sphenoid. See sphenoidal rostrum aboTe. The boundaries of the ali-sphenoid 
are obliterated in the bird skull, but its general position is indicated from the assodatioa 
of the quadrate indicated abore. 



BLBHBKTART SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 7 

qnadraie also articalates with the pterygoid (pt.) — a bone to 
which we shall have occasion to refer again. 

The anterior portion of the jugal style comprizes a small 
bone which is tne homologue of the maxilla* (fig. 1, mx.) 
of mammals, and which inferiorly expands into the so-called 
maxillo-palatinet process (mxp.) which is very charac- 
teristic of the bird-skull. By far the greater portion of the 
upper jaw is formed by the two premaxillast (p. mx.) These 
bones are very peculiar in shape, and are of relatively large size, 
each being divided into three processes. Of these three processes 
a palatine process (pi. II. fig. 1) runs aloDg the palate towards 
tiie palatines^§ an ascending process (n. pmx, fig. 2) passes 
upwards in the middle line between the nasals (na.) || while an 
external or maxillary process forms the greater part of the mar- 

fios of the upper jaw, and unites posteriorly with the maxilla, 
he orbitlT (o. pi. 1.) is open inferiorly, and is bounded above by 
the frontals, which generally send down a descending post-orbital 

{process, (pi. II., figs. 1 and %, p. f.) This process may be deve- 
oped from the alisphenoid, and in that case may be separately 
ossified. The exterior border of the orbit is usually defined 
by a loosely attached and frequently spongy boncj which corres- 
ponds to the lachrymcd** of mammals (fig. 2, 1.; The lachrymal 
articulates with the nasal and frontal above, and with the max- 
illa below. The lachrymal is frequently closely united internally 
with the prefrontalft which is connect^ with the nasal passages. 
The lachrymal, which is often loosely articulated with the 
frontal, is greatly developed in the Parrots and Raptorial 
birds^ and is generally spongy in the latter. In connection 
with the frontal there may be, as in Arboricola^ a chain of small 
bones developed above the orbit, which may be called ^upra-or- 
biialXXy snd occasionally an infra-orbital chain may be developed 
near the jugal arcade. 

The external nare8§§ (na. pL I.) are mainly bounded by the 
nasals and premaxillsB. 



* Maxilla, a jaw ; in mamznala the bone carrying all the upper teeth behind 
the indaor or " front" teeth. 

f The name maxillo-pallatine indicates that the prooeas in qaestion is given off 
from the maxilla, and is in oonneotioA with the palatine. 

X Prem axilla, from pra, in front, and maxilla ; in mammals the bone which 
is situated in adyanoe ox the maxilla and which carries the inoiior teeth. 

§ Palatine, from jMilatum, the palate : the bones forming the hinder part of the 
palate of mammals, articulating with the hinder border of the maxilla. 

11 Nasals, (from noso, the nose), the bones of the nose. 

<| Orbit, from orlns, the socket of the eje. 

** Lachrrmal, from laekryma a tear ; in mammals this bone carries a duct from 
4he eye to the nose. 

' ' Prefrontal ; prm in front of, and fivntal, {vide frtmtal ii^a.) 
Supra-orbital, tuprOj aboTC and or6tf. 
Kares, the nose. 



8 ELffHENTABT SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 

The upper part of the brain-case (pi. II., fig. 2, fr. to pa.) con- 
sists in tiie adult bird of a smooth spherical surface of bone 
without any distinct sutures. The median line of the skull, 
however, shows a depressed channel, which indicates the ori- 
ginal line of union between the large bones which form this part 
of the skull, and which are termed the/ron/ab (fr. )* The frontals 
in the adult appear to extend backwards as far as the supra- 
occipital, but in reality a pair of bones (pa.) are interposed, 
which correspond to the parietcUrf of man. These bones in 
the adult are indistinguishably anchylosed together in the 
median line, and in front and behind to the frontals and supra- 
occipital. The portion of the skull which forms the division 
between the two orbits (o. pi. I) consists of a very thin verti- 
cal septum^ which may be completely ossified, or which may 
present one or more vacuities which are occupied by membrane in 
the living animal. This septum chiefly consists of bones which 
correspond to the ethmoid§ and the pre- and orbito-sphenoids|| 
of mammals. A part of the ethmoid also appears on the top . 
of the*skull, between the anterior extremities of the frontals 
(eth. fig., 2 ; pi. II.) In part of this ethmoidal septum, in the 
dry skull, there is usually a vacant space, and then we come 
to another anteriorly placed thin vertical septum, separat- 
ing the two nasal cavities. This latter septum is often very 
incompletely ossified. Within the nasal cavities are contained 
the turbina^ bones which carry the mucous membrane of 
the nose. Inferiorly the bird-skull (pi. II., figs. 1, 3, 4, 5) 
comprizes, in addition to the bones which we have already 
noticed, the pterygoids (pt.)** which articulate posteriorly 
with the quadrate bones /qu.) and anteriorly with either the 
vomer (vo.)tt or the paUuines (pi.) The palatines them- 
selves (pi.) are moveably united either partl}r together and 
5artly with the sphenoidal rostrum (sph. r.) or with the vomer, 
'he latter (vo.) is a mesial bone of various forms occupying the 
anterior part of the lower surface of the skull. Thus bone is 

* Frontal, from fiwUf the forehead; the bones aitaated immediately abore the 
orbits. 

t Parietal, from parieit a wall; the bones roofiofj^ the brain-case behind the 
frontals. 

{ Septum, properly an endosore, and then a partition. 

§ Ethmoid, from ijOfiis a sieve ; the bone forming the septum of the nose ; so 
named from its spongy and perforated nature in man. 

II Pre- and orbito-sphenoids. See note on tphenoidal rottrwm given above. 

% Turbinal, from tmrho a top, applied to the bones of the nasal cavities, from their 
twisted character. 

** Pterygoids (from vripvi a wing, and ccOOf likeness) are small bones articulat- 
ing with and placed behind the palatines in mammals ; in human anatomy called 
pterygoid processes of the sphenoid. 

ft Vomer, a ploughshare ; applied to a median bone at the foiepart of the lower 
f umoe of the skull. 



SLBHSNTABT 8KBT0H OF THE 08TB0L00Y OF BIBDS. 9 

occasionally absent. These bones on the inferior surface of the 
skull will be again alluded to more fully below, as they are of 
considerable importance in one of the modern schemes of classi- 
fication of birds. By the moveable posterior articulations of the 
palatines^ sphenoidal rostrum^ jugal arches^ and quadrates, the 
whole framework which supports the upper jaw is capable in 
general of a certain extent of upward motion^ which is especial- 
ly marked in the Parrots. 

The posterior nares, or internal nostrils^ are situated between 
the palatines and the vomer. The Eustachian''^ tubes (or pas- 
sages between the internal ear and the gullet or pharynx) gener- 
ally pierce the basi-sphenoid, and open by a common aperture on 
the inferior surface of this bone. (Plate IL eu.) 

The jaws of all species of living birds are enclosed in a conti- 
nuous horny sheath, with cutting edges and, no teeth ever 
appear externally. In some foetal Parrots^ however, teeth do 
appear within the jaws^ though they never cut the gum. 
Certain extinct birds however {Odontapterfjs^ and IcthyorniB^X 
were provided with a full series of teeth in both upper and 
lower jaws, and in this character afford an almost complete 
transition from the avian to the reptilian skull. 

Oeneralplan of the bones of the «t»Z/.— The student, who has 
no previous acquaintance with osteology, may, perhaps, be 
somewhat coniused at this heterogeneous survey of the cranial 
bones, and I have therefore added the following table^ which 
is intended to shew ilie general system on which the vertebrate 
skull is constructed. This table is taken with some modifications 
from one published by Professor Huxley. A few of the bones 
named in this table were not mentioned in the bird-skull, where 
they have no distinct representatives. 

It will be seen from this table that the brain-case is construct- 
ed of three principal segments, which, reckoning from behind 
forwards^ may be called Occipital^ Parietal and Frontal. Each 
of these segments has a roof^ lateral walls, and a floor, the 
latter being composed of the Basi-occipital, Basi-sphenoid, and 
Presphenoid, which conjointly with the applied Parasphenoid 
(sphenoidal rostrum of the bird) are often collectively termed the 
basi^eramal axis. The first and second segments are separat- 
ed respectively bv the ear and the eye, around the former 
of which are collected a series of bones like the squamosal, 

* Softaohuui, « term deriTed from the neme of the diaeoTerer of theie peangei, 

t Odontopterjx, (from 6iov$ « tooth, and opttS a bird) ; a fbanl bird with teeth, 
froim the London olmj. 

X lethyomie, (from IxBvS a fish, and opyiQ a bird). A foenl bird from 
cretaeeone rocke of Amerioa. with teeth and with T»rtebr» hoUowed on either -"*' 
(awtpkicaOmu) like thoie of fiehei, whence the name ii derived. 

2 



10 VUmSHTART BKSfOH OF THK OBTBOLOGT OF BIlDS^ 

which are wedged in between the primary elemeots of the tw<> 
se^mentA. In front of the frontal segment we have an inoom* 
plete segment, comprehending the bonea related to the nasal 
cavitv. 

Below the basi^cranial axis (the long horizontal line in the dia<» 
gram) we have other bones which form the palatal and adjacent 
r^ons of the skull. These bones do not, like those above the axis, 
enclose a tabular nervous cavity^ and are consequently not so 
easily divided into segments. The table shows their relations 
to the superior bones. Posteriorly these bones form two 
arches — the hyoidean, and the mandibular; the latter com- 
mences with the quadrate, and then continues with the elements of 
the mandible which are bent so as to be directed forwards. 
From the base of this latter arch (quadrate) there arises another 
chain or arcade of bonesi which is directed forwards, and which 
comprehends the quadrato-jugal, jugal, maxilla, and lachrymaU 
Above this arcade, and below the basi-cranial axis, are in- 
terposed the ohaiu of the ptery^ids, palatines and premaxill®. 
The latter are in dose connection with the vomer, and so with 
the nasal bones. 



aUKniTABT- 8KCT0B OF THS OSTKOLOOT 09 KBSM. 11 



I 




^ 



Q 



~ a 



8 



'S 

I 



Prefrontal 



a. 

I 



'o 

s 



o 



3 

I 

QQ 



«^ 



9 

'C 



o 



00 



I 

i 



rs 

s 



i S. 



a 



s 




« 

a 

t2 



H 

.8 



I 






n 






M 



# 



^ to 



3) 



S* 



e 



P4 









a 



Mandibular saspenrariam (Quadrate.) 



• mm 

I 

a 



Hyoidean Arch. 



12 KLRMENTARY SKETCH OF THB OSTEOLOGT OF BIRDS. 

Ciaraetera of the BkuU in different groups, — As the inferior 
aspect of the skall has been taken by Professor Hazley as 
affording characters for the classification of birds, it will be 
necessary to go somewhat more fnlly into this portion. For 
this purpose views of the inferior surface of the sknil of four 
birds have been given on plate II. These views exhibit the chief 
types of modification to which the bones on this surface are 
liable. 

RatiUs. — ^In the division of birds known as the RatitSB (corres- 
ponding to the old order or tribe Cursores., pi. II. fig. 5) the 
vomer (vo.) is broad and cleft posteriorly, and usually supports the 
posterior extremities of the palatines (pi.) ^ and the anterior extre- 
mities of the pterygoids (pt.), thus preventing either of these bones 
from articulating with the sphenoidal rostrum. Strong processes^ 
carrying articular facets^ and known as ban-pterygoii proceseea 
(b. pt.), which arise from the body of the basi-sphenoid, and 
not from the sphenoidal rostrum^ articulate with facets, which 
are placed near the postero-internal angles of the pterygoids 
(pt.) The figured skull^ which is taken as an example of 
the Batitian modification of palate, is that of the Emeu 
{Dromaus nova-hollandia), 

CarinatcB. — In the other great division of living birds, known 
as CarinatsB, which comprehends all living birds which are 
not Batitss, four groups have been made from the characters 
afforded by the palatal aspect of the skull, namely, (I.) Dromau^ 
gnatha; (II.) Schizognatha ; (III.) Deemognatha ; and (IV.) 
./EgiihognatluB. 

(I.) The group Dromsdognathss* comprehends only the Tina- 
mous {Tinamida). The structure of the palate in these birds 
is the same as that which occurs in the Batitae, and therefore 
needs no further notice here. 

(11.^ The group Schizognathsf which comprehends most of 
the old Cuvierian orders^ Columb», Gallinsd (except TinamidaX) 
Grallas and Natatores is exemplified by the skull of the common 
fowl, (pi. II., fig. I). The characteristic points of the palate of 
this group are that the vomer (vo.), which may be either 
large or small, is always pointed anteriorly, while posteriorly 
it embraces the sphenoidal rostrum between the palatines (pi.) 
The maxillo-palatme processes (mxp.) are usually elongated or 
lamellar, and pass inwards over the anterior processes of the pala- 
tines, (pi.), with which they unite, and then bending inwards along 

• From Apo/ioio^i the Mieatifie name of tlie Bmen sad yraOo^, a jaw. 

t From tnC^i^ I cleaye, and y va0os, a jaw. 
X Tumia ia laid to ba JSgithopiathoua. 



UBMBHTABY 8KSTCH OF THB OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 13 

the inner ends of the same bones, leave a broader or narrower 
fissnre (whence the name of the group) between themselves 
and the vomer, and do not unite either with it or with them- 
selves. With the exception of the fowl, all Sohizognathous 
birds have small bones known as '^meso-pterjgoids/' which 
do not occur in mammals. 

(III.) The group Desmognath®^ comprehends such of the 
Cuvierian orders Grallffi {Ardeida^ Giconida and Tantcdida)^ and 
Katatores (Anatida, PAcBnicapterida and Pelieanida) as are not 
Schisognathous, the Accipitres or Baptores, the Scansores (Pica- 
risB in part), and a large number of the old fissirostral Passeres or 
InsesBores. This group includes such a heterogeneous mixture 
of birds that its importance in classification may be open to 
doubt, though morphologically it is of the highest interest. I 
have selected as an illustration of this form of palate the skull 
of the Common Heron, {Ardea einerea) (pL II, fig. 3). In 
this group the vomer (vo.) is frequently very small, or may 
be entirely absent ; when present, it is always slender and pointed 
anteriorly. The maxillo-palatine processes (mxp.^ are united 
across the middle line (whence the name of the group) either 
directly or by the intermediate ossifications of the nasal septum. 
The ends of the palatines (pi.) and the anterior ends of the 
pterygoids articulate directly with the sphenoidal rostrum ; and 
the basi-pterygoid processes are placed on this rostrum. 

(lY.) The remaining Garinat» are comprehended in the 
group ^githognathst in which the palatine structure is in 
some respects intermediate between that of the Schizo-and 
Sesmognathous groups ; while in others it is peculiar. A skull 
of a raven, (Cotvub eorax) (pi. II., fig. 4) is given as an example 
of this form of palate. 

The vomer (vo.) is a relatively broad bone, abruptly truncated 
anteriorly and deeply cleft behind, and which embraces the 
sphenoidal rostrum. The maxillo-palatine processes are slender 
at their origin, and extend obliquely inwards and backwards over 
the palatines (pi.), ending beneath the vomer in expanded 
extremities, which do not become united by bone, either with one 
another or with the vomer. 

The birds comprized in these three last groups have been again 
sub-divided into families from the characters afforded bv the bones 
of the palate. It is not, however, within the scope of this slight 
sketch to indicate these minor divisions, and the student, who 
desires to go further into this subject, is accordingly referred to 
the papers of Professors Huxley and Parker on this subject. 
It may, however, be noted here that Mr. Garrod has divided the 



tt * __^__ — — 

• F^om ItofAO^ a bond, and y^'nOos. 

f SVom ^«>«^09, a tparrow, and yvoOof, jaw. 



14 SLBMSMTART 8RKT0H OF THB 08TB0L06T OF BIRDS. 

Shizognatboos birds into two main sections, from cbaraotem 
afforded by the nasal bones. In the first of these sections^ which 
is known as Schizorhinal (split^nasals^, and which inclade» 
among others the Pigeons, Sand-gronse, Plovers^ Snipe, Gnlls^ 
Oranes, and Anks, the posterior IxNrder of tiie nares is not 
ronnded, bnt apparently formed by the di^ergenoe of two 
bony bars, which inclose an angle between them ; these bars 
appear to be processes of the nasals. In the second of these 
sectionS| which is known as Holorhinal, (entire nasals) and which 
comprehends among others the Petrds, Divers, Fowls, Bails, 
Bustards and Cariamas, the posterior border of the nares is 
rounded, and the nasal bones do not present the appearance of 
two distinct splints enclosing an angle. 

I may also add that Professor Parker does not nse the group 
Desmognathee, bnt classes the birds forming that group, to* 
getber with the Woodpeckers, (which Huxley classes witn the 
iBgithognathsB) in a group which he calls Saurognatfas^ 
f reptile-jawed). 

Byoid arch,'* — ^The hyoid arch, which supports the tongue. 
Contains a basi-hyal, and two pairs of cornuaf one larger than 
the other ; these comua never unite with the periotic element 
of the skull. In the Woodpeckers, the posterior comua are 
enormously deveroped, and curve over the back of the skutt 
towards the frontals, which are grooved to receive them. 

SderoHcX — ^Though not strictly bebnging to the true skele- 
ton, it may be noticed that birds are provided with a chain of 
overlapping osseous plates within the sclerotic of the eyeball. 

The vertebral eo{umn§ .^-The vertebral column of a bird 
(pi I. cv. to ex.) is divided into a cervioal|| region (cv.), in 
which the vertebras do not carry ribs which articulate with the 
sternum IT Tst.) ; a dorsal** region (dv.) which comprehends 
all the vertebrsd behind, and including the first one which oar- 
ries ribs articulating with the sternum, as far as the saommfff 
the sacral region (sm.) which consists of a number of 
anchylosed vertebrsd, probably corresponding to the lumbar|$, 
sacral, and anterior caudal §§ vertebrsd of mammals, and 

^ Hyoid from U. and e/2os likenea, named from the U.-thaped form of the haman 
hyoid. 
t Comua, from wmu, a horn, applied to the alender pro ceiae e of the hyoid hont 

2 Solerotio (from ff«cX^|pos, eolid,) the outer ooating of the eye. 
S Vertebral oolumn, derived firtmi vrUhra a bone of the bad^ whieh ia agaim 
derived f^om verto, I turn. 
II Cerrioal, from eervfo, the nedk. 

K Sternum, from sripyov the breait ; in anatomy ^>pUed to the breast boot. 
** Bonal, from donum, the baok. 

ft Sacrum, applied in anatomy to the yertobne artienladng with the ilia (q. t.) 
the name ia derived firom the fact that this part of cattle was offered in sacriiloe. 

A A MK _ ^ ^ a— .SKA * aA_K_K*« 



tt Lumbar, from {fun^rif , the loin ; connected with the loins. 



Caudal, from eamda, the taiL 



KLnCEllTABT 8KBTGH OF THB OSTSOLOGY OV BIBD8. 15 

a canial r^on (c. vL and ox.) which inolndea the remainiiig^ 
▼ertebrsB. The cervioai vertebrs (cv.) are always numerons^ 
being never leas than eight, and sometimes ezoeeding twenty in 
Bnmber. The first vertebra or atlas* is a small ring-shaped 
bone, which is very freqaently divided into two segments by the 
ossification of the transverse ligament. With the ezoeption of 
this Tertebra, all the vertebrsB of birds consist of two partS|*— a 
body or centrnm, which forms the inferior portion, and an arch, 
called the neoral arch, which snrrounds the spinal chord. This 
arch in the later vertebrs generally carries a ridge or spine 
(shown in the dorsal vertebrsd of the figured skeleton) and which 
is known as the neural spine. The vertebrsd articulate with one 
another hj the apposition of their centra, and also by two 
other pairs of oblique joints known as vretggapophyse$i 
(pi rV., fig 4, pz.) which look downwards, ana pastzyganoph/^ 
9e»X pt. z) which look upwards. We have already said that 
the first vertebra has no centrum. This centrum has in fact 
become united, as in mammals, with the centrum of the second 
or axis vertebra, of which it forms the odontoid& process, and 
cm which as a pivot the atlas turns, carrying wito it the skull* 
The neural II spines of the succeeding cervical vertebro are 
either very small, or are entirely wanting. The articular sur* 
faces of their centra are formed on a kind of ball and socket 
plan, the anterior surface being convex vertically, and concave 
transversely, while the posterior surface presents an exactly 
opposite arrangement This form of the articular surfaces of 
the centra of the cervical vertebrsB is very characteristic of birds. 
The latter cervical vertebroe bear a median spine on their in« 
forior surfaces, which is developed to the greatest extent 
anteriorly. 

The dorsal vertebrsB (pi. I. d.v.) are characterized by havmg 
large and square neural spines, which in old individuals may be- 
oome anchvlosed together to a considerable extent. They also 
develope nom their lateral surfaces other fiat plates of bone, or 
transverse processes vrith which the tvbereulum^ of the rib 
articulates. This transverse process arises solely from the neural 
arch. At the anterior bonier of the lateral surface of the 

* AAmm, applied to the first oenrieal Tertebn, as bearing the head. 

t Pkesjgapophjses, a barbaroos word, derived firom pro, before (anterior) (vyoft 

a vbIob, and avo^vst^, the anatomieal word for a prooesi. Applied to the anterior 
artifliilariny oblique facets rf Yertebm. 
t Post^gapobjses, aomihtfly-foraied word to the last, sobititiiting poH (behind) 



§ Odontoid, flmm oimt^ U0V9 o«, a tooth, and Hloi Uke. 

II If eural, from vwpov a ner?e; applied to the spine^ whioh is situated OTer 
the spinal ehord of nvrew 
V Tnbeieiiliun, • little t<ibeiele, applied to the second Tertebral articalatioa of 



16 SLIEMEirrABT SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 

centram of each vertebra there is a smatl cap-shaped cavitjr 
which articulates with the head or eapUtdum* of the rib. 
It is very characteristic of birds that the facets for the articn« 
lation of the ribs occupy the same position throughout the entire 
series of dorsal vertebra, whereas in reptiles the articulations 
vary very much in their relative position at the two extremities 
of the series. 

The anchylosed mass of vertebrsB which forms the sacrum of 
a bird (pi. I. sm.),t probably^ as we have already seen^ repre- 
sents the lumbar, sacral^ and some of the anterior caudal vertebrsd 
of other Yertebrata, and it is probable, from considerations into 
which we need not enter here, that only some five of the 
middle vertebras of this mass correspond to the true sacral ver* 
tebrse of a mammal or a reptile. The free caudal vertebraB (o. vt) 
are generally of simple structure and few in number ; they are 
usually terminated by a three-cornered bone (ex.) usually 
known as the coccyx^ or ploughshare bone (as en eharrue) 
which appears to consist of several incomplete and agglomerat- 
ed vertebras. This bone has no cavity for the reception of the 
spinal marrow. In an extinct bird (Archaopteryx) the caudal 
vertebraB formed a long tapering series, as in reptiles and most 
mammals. In another g^up of extinct birds {lethyomiB)^ (Apaior^ 
nU) n the vertebrae, instead of having modified ball and socket 
joints, were concave on both articular surfaces, (amphicoelons) 
and inclosed a bi-convex disc of cartilage between every two of 
them. 

Riia. — ^The ribs of birds (pi. I., r.) are flattened bones, which, 
as we have already seeui carry widely separated capitula and 
tubercula for articulation with the centra and transverse pro- 
cesses of the vertebrsd. They are generally few in number, and 
the most anterior have uncinate processes (p. u.) which project 
upwards and backwards from their posterior margins. Similar 
processes occur in the ribs of crocodiles, but never in those 
of mammals. The true or vertebral ribs are directed almost 
immediately downwards, and are always completely ossified. 
At their distal extremities they articulate with other frequently 
less well ossified ribs (sternal ribs) which are directed upwards 
and forwards, and which articulate at their free extremities 



* Oapitulam, dimination of caput, the heiul, applied to the terminal Tertebral 
artieulatton of a rib. 

t The eaeral ▼ertebr» are not really eeen in the figure, as they are concealed bj 
the pelvie, the letters merely indicate their position. 

X Cooeyz, from kokkvI, a ouekoo. The last anchylosed TertebrsB ; to called 
from the supposed resemblance of these vertebrsB in man to a onokoo's beak. 
§ lethyomis, see previous note. 

II Apatomis (from amrtA to deceiTe, and opvi^ a bird). A fossil Amaricaa 
bird with fish-like Tertebra, from which deceptiye character the name is taken. 



SLBMINTART SKETCH OF THB 08TX0L0GT OF BIRDS. 17 

with tile stemam. These sternal ribs are hooiologons with the 
eaUal cartilagei of man. 

Sternum. — ^The sternum or breast bone of birds necessarily 
attains an nnnsnally large size in most species of the class, since 
the nrasdes need in flight are mainly attached to it. In the adult 
bird ^pL I. St. pi. III.^ figs, l, 2» 3) the sternum consists of a 
single complex bonOi but in the foetus it is developed from at 
least two and generallj from five distinct centres of ossification. 

The sternum of an ordinary winged bird (pi. II I., fig. 3 
which represents the sternum of a rowl) consists of a median 
ridge of bone (ca.) which is known as the carina^* and which 
Btands out at right angles from a curved bony shield which forms 
the body of the sternum (figs. 1 and 2, st.) One or two pairs 
of membraneous fontanellesf frequently remain nnossified 
in the inferior ami lateral portions of the sternumi and give 
riae to as many holes or notcoes separating slender processes 
in the dry skeleboQ. The median one of these processes (mx.) 
fono^a Jthe downward continuation of the carinay and as being 
the bomologn^ of the zipbistemumt of mammals is called 
the middle mphoid proceu ; the pair of processes (iz.) next to 
jtlie middle one iu)e known as the intemat aipAoid processes^ 
while the oi^termost pair (ex.) are called external aiphoidpro- 
eei^es. I^ the angle situated between the carina ai^d the body 
.of the sternum are placed the powerful pectoral muscles which 
move the wing in flight. Tha superior angle of the sternum 
is sometimes developed into a median process or rostrum^ 
ifig. 3^ rO ; the angles on either side of this median process are 
known as the xy)stal processes (c. p.) to which some of jbhe ribs 
ajtieul^t^ the rest articulating lower down (pi. I.) At the 
superior oir .anterior border of £e sten^um of n;iost birds there 
are situated two grooves which receive the dista^ extremities 
4>f the ooracoi^s (pi. III.^ figs. 1 , 2, cor^) 

Having now become acquainted with the typical sternum 
of a bird it is necessary to say a few words as to some of the 
modifications which this bone n^iy nndei^ in the different 
g9:oup8. The two great divisions of living birds, called Batitas 
and Cai;inat8B were formed by Professor Huxley on account of 
the character of the sternum, and from which character the two 



*Cuiiifti akML 

f FontaneUe, Fnnoh font^nelU, a little foantain; originally applied to the unosti- 
fiad gap whieh eziitg in the skull of the human infant at the janouon of the parietale 
and ftontalfl. Sabaeqoentlj uaed in anatomy for any aperture in a bone which doeg 
not ■erre for the transmisaion of either a nerve or yesael, and which in the living 
animal ia gonaraUy oloted by membrane. 

t Xiphistemiim, from £^0os, a sword, and Veprov the breast bone ; applied to 
the lower termination of the mammalian sternum whioh in man is pointed. 
§ Boatrom, a beak, used frequently in anatomy for a bony ^rooess. 



18 ELEMSNTART SKBTOH OF THE OSTBOLOQY OF BIRDS. 

names have been derived. The Ratito (from ratisy a flat-bot- 
tomed boaty in allusion to the flat stemnm), which, as we have 
seen, comprehend the old order Cnrsores, or the Ostriches and 
their allies, are characterized by having no carina or median keel 
to the sternum, which forms merely an oblong and slightly con- 
vex plate of bone, presenting many points of resemblance to the 
sternum of a reptile. The sternum of the Ratitss ossifies solely 
from paired centres. 

In the Carinatss, on the other hand, the sternum (as in the 
three figured specimens) always possesses a carina, and ossifies 
from a median centre in that carina, as well as from lateral 
paired centres.* (The term Carinatse is derived from carina, 
a keeled vessel.) 

Very considerable variations in the form of the sternum oc- 
cur among the Carinatse, which are in great part due to the 
relative development of the notches and processes. In the 
Tinamous {DromceoffnathcB)^ the notch between the middle and 
internal xiphoid processes extends nearly to the summits of the 
sternum, the internal xiphoid processes forming long and slender 
rods^ and the external xiphoid processes being undeveloped. 
The whole sternum is excessively slender. In the Ducks, Auks, 
many Waders, and diurnal birds of prey, the sternum, though 
of ordinary breadth, is of enormous length, and extends down to 
or even beyond the pelvis. In the Swifts and Humming-birds, 
some Eagles and Petrels, and some other birds, there are no 
notches or perforations in the sternum, and the sternum is hence 
called entire. The sternum of the Frigate bird (Taehypetes) repre- 
sented in figure 2 of plate III, is ^^ entire," and is noticeable 
for its excessive breadth and shortness. The sternum of Pha- 
norhina (one of the ColumbidsB) represented in figure I of the 
same plate, is an example of an average-shaped sternum, with 
the notches fairly developed. The sternum of the fowl (fig. 8) 
has the notches extending much higher up, and the processes 
in consequence much more separated and distinct. In the 
greater number of birds belonging to the old order Passeres, 
the sternum is of average width and breadth, has large costal 
processes, a well-developed rostrum, and only a single moderate- 
sized notch inferiorly. 

Shoulder^irdU. — We now come to the consideration of the 
bones forming the shoulder-girdle, which in birds consists of 
three bones— the eeaputa^ (pi I, sc), the coraeoidt (pi. I, III9 

* It is poffible thai the Mcoluur p«Rot, Biriffopi, may be an exception to thia rale, 
f Scapula, the ■houlder blade. 

{ Coraooidj the name coraooid, (firom Kopa^ a laTcn, and ilcoS Uke), waa on- 
ginally applied to * proccM of the human scapulai which wai auppoied to wwemhto 
a raTcn'i beak. 



njEiaaiTART skitoh of thk ostsoloot of birds. 19 

fi^ 1 and 2 ; IV^ fig. 6^ oor.), and the fureulum^ or clavicles 
{Snd. fa.). The scapula (sc.) corresponds to the shoulder-blade 
or scapula of mammals, but in place of being a broad and ex- 
panded plate with a median ridgCi as is generally the case in 
that class, is a compressed sabre-shaped bone^ in length gener- 
ally proportional to the power of flight, and generally placed 
parallel, with the vertebral column. There is no bone in birds 
corresponding to the supra-scapulaf of reptiles. The ooracoid 
(cor.) which corresponds to the coraooid process} of the higher 
mammalian scapula, in birds, as in reptiles and the lowest mam- 
mals, always exists as a distinct bone. The distal end of the 
eoraopid is received into the groove of the sternum, which we 
have already referred to, when describing that bone, while the 
proximal end articulates with the scapula to form the glenoid 
cavity for the reception of the head of the humerus. There is 
never any notch or fontanelle in the coraooid of the bird, as is so 
often the case in reptiles. 

The relative position of , the scapula and coracoid afford an 
important pcint of distinction between the RatitsB and the Cari- 
natSB. In the former group the long axis of that part of the 
scapula which lies near the glenoid cavity is parallel to, or conti- 
nnous with, that of the coraooid, and the two bones are always 
anchylosed together. In the Carinatas, on the other hand, the 
long axis of the scapala nearly always forms an acute angle with 
that of the coracoid, though in the Dodo, and one or two other 
birds, this angle is slightly obtuse. An ossification of the tendons 
above the scapula frequently occurs in many of the Picariad and 
Passeres which has been somewhat inappropriately named seqptUa 
aeeeuoria. 

The third bone of the avian shoulder-girdle is the furculam or 
'' merry-thought" (fu.), which corresponds to the united clavi- 
cles of mammals and reptiles. In most birds the furculum 
forms one continuous bone, but occasionally, as in some Parrots, 
Owls and Pigeons (pi. Ill, fig. 1), the two clavicles always 
remain distinct. In other cases, as in IbeAyp^^ (pL III, fig. 2) 
anchylosis extends down to the other elements of the shoulder- 
girdle, and the furculum becomes immoveably united with the 
rostrum of the carina of the sternum. In OpiBthocomuBy the 
furculum becomes united both with the carina of the sternum and 
with the coracoids. In the Passerine birds (pi. I., fu.) the sternal 
extremity of the furculum usually developes a large flat vertical 

* Fonuliiin, a littb fork, applied to the united eUTulee or ooUar-bonei of biide. 
The vord eUriele ia derired from the dimiButioQ of oloeif a k^, from eome nippoeed 
leMmblanee of the hmnao oolUr-bone in that inttrameiit. 

t Svpra^eeapolav ampra abore, and MapiiZa. 

X The eoraeoid proeem in aU mammalia oettfiee from a eentrt quite diitinet from 
that of the feapola. 



20 XLEMtKtABY SKBTdH OF THE OSTBOLOGt OF BIRDfl* 

and median plate or imoeleidiumy* irhlle, on thd 6th6r baiid ^ the 
scapular extremity is likewise expanded^ and ossifies separately a^ 
an epieleiditim.^ The united clavicles of birds appear to be quite 
peculiar to the dads, and their great deVelopknent and strength 
is correlated with the development of thd power of flight. 
Their anchylosis mesially operates to cotinteract the tendency of 
the chest to collapse by the force of the downward stroke of 
the wings. 

TAe jbre-timb.'^The fore-limb of birds presents the aaine divi- 
sions as in man and other mamiualsi The protimal b<me (h. pi. I., 
fig. I, pi. lY.) or humerusX lies parallel with the long axis of 
the body^ its typically ventral surface looking outwards. Its 
proximal extremity is expanded laterally itito a large head (pK 
IV.^ fig. 1 h) ; its outer (or ventral) snrfiice superiorly is expand*- 
ed into a large pectatal crest (p.O.)) which affords attachment to 
the powerful pectoral muscles ; this surface is convex. The tipper 
part of the anterior surface presents a depression for the passage 
of the tendon of the bit^ps§ tkiuscle. The ihner (or dorsal) surface 
(rightside of figure) is cOncave^ andcarries thepneumatic aperture 
in those birds which have a hollow humerus, l^e distal extremity 
of the humerus is also expanded and carries two CondyleS|-— an 
internal condyle (i.e.) for the articulation of the ti/ha and Ml 
taternal condyle (e.c.) for the tAdiua; the liitter condyle formi 
a convex faoet directed obliquely upwards and inwards on the 
anterior i^ur£Ei:ce. Such are the general features of the humerus 
of a carinate bird. In the Batitse, on the other hand, the hnmerua 
is much less developed, and is in general a stender, cylindrical> 
tod slightly curved bone. In the Apteryx the humerus, ana 
the other bones of the fore-limb, are practically rudimentary. 

The nlna || (pi. I., uL) forms the larger of the two bones of 
the forearm ; it is a cylindrical bone slightly expanded at its two 
extremities, and which is not developedinto an olecranofn as in 
mammals. On its outer surface the ulna generally shows a row 
of tubercles which formed the points of attachment of the secon<> 
dary quill-feathers. The radius (pi. I. r.) ^ is a slender, slightly 
curved bone, which carried the greater part of the carpus or wrist 
at its distal extremity. The radius atad nlna are placed not by 
the side of one aiSicfther, btit one is placed in front of the other. 



* Hypoelddidm ; deriTed from viro beneath, and fcASk^ tlie elaviole. 

t Epideidium ; a similarly-formed word to the last, substitating iiti np6^ for iifo* 

I Hamerus, the shoulder, applied to the bone of tne upper sirm. 

§ Biceps, from Hs, double, and a^w, a form of eapnt^ the head. The main flexor 
Innsele of the arm which arises from two distinct headi. 

II Ulna, from AAeviy the elbow, applied to the outer one of the two bones of the 
fore-arm. 

f Badius, a spoke, Applied to the inner one of the two bones of the fore-arak 



SLSHKirrA&T SKROH 07 THB OSTBOLOaY OF BIRDS. 21 

and they are bo articulated together, and with the hnmems, as 
to admit of scarcely any rotation one or the other. 

The carpus^ which corresponds to the human wristj is not 
compoeed of two rows of small bones as in the latter, but consists 
of only two bones placed side by side, one of which (radiale), 
articulates with the radius, and the other {ulnare) with the nlna. 

The manust (plate L, m. ft ph. 1^ £, 8) of the bird generally 
has three digits, which correspond to the poliex^ and the second 
and third digits of the human hand (fore and middle fingers) ; tbe 
metacarpal bones of these digits are usually anchylosed together. 
The metacarpal bone of the pollez (m. 1) is usually much 
shorter than either of the metacarpals of the other two digits. 
The metacarpal of the second digit (m.2) is stout and straight, 
while that of the third (m. 8) is curved and slender; a vacant 
space is generally left between the metacarpals ; but this may be 
filled up with bony matter. The pollex has usually two phalanges, 
§ &e last of wbtch may be curved and sheathed with horn. I 
The second digit has typically three phalanges^ but frequently as 
in the figure f ph. 2) only two are developed. The third digit 
never has more than two phalanges, and frequentiy^ as in the 
fignte (ph. 3), has only one. 

In some of the Ratitse (Apten/a and CMuarias) there is but 
one complete digit in the manus, which probably corresponds to 
the second digit of man. This digit is incased in horn and forms 
a claw. In the Ostrich the second digit is likewise terminated 
by a daw, but in no bird is the third digit so modified. 

Pdui8.% — The position of the pelvis of the bird is shown in 
the figured skeleton (pi. I.> pl.)i ^i^i^^ ^^^ details of the conjoint 
bones, which form this part of the skeleton ^ are shown in figures 
4 and 5 of plate III. Like that of a mammal or reptile, the 
pelvis of a bird consists of three distinct pairs of bones, viz.y 
the Uium** (il.), the wcAtumft (;«•)> ^^ ^^^ pu6w{J (pb.), the 
three united bones of either side being tmited to the vertex- 
brad of the sacrum, and adjacent regions (sm.) Tbe ilia (iL) 
of the avian pelvis are remarkable for their great antero-pos*- 
teriot extension^ and for uniting with the whole length of the 

edges of the sacrum (sm.) Superiorly each ilium forms a 

- - ■ ■ ■ — -^^ ^— ^ 

Cftipui, from KCLpnoSf the wiift. 
ManiUy the hand. 
^ Pollex, the thumb. 

§ Phftlu^M, 46oAar( a ro w t pplied to tha Ikhim of the fiafcan nd toei. 
II In the figoxed akeleton the phaUnges of the pollez are wanting. 
% Pelyii, a baain,— applied to the Sony aroh with which the hind limbs of the Ver- 
tebrata articulate. 
M lUum, from Uia^ the flanks. The haanoh bone— so called from supportmg the 

^tnks. 

8 Ischium, from Z^/ov the hip. 
Pubis, from pubi$, hair, so called because this bone underlies the hair of the 
gioin. (SeeJ^rth^r asioilU JPfAii, ike P. 8. p, 28.; 



! 



22 KLSMBKTABY 8KKT0H OF THK 0ST80L06T OF BIRDS. 

wide arch over the upper part of the acetabulum (ain.)»* the 
centre of which is always occupied by membraue. In the 
majority of birds the ischium (is.) becomes broader posteriorly 
and extends backwards nearly parallel with the ilium, both 
bones uniting posteriorly. The vacuity which occurs between 
these two bones anteriorly corresponds to a notch in the mamma- 
lian pelvis, known as the ischuhidatie notch ; this interval in 
most birds forms a foramen. 

The pubis (pb.) at its anterior extremity forms part of the 
socket for the head of the femur (am), and from thence is 
continued backwards and downwards as a slender curved bone 
running approximately parallel to the ischium ; in general it 
is united only by ligament with its fellow of the opposite side. 
The ischium and pubis are entirely shut out by the ilium from 
any contact with the sacrum. 

Such is the general arrangement of the pelvic bones in birds, 
though there are a few exceptions. In the Tinamous, and in 
many of the RatitsB, the ischium is not united posteriorly by 
bone with the ilium, and the ischio-sciatic interval consequently 
forms a notch in place of a foramen. In Shea the ischia unite 
in a median symphysis beneath the sacral vertebrae, which latter 
are only very imperfectly ossified. In the Ostrich {StnUhio), 
alone among birds, the pubes unite in a median ventral symphysis. 
The general form of the pelvis of the RatitsB, and specially the 
anterior projection of the ilium and the backward extension 
and slender form of the ischium and pubis, shew many points of 
affinity to the pelvis of certain extinct orders of reptiles (tf.^., 
Dinosauria), and indicate the close relationship which exists 
between these two classes of vertebrates. 

The Hind'limb.'^Vfe now come to the consideration of the 
bind-limb of birds, which, as we shall see immediately, presents 
some very remarkable points of difference from the hind-limb 
of the mammalia. The first segment of the limb forming the 
thigh-bone or /emurf (pi. I. f. and pi. IV., fig. 3) has the same 
composition in birds as in mammals. The upper articular head 
(h) which articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis is round- 
ed, and its axis is placed nearly at right angles to the long 
axis of the shaft. The centre of the head presents a slight 
rough depression (l.t.), indicating the point of attachment 
of the round ligament (ligamentum teres). The shaft is 
generally stout, and in its natural position lies nearly horizon- 
tally ; it is terminated inferiorly by two condyles (i.e. k e.c.) 
which are elongated antero-posteriorly. A very characteristic 



• AeetabaliuDi a Tiaegar-oap,— appliad in anatonj to tiM lOokAt for the head o£ 
the femur. 
t Femur, the thigh— applied to the bone of the thigh. 



XLBMKNTARY 8KBT0H OF THS OSTSOLOGT OF BIBDS. 23 

ridge which plays between the heads of the tibia and fibula, 
is seen npon the posterior surface of the external condyle (e.c.) 
Though not belonging to the true skeleton it may be noticed 
that a sesamoid''^ bone, called the patella^f is usually deve- 
loped in the tendon of the qvadriceps extensor femoruX muscle, 
aod that this sesamoid may occasionally be double. 

We come now to the second segment of the leg of the bird, 
which is very characteristic, and which has been modified in a 
Tory peculiar manner from the primitive type form. In man 
and other mammals the lower leg, or leg below the knee, con- 
sists of two bones, — tibia^ and fibula^ ; these are succeeded 
inferiorly by the ankle or tareusH composed of two rows of 
small cnboidal bones placed one below the other. The ankle- 
joint is always placed between the tibia and the first row of 
the tarsus. The tarsus is succeeded by a row of five meta- 
tarsals**, and each metatarsal carries its own phalanges, which 
are two in number in the great toe (hidlwt)^ and three in all the 
others. With this slight sketch of the bones of the lower leg in 
man, we shall be able to understand the difierences which 
exist in the leg of the bird. The small bone of the leg or 
fibula (pi. I., fi.) in birds forms a long slender style 

f>laced on the outer side of the tibia (t) which terminates inferior- 
y in a point, and which is frequently anchylosed to the latter 
bone. The larger bone of the leg, the tibia or rather the tibitH 
tarnui^ (pl« I- t. pi. IV., fig. 2) is a very characteristic 
bone. Its proximal end is expanded and produced into a large 
enefnialXt crest or process (en). Its distal end (as.) is terminat- 
ed by a rounded pulley-like surface ; above this pulley there 
is frequentlv on the anterior surface an oblique bridge of bone 
(br.) beneath which pass the tendons of the tibialis atUieus and 
of other long extensor muscles of the legs. The distal extre- 
mity of this bone (as.) in the young bird ossifies from a 
distinct centre, and it has been found that this portion really 

^Senmoid, from ff^9a/ii|, ^ndian eorn, 'applied to nodular ouaouf tissoea 
drvaloped in the tendons of miuelet. 

^ Patella, a eap ; in oeteologj the bone of the knee-cap. 

X Qnadfioeps extenaor— the mueole fonnine the anterior part of the thigh which 
eztende the lower leg. Its name ia derived from its arinog from four dietinct beads. 

} Tibia, a trumpet, applied to the large bone of the lower leg, probably from iti 
lou^h and hoUowness. 

II Fibula, the pin of a broach, applied to the imaU bone of the lower leg. 

f Tarsus^ from Tapffos, the flat of the foot: in anatomy the bones forming the 
•nCle joint 

•• Ifetatarsale, from fura, after, and ropsos,— the bones which succeed the 
tanas in&riorly. 

ft Tibio-tamis, oomponnded of Hhia and rapooi « barbarous but Tery conrenient 
word, indicatmg that the bone to which it is applied is compounded of elements 
from the tibia and tarsus. 

(torn KVi^/ii} the boat of the lower ]eg« 



24 KLBUBMTART SKETCH OF THB OSTKOLOGT OF BIBDSt 

correspondfi to one of the elements (astragalnB)* of. the manv- 
malian taraas, and that conaeqnently the so-oaUed tibia of a bird 
is really a tibto-taraua. The ankle-joint of a bird consequently 
ooonrs, not between the tibia and the tarsusj as in mammals, bat 
in the middle of the tarsns itself, t In the succeeding portion of 
the limb of the bird we find no series of small ouboidal bones oor« 
respondinj; to the second row of the mammalian tarsus^ but on the 
other hand we have a single long bone (pi. 1. 1. m. ; pL IV., fig. 
5) terminated superiorly by an expanded head (h.) and inferiorly 
by three semi-dietinct pulley-like^ or trochlear surfaces (tr.) The 
study of the development of this bone has shown conclnsively 
that it really consists of a proximal element, which corresponds 
to the lower half of the mammalian tarsus, and of three 
parallel long bones, which together form its distal element, and 
of which the three extremities remain as the trochleso below. 
These three united bones correspond to the metafcarsals of the 
second, third and fourth digits of the mammalian foot, and the 
whole bone is consequently called the tarso-metatarsua^t lu 
many birds distinct defts or vacuities appear in the lower part 
of the shaft of this bone, which indicate its original composite 
origin. The fifth digit is invariably unrepresented in birds, 
and when the first or hallnx§ is present (as in the figured skeleton) 
its metatareal is generally incomplete above, and is united 
by ligament to the tarso-metatarsus. In some of the galli- 
naceons birds, a bony spnr is developed from the shaft of the 
tarso-metatarsus : this spur is ensheathed in horn, and forms a 
formidable weapon of offence and defence. 

We have now aeen the very remarkable differences which 
exist between the leg of a bird and the 1^ of a msjnmal, and 
before leaving the subject, it may be well to notice that in certaia 
reptiles an intermediate modification of the bones prevails. 
In living reptiles, as in crocodiles, the tibia and fibula are of 
^nal length, and the latter always articulates with the tarsus* 
Tne two rows of the latter remain quite distinct, but the imkle- 
joint occurs between these two rows. The tibia has no cnemial 
crest, and the metatarsals are distinct. In certain extinct rep* 
tiles^ however, belonging to the order Dinosauria, the fibulti 
was very slender inferiorly, and the tibia had a large cnemial 
crest. The astragalus became anobylosed to the tibia to form 
a tibio-tarsus, but the distal elements of the tarsus and the meta- 
tarsus, in most cases at all events, remained distinct. We have 



• Aitragalas oSrpayaXo^ the ankle bone. 

t In other wordi tbs lower portion of what Omithologisti nsnaUy eaU the TSbia, if 
in retltty a part of the Taniia, ao that the joint ii between two parts of thia latter. 

t Tano-metatartot, oomponnded of rapaos ud f^Cra^ after. 
§ Hallux, from o^Im, the great toe. 



KLUnVTABT 8KSTCH OT THE 08TX0L0GT OF BIRDS. 25 

here, tbereforOj a transition from the mammalian limb throngh 
the crocodilian and dinosanrian to the avian limb, which confirms 
the very close relationship which we have already found to exist 
between the osseous systems of birds and reptiles."^ 

There now only remains the foot of the bird ; the compo- 
nent digits and phalanges of which are shown in the figured 
skeleton, I.i II., III., IV. As we have already seen, the fifth 
toe is never developed, and the normal number of the phalanges 
in the digits of the bird is (as in many reptiles), 2, 3, 4, 5, rec- 
koning from the first to the fourth digit. Usually the first 
digit is directed backwards, and the other three forwards. In the 
Owb, the fourth digit can also be directed backwards at will, and 
in the Parrots, Toucans, Cuckoos, Woodpeckers, and other climb- 
ing birds this, as well as the first digit is directed permanently 
backwards. In the Trogons, the first and second digits are 
directed backwards ; while in the Swifts and some other birds 
all the four digits are directed forwards. 

{7/aM|/!ea^t0n.— In concluding this sketch I have appended 
two of the modern schemes proposed for the classification of 
birds. The first of these, with the exception of the first great 
division, to which is appended the name of Professor Marsh, 
is the arrangement put forth bv Professor Huxley, in his paper 
on the classification of birds which we have already referred to. 
The second arrangement, which differs from Professor Huxley's, 
only in respect to part of the CarinatsB, is that put forward re- 
cently by Professor Newton, in the article '* Birds'' in the 
'< Encyclopaedia Britannica.'' 



AVES. 

/. — The jawB fumuhed with teeth, 
I. ODONTORNiE. (Marsh.) 

a. Vertebrffi biconcave. 

1. IcthyomidoB. (Icthyomis.) f 

2. JpatamidtB. (Apatornis*) 

b. Vertebrsd normal. 

8. Hesperomid». (Hesperornfs, Lestornis.^ 
4. OdontopterygidsB. (Odontopteryx.) 

IL'^-JawB without teeth. 

A. Metacarpals not anchylosed together ; tail longer than body. 



• I would rafer the reader to Frofewor Huxley's ** AnatoDT of Vertebratad Ani- 
nala," for fnrthar detaila reapeoting the nmilaritiei between the ikeletona of bizda 
aadreptilea. 

t It ia not impoMiUa that theee birds with bieoneare Tertebre should be put 
into a separate diTiiioa of the first olass ; for which the name Idk^oimmd^Ua miffht 
be used. 



26 BLBMKNTART 8KBTCH OF THB O8TEOL0GT OF BIBD6» 

II. Saururjb.* 

5. Arcli^apierygidiB (Archasopteryz.) 

B. Metacarpals anokyloeed together ; tail much shorter than 
body. 
A* Sternum keellees. 

III. EATIT-ffl. 

a. Humerus rudimentary or very short, bot more than one 

ungual phalanx, 
a. A hallux. 

6. ApUrygidm (Kiwis.) 
h. No hallux. 

7. Dinomida (Moas.) 

8. C(uuarid(B (Gassowariefl.) 

b. Humerus long ; two ungual phalanges. 

a. Ischia uniting beneath sacrum ; pubes free* 

9. Rheida (American Ostriches.) 

b. Ischia free, pubes uniting in a ventral symphysis. 

10. Strut Aionida (Ostriches.) 
J9. Sternum provided with a keel.t 

IV. Cabinatjb. 

a. Vomer broad behind, interposini; between pterygoids, 

palatines, and sphenoidal rostrom. 
{DromaognathcB.) 

11. Tinamamorpha (Tinamous) 

b. Vomer narrow behind ; pterygoids and palatines articu- 

lating largely with sphenoidal rostrum, 
a. Maxillo-palatines free.^ 
i. Vomer pointed in front. 
{Schizognatha.) 

12. Gharadrumorpia (Plovers, and Tringas.) 

13. Ceeomorpha (Gulls, Petrels, Divers and Auks.) 

14. Sphetdacomorpha (Penguins.) 

15. GeranomorpAa (Cranes, Bustards, Bails, and Dieho- 

lopus.) 

16. TumicomorpfuB (Hemipods.) 

17. AlectoromofpJuB (Fowls.) 

18. Pterockmorpha (Sand-groose.) 

19. PerigteromorpluB (Pigeons and Dodo.) 

20. Heteramorpha (Hoazins.) 
ft. Vomer tmncated in front. 

(JEgiiiogncUAa.) 

21. Coracomorpha (Passerines.) 

_ - - - ■ — . — . — — ^ — ^-^^«»— ^.^i— ^j^— ^^ 

• The term Saunize is now eomewhat inappropriAte for thie order a^ SstptrdmUf 
luud afco a long tail. 



IEadimeiitarT in Strigofs. 
Except JHeiolopui ana k 



■ome spedea of Craa, 



BLIMIOTABT SKETCH OF THJB OSTCOLOGY OF BIRDS. 27 

22. Cypselomorpia (Swifb^ Hamming Birds^ and Po- 

dargut,) (?) 

23. Celeomarphcs (Woodpeckers and Wrynecks.) 

0. Mazilio-palatines united. 
{DesmognatluB) 

24. Aetomorpha (Birds of Prey.) 

25. Pgiitacomarpka (Parrots.) 

26. Coceygomorpha (Cuckoos^ Kingfishers, Trogons, 

Goat-suckers, (?) Bee-Eaters, Hombills, and 
Hoopoes. \ 

27. Chenomorphm (Anserine Birds.) 

28. Amphimorpha (Flamingoes.) 

29. PelargomorpAa (Storks and Herons.) 
80. Dyaporcmorphm (Cormorants.) 

Professor Newton's arrangement of the Carinat» is as 
follows:— 

IV. OABINATiE. 

(a.) Yomer broad behind, interposing between pterygoids, 
palatines and sphenoidal rostrum. . 
DromaognathtB, 

11. Tinamcmorphm (Tinamous.) 

(h.) Vomer narrow behind ; pterygoids and palatines arti- 
culating largely with sphenoidal rostum. 
«• Maxilio-pafatines free. 

i. Vomer pointed in front. 
(SehizognailuB.) 

12. Gharadriomorpha (Plovers and.Tringas.) 

13. C€9omorpia (Gulls, Petrels, Divers and Auks.) 

14. Sphemscomarpha (Penguins.) 

15. Geranamorpha (Cranes, * Bustards, Rails, and 

Dicholopus.) 

16. Aleetof(morpha (Fowls.) 

17. PUroelomorpAa (Saud-gronse.) 

18. Peneteromorpha (Pigeons and Dodo.) 
19. ' HeteromorphcD (Hoazins.) 

20. Coedf/ganwf^/ke (part) (Goatsuckers.) 

21. TfockHomarpha (Humming birds.) 
a. Vomer truncated in front 

(jEgithognailuB. ) 

22. Oeranomorpha (part) (Thenocorinae.) 
28. Turnicomofpk^e (Hemipods.) 

24. Oypselomorplue (Swifts.) 

25. CcracomorpfuB (Passerines.) 

fti. Vomerine halves permanently distinct ; maxillo- 
palatines arrested. 

* Bzcept Thinoeorut. 



28 SLBHENTART 8KKTCH OF THB 08TB0L0GT OF BIRDS. 

(Sanrojinatha.) 

26. CeleomorpfuB (Woodpeckers and Wrynecks.) 

/3. Maxillo-palatines united, either by coalescence with 
nasal septum^ or by meeting in a suture in 
middle line, or by complete anchylosis of plates 
of both sides. 

27. AetomorpfuB (Birds of Prey.) 

28. PsUtaoomorpha (Parrots.) 

29. Coca/comorpha (CuckooS| Kingfishers^ Trogons, 

Bee-Eaters, Hombills, and Hoopoes.) 

30. Chenamorpha (Anserine Birds.) 

31. AmpAimorpha (Flamingoes.) 

82, Felargomorpha (Storks and Herons^) 
33. Ih/sparomorpAa (Cormorants.) 



P.5. — Since the above has been in type, I have seen two 
very important papers by Professor 0. C. Marsh,* in which an 
entirely new interpretation of the homology of part of the 
avian pelvis is put forth. On page 22 of this sketch, I have 
called the long slender bone forming the lower border of the 
avian pelvis, the pubis (plate III, fig. 5, pb.) Professor Marsh, 
from the study of the pelvis of some new American Dino- 
saurian reptiles has, howeveri conclusively proved that this 
slender bone is not the homologue of the pubis of a crocodile, 
(which is a stout bone, placed in front instead of behind the 
acetabulum) 9 but is the homologue of a similarly-situated 
process of the pelvis of certain Dinosauris. In those animals 
the pubis consists of a stout portion in front of the acetabulum, 
which is directed downwards and forwards, and which corre- 
sponds to the pubis of the Crocodile, and of a second slender 
portion, behind the acetabulum, which runs parallel to the 
ischium, and which corresponds to the so-called pubis of the 
bird. This slender portion ossifies separately, and has been 
named by Professor Marsh the post-pubU, The homologue of 
the reptilian pubis proper is represented in the pelvis of the 
bird by the small process which occurs on the lower border 
immediately in front of the acetabulum. This small process 
is most developed in those birds which use the hind limb to a 
greater extent than is usually the case ( Geococcyx^ Drommu, 
Apteryx.) The slender post-pubis seems 'to be developed only 
in birds, and in those Dinosaurian reptiles, which seem in 
walking to have habitually used their hind limbs only. The 
Dinosaur is, however, distinguished from the bird by always 



• Amerioaa Journal of ScMncei Norember 1878— January 1879. 



ILEMEMTABT SKSTOH OF THB 08TK0L0GT OV BIB08. 29 

having the true pubis well developed, in plaoe of being almost 
or qnite rudimentary. In those reptiles^ on the other handy 
which habitually make use of both pairs of limbs in walking, 
the post-pubis is neyer developed, while the true pubis is always 
of large size. 

It would seem, therefore, that in birds and reptiles the de- 
TeIoi>ment of the post-pubis is correlated with the power of 
walking on the hina-limo only, and that this development is 
probably necessary for the proper balance of the body when in 
this position. It also seems that when the fore-limbs cannot 
be put on the ground at nil, as in birds^ that the true pubis 
becomes practically rudimentary. 

For details respecting this very interesting and important 
discovery, I must refer the reader to Professor Mursh's papers. 

B.L. 



80 UnHHTABT KtTOfi OF THS OSTfiOLOGT OF BIRDB* 



Plats I. 

(SXPLAKATZON.) 



Skeleton of Carfms jamaieeniii : copied from plate 142 of 
M. M. Edward's '* Oiseaaz foBsiles de la France." 

nil 9 ( Proximal phalanges of 

DhSl 2nd and 8rd digits of 

P t nianus. 

pi. pelvis. 

p. mz. premaxillsB. 

p. Q. processus oncinatas. 

r. rib. 

ra. radios. 

80. scapula. 

sm. sacrum. 

st. sternum. 

I. ttbio-tarsns. 

t m. tarso-metatarsus. 

nl. nlna. 

1 Ut digit of foot. 

II 2nd do. 
in 3rd do. 
IV 4M do. 



ca. carpus, 
cor. coracoid. 
cr. cranium. 

c. v. cervical vertebras, 
c vt. caudal vertebrsa. 
ox. coccyx. 

d. V. dorsal vertebrie. 
f. femun 

fi. fibula. 

fu. furculum ^clavicles.) 

h. humerus. 

]. lachrymal. 

mn. mandible. 

m. 1. 1st metacarpal. 

m. 2. 2nd do. 

m. 8. 3rd do. 

na. nares (external.) 

o. orbit 



otra 



j 



82 VLEMEmkKT BKSTOH OF THK OBTIOLOGT OF BIRDS. 



Plate IL 

(EXPLANATION.) 

I^g. 1.— Under view of ektill of Common Fowl, to sbow 
Sohizognathoos modification; enlarged 1| dia- 
meters. 

Hg. 2.— Upper view of same sknlL 

Fig. 8. — ^Under view of skull of Ardea einerea, to show Des- 
mognaihons modification. 

Fig. 4. — Under view of sknll of Corma oorax^ to show JSgi« 
thognathons modification. 

Fig. 5.— Under view of skull of Dromoua nov^hoUandimj to 
show Utomseognathous modification. 

bo. basi-occipital. pa. parietal. 
b.pt. basi-pterygoid process. pf. post-orbital process of fron- 

b.8ph. basi-sphenoid. taL ^ 

en. occipital condyle. pi. palatine, 

eo. ex-occipital. p.mz. pre-mazilla. 

eth. ethmoid. pt. ptenrgoid. 

en. eustachian opening. qj. quadrate jugal. 

f.m. foramen magnum. qu. quadrate, 

f^. frontal. so. supra-occipital. 
m.zp. maxillo-palatine process, sph. r. sphenoidal roetmm. 

na. nasal. sq* squamosal. 

n.pmx. nasal process of pre- vo. vomer, 
maxilla. 

Figures 1 and 2 are copied from the article '^Birds'' in 
'< Encyclopsddia Britannica'* (figs. 19 and 20) ; the other three 
are copied firom Professor Huxley's paper on the clsssification of 
Birds published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London for April 1867 (figs. 8, 25, 82.) 



84 KLIMSNTART SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOQT OF BIRDS. 



Plate III. 

(EXPLANATION.) 

Fig. 1. — Sternunii coracoids, and furoulum of Pluenorhina 

goliath, — '^ Oueaux fossiles de la Fratice,^* pi. 139, 

fig. 1. 
Fig. 2.— Stemnm, coracoids, and furculum of Taehypetet 

aquila. — Ibid, pi. 85, fig. 2. 
Fig. 3. — Lateral view of sternum of Common Fowl. Huxley's 

''Anatomy of Yertebrated Animals/' fig. 81. 
Figs. 4. & 6. — Superior and lateral views of pelvis of Franco- 

linua asice. — ^^ Oiseaux fosMea de la France^'^ 
pi. 118, figs. 1,8. 

am. acetabulum. is. ischium. 

ca. carina. ix. internal xiphoid process. 

cor. coracoid. m.x. middle do. 

c.p. costal process. pb. pubis. 

e.x. external xiphoid process, sm. sacrum. 

fu. furculum. st. sternum. 

il. ilium. 



] 



36 ELIXSKTABT SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. 



Plate IV. 

(EXPLANATION.) 

"Fig. 1.— Anterior view of right humeros of Anaer albifrotu — 
^' Oiaeaux foanlea de la Frauoe,^^ pi. 18, fig. 1. 

b.a. groove for brachialis b. bead* 

anticuB muscle. i.c. internal condyle. 

b.i. groove for biceps muscle, pc. pectoral crest. 
e.c. external condyle. 

Fig. 2. — ^Anterior viei? of left tibio-tarsus of Anser albijroni.-^ 
Ibidf pi. 14, fig. 1. 

as. astragalus. br. bridge over extensor ten- 

dons, 
on. cnemial crest 

Fig. 3.— Posterior view of right femur of Aqmla /uloa.^^Ibidy 
pi. 2, fig. 4. 

ec. external condyle. l.t. fossa for ligamentum teres, 

i.c. internal do. tr. great trochanter. 

b. bead. pop. popliteal space. 

Fig. 4. — Inferior view of seventh cervical vertebra of AquUa 
/ulva.—Ibid^ pi. 6, fig. 12. 

c. centrum. pz. prezygapophysis. 
pt.z. postzygapopbysis. 

Fig. 5. — ^Anterior view of left tarso-metatarsus of Aquilafulva.'^ 

Ibid, pi. 3, fig. 1. 
h. bead* tr. digital trocblesB. 

Fig. 6. — Anterior view of left coracoid of AquUa fulva. — Ibid 
pi. if fig. 6. 



i 



87 



% first Sentatifte fist of t]fe firbs of t^e iitsUn ^alf 

of t||( lilitlaa $£ntnsul8. 



CrONBiDSBiKO the number of years for which we English 
have had a conneotioQ with the Malay Pemnsalai oonsiderinj^t 
the myriads of spedmoDS that have been sent thence, and 
eonaidering that the greater portion of its western side is 
now yirtnally a portion of the British Empire, it does seem 
stnmge that we should still be so profoundly ignorant of 
its ornithology. 

Up to this date no attempt, so far as I know, has ever been 
made to draw up even the roughest list of the species 
that occur in it. What little information we have on the 
subject is scattered about in fifty different catalogues and 
books^ and of this little an appreciable proportion is manifestly 
unreliable. 

India is a bad place from which to work up the literature 
of any subject, as our libraries (even my own) are so very 
rudimentary, but it may help others who, like myself,^ think 
that the time has really come for working out a little * more 
definitely the ornithology of the Malay Peninsula, to enu« 
merate the few books and papers to which I have had access, 
throwing any material light on the Avifauna of the western 
half of the Malay Peninsula. 

EgUm, P. Z. S., 1839,10a— A. and M. K. H., 1845, XVI, 
227. 

Strieklatid, A. and M. N. H., 1844, Xin, 409. 

Eartlauby Bev. Zool.^ 1842 ; 1844, 401. 

Bag, Madras Joumau, XIII, 

&toliczka, J. A. S. B., XXXIX, 277, 1870. 

&dvadariy Ucelli di Borneo. 

fTaldenj Ibis, 1871, 158. 

Wallace, A. and M. N. H., 1855, XY, 96.— Ibis, 1868, 1, 215; 

1865, 365. 
itoare, F. Z. S., 1854, 258 ; 1859, 443— (and Bars/.) Cat 

Birds, Mus. E. I. C. 
BfytJ^ Cat. Mus. A. 8. B. and J. A. S. B., passim. 
Gray, Hand List of Birds. 
SchUgelj Mus. P. Bas. 
Sharpe, Catalogue, Birds, Brit. Mas. 
Bume, Stray Feathers. 

' Combining all these authorities, little more than three hundred 
species were on record as pertaining to the western half 



38 A FIRST TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE 

of the Peninsula^ and of these several, I am inclined to believe 
never do occur there. 

From time to time I have had parties down there collectings, 
chiefly towards tiie extreme south, and have had all the Malaccan 
collections overhauled, but even after thus collectini^ many- 
thousand specimens, I found that I could not count four 
hundred species, and that I was still quite ignorant of the 
limits of distribution of most of them, and so I determined 
to give up desultory raids, and, instead, work thoroughly and 
systematically the western half of the Peninsula. 

Accordingly my whole staff — two European and eight native 
collectors — have been located in four suitable working stations^ 
(where of course each party gets what local assistance it can) 
which with their environs they will work exhaustively. They 
will then take up four new stations — and so on. Considering 
that Malacca and its immediate neighbourhood has been watched 
for us for several years, we having been through probably over 
30,000 birds prepared there, that Davison has already pretty 
exhiiustively worked Johore, and that a friend has been working 
Singapore for us, I apprehend that eight judiciously chosen 
stations in the plains and four in the hiUs will suffice to g^ve 
us a very fair idea of the birds of the western half of the 
Malay Peninsula, where I hope myself to spend a few months 
during next cool season. 

In a couple of years, then, I may hope to present a rough 
resnm^ of the birds of this region similar to that lately fur- 
nished for Tenasserim. 

In the meantime I shall publish, from time to time, notes 
on species possessing any special interest, and an ad4nterim 
tentative list of species at present known or recorded from 
this tract, and I shall be deeply grateful for any references to 
papers and works, other than those above enumerated, dealing 
with the subject, as also for information as to species omitted 
from my list. 

One very interesting result of our investigations, so far as 
they have yet gone, is the discovery in the Malayan Peninsula 
of the previously unknown species to which Mr. Gray bestowed 
the name of Turdus avensis on the faith of a native drawing. 

This bird is figured and described at page 530 of Griffith's 
Translation of Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, vol. YI, part Aves, 
J. E. Gray, 1829. 

The figure is not a very bad one, and can be certainly identi- 
fied as our bird. The description runs as follows :— - 

^'The Ava Thrush, so named by Mr. Gray, is from 
Mr. Crawfurd'a collection of Indian drawings. It may, probably^ 



WESTERN HALF OF THE UALAT PENINSULA, 39 

when better known, exhibit some deviations from the ordinary 
type of the genns l\irdu$y and is therefore referred to it con- 
ditionally. The bill is much bent towards the point ; the top 
of the head and nape are bright brown/' (figured, and correctly 
so, a sort of maroon chestnnt) ; ^' the belly, vent, wing-coverts, 
and spots before and behind the eye, at the base of the lower 
mandible, and the chin, a yellowish white/' 

This, though a poor description, is, coupled with the plate, 
suCBcient to fix the species, in regard to which the following 
remarks may, I think, be useful : — 



Oeocichla avensis, J. E. Gray. 

Like G. interpret, hut with the laret and the greater portion tfthe ear-cof9erte 
white^ and with no white tipping* to the greater wing-coverti. 



This is a remarkable Malayan, or possibly Siamese represent- 
ative form (running up, it would appear, into Upper Burmah) of 
the Javan G. interpres (Kuhl), and the Celebean G. erythronota 
(Sclater) ; agreeing with the former in the dark back, with the 
latter in the white lores and ear-coverts, and differing, inter alia^ 
from both in wanting the white tips to the greater wing-coverts, 
and thus exhibiting only one white wing bar. 

The only specimen as yet obtained by ns was shot in the 
bills in the native state of Bumbow, which lies east of the 
British possessions at Malacca. 

Dimensions (from the skin). — Length, 7*0 ; wing, 4*25 ; 
tail, 2*5 ; tarsus, I'l ; bill from frontal bone, 0*82. 

Legs and feet pale yellow; bill deep brown, yellowish white 
at base of lower mandible. 

Lores white ; forehead, crown, occiput, nape and sides of 
the neck, behind ear-coverts, rather bright ferruginous chestnut ; 
chin more or less white ; throat black, mottled with white, this 
being the colour of the basal portions of the feathers ; sides 
of lower mandible (except apparently a tiny white patch) * 
cheeks, tips of upper portion of ear-coverts, and nearly the 
entire breast, jet black ; rest of ear-coverts (the feathers with 
very disunited webs) silky white; rest of lower parts white, 
snllied on sides and lower tail-coverts ; each feather of the 
lowest portion of the breast and the upper abdomen, with a 
conspicuous terminal black spot; edge of the wing at the. 
carpal joint white; wing lining black, feathers obsoletely 

* The ipecimen ii • poor one, and I d^inot make sure about the chin and thia 
patch. 



40 A FIBST TXMTATIVE LIST OF THB BIBPa OF THS 

margined with white ; a very broad oooapicuotis white wing bar 
on the lower sorfaoe of the quills^ not extending to the first three 
primarieaj occapyiog the bases of the seoondaries and later 
primaries^ and runmng some distanoe down the webs of the 
fourth and fifth primaries^ the two last to which it extends. - 

Upper surface a dusky brownish ashy, with a faint olivace- 
ous shade (I guess this specimen was a female, I dare say the male 
is more cyaneous;) tall and upper tail-Ksoverts plain hair 
brown ; the outermost feather on each side, with a aullied 
white wedore-shaped spot on the inner web at the tip, and a 
corresponding speck on the next feather. 

Wings dark hair brown ; the whole of the median coverts 
pure white ; the third and succeeding primaries with dull grey 
edgings to the outer webs above the emarginations, and the 
secondaries with an olivaceous shade on the outer webs. 

The lower tail-ooverts have a pale dingv rufous tinge. I 
do not know whether this is dirt or natural. The flanks are 
marked with spots similar to those of the upper abdomen, but 
smaller and duller coloured. 

It is satisfactory thus to recover a bird hitherto unseen bj 
any European, and generally confounded with 6r. interpret^ 
Just as it was to find out in my Rallina telmaiaphila (S. F.^ 
VII, 142 and 451) the real Rattus eupercUiarisy Eyton, so 
long and so inexplicably confounded with Pargana etnerea. 

Another scarcely less interesting species is^ I believe, new, 
and I shall designate it afber the gentleman who procured it. 
Captain Webber, Chief Adviser of the Rajah of Tonka, in whose 
territories it was shot. 



Lddia webberi, Sp. Nov. 7 

. LUe L sqnamats, M the yeUow qf mpper tmface darker and mora 0X99- 
MMif ; the abdamait andjkmkt Kke the hreoH, tind aimati ih$ wkoU immr wi$ 
ff iJk0 auier taU-yMker wkUa. 



This intwesting speeies which forms the third of Blyth'e 
genus laidUy distinguished amongst other thiogs from Brttekij^ 
podiusy by its square tail and shorter and less full upper tail- 
coverts, runs veiy dose to laidia {Ixoa) sjuamaiOy Tern. P. 
C, 453, fig. 2 ; but yet differs suflSciently to be instantly separ- 
able therem>m. 
The following are dimensions from tibe dry skin : — 
Length, 60; wing, 8*2; tail, 275; t^sus, 0*6 ; bill, at 
front, nrom frontal bone, 0*62. 



WB8TKRN HALF OF THK MALAY PANIKSULA. 41 

ft 

Forehead^ lores, cheeks^ ear-coverts, crown, occiput and 
nape glossy black, with a scarcely perceptible steely gloss ; 
chin and entire throaty snow white; lower tail-coverts intense 
gamboge yellow ; rest of the lower parts black, each feather 
narrowly mnged with white, only a narrow stripe of feathers 
down the centre of the lower abdomen to the vent sullied 
white ; entire mantle golden olive, brightening to pnre golden 
on the upper tail-coverts ; tail dull black, outer feather on 
each side tipped, and with nearly the entire inner web, white ; 
next three feathers on either side, with a similar but succes- 
sively diminishing patch of white on the inner web ; wings 
hair brown, the third and next few si^cceeding primaries 
suffused on the outer webs above the emarginations with a 
golden olive, brighter than on the interscapnlary region ; the 
rest of the quills, with nearly the whole of the outer webs, of 
this colour growing duller as it recedes to the tertiaries, which 
have the greater part of both webs thus coloured. 

The bill appears to have been dark brown, paler on the lower 
mandible ; the legs and feet were probably plumbeous, but it 
is impossible to be certain. 

Captain Webber assures us that this species is not uncom- 
mon in the interior of the Tonka territories. 

I cannot avoid remarking en passant that Mr. Qray's loca- 
tion of Braehffpodius chaleoeephalus (figured on the same 
plate with Ixidia squamata) between Volvoeiwra and Lalage 
is, to me, perfectly inexplicable and untenable, the bird being 
a typical finlbul of the Braeh/fodius type. 

And now about this list : it is a very poor thing, but the 
best I have been able to put together ; and considering that at 
present no list at all exists, I would fain hope that it will prove 
better than none, and that ornithologists in Europe and America, 
into whose hands it may fall, will kindly assist me in correct- 
ing and enlarging it Some of the species entered in my list are 
quite unknown to me, and only receive a place because they 
nave been said to occur in the Malayan Peninsula, and I 
do not know how to dispose of them. Very possibly they 
are synonyms of species which I have already recorded. 

For instance I can make nothing of Euptilosus euptilosusf 
Gray's H. L. P. 271, ex. Jard. and Selb. 111. Orn. New 
Ser. pi. 3. What is this ? 

What, agaiu, is Hydrocissa m^ra^mu^, Maingay ? There are 
several others which, in like manner, I cannot trace. 

In the list, I have printed in Roman type only those species 
which (despite anything that may have been asserted to the 
contrary) do not, so far as I know^ oqcnt anywhere in TenaS'* 
serim, Burmah, India, Ceylon, the Andamana and Nicobars, 

6 



42 A FIBST TSMTATlVfl LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE 

and which, thereforoj do not appear at al], or only appear in 
italics, in my list of the birds of India. AH birds which do also 
occnr in any of the above countries or localities^ and which 
are not, therefore, quoad tie British Empire, peculiar to the tract 
we are dealing with, appear in italics. 

To every species of which we have ourselves secured 
specimens in the Malay Peninsula, I have prefixed a star, 
and I have added the localities at which we have obtained 
them. I have also added in the case of these and of other 
species in italiesy localities, (other than those where we have 
obtained them) assigned for them by others and the authorities 
for the same. 

In the case of birds of which I doubt either the validity of 
the species, or their occurrence in the Malay Peninsula, I 
have prefixed a note of interrogation to the name. 

It will be understood that the region to which this list 
refers is that portion of the Malay Peninsula, bounded north 
by the Pakchan Estuary, east by the central watershed line, 
and west and south by the sea ; and that though including small 
islands close along shore, such as Junk-selan, Penang, Singa- 

{^ore, &c., it does not as yet pretend to deal with the islands 
ying further out to sea. 

The eastern half of the Peninsula, with which we hope 
to deal hereafter, will, I am inclined to believe, prove to yield 
a somewhat different set of birds, and to belong to a recogniza- 
bly distinct sub-province. 

And now for the list, I merely repeating, to prevent any 
possible misconstruction, that it makes no pretence to complete* 
ness, and is only what in mathematics we should designate a 
worKing hypothesis. 

The list contains altogether 408 species, out of which I 
consider that 20, as indicated by notes of interrogation, are 
doubtful. 

Out of the 408 species in all, or 388 that I admit, we have 
only as yet ourselves collected specimens of 802, to each of 
which a star is prefixed. DoubtleBS during the current year 
we shall get most of the remaining species, and a great many 
more ; I shall be greatly surpri^ if this tract does not prove 
to contain at least 600 species. 

Out of the 408 species, there are only 124 which, so &r as 
we know, neither cross the Pakchan Estuary northwards, nor 
(like Lalage terat and Cirmyrie pectoralis) appear at the 
Nicobars, though nowhere on the mainland of Incua or Burmah. 
The names of these 124 species are printed in the list in 
roman type ; the names of the rest, which do occnr elsewhere 
in our Indian dominions, are printed in italics. 



WBSTBBIir HALF OF TBM MALAY PSNIHSULA. 43 

I have no doabt that I bave oftea failed to use the oldeflt 
name. I believe tbaif aome &w species^ which, following my 
betters, I have accepted as identical with others^ named 
originally from Borneo, Java, Ao., will prove distinct and require 
separate titles, and I think it possible that. in one or tvro 
instances (though I have carefully examined all Blyth's speci- 
mens) my identifications may be wrong. I have tried my beat 
to avoid snch errors, but in some oases nave been unable to make 
certain even with the original descriptions before me. 

To no species included m my '^ List of the Birds of India," 
have I thought it necessary to give references ; such must be 
sought for iu that list To a few of the others I have added 
references to passages in Stray Fsathers, where they have been 
described or discussed. 



LIST 



2. — Otogyps calvuij Scop^ 

{Malajfona, 8harp€, CaL J.] 

4. — Gyps indicusy Scop. 

[UaUtptna, Qr. B. U, H. LUi, 2; Bly, J. A. 8, B. XIX^ 604.] 

5. — Pseudogyps bengalensisj Gm, 

LJCaZooea, Caaior, Horsf, and Moort, Cmi,, 414.] 

*8. — Faico peregrinvsy Gm. 

[Malaoca.] 

14. — Falco 9everu8f Hcnf. 

[Hotoeea, JwiL Saload. U. di S., 3.] 

*20 ter. — Microhierax fringiUaritiSf Drap. 

[Bfalaoea, Kanoo, Ohdiong, Johore, Singapore ; Penana, Canior, Hon/, and 
Cat., 414.] 



22. — Astur trivirgatusj Reintv. in Tern. 

[Mdlajf Pen., Bly. J. A. 8. B. XXX, 338— If^ Opkir, MoUom, Wall., Bkarpe, 
CW.J, 106.] ' ^ /-. 

23 ier*^-^ Astur soloensisy Horsf, 

lUalaeea, Wall. 8al9ad. XT, di B., IS.; 8karp9^ B. Jf. Cat, I., 116.] 

*23 ter A, — Astur cuculoides^ Tern, 

[Malacca.] 



44 A FIRST TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIBDS OF THE 

^25. — AecipUer virffatusj Beinw. in Tern. 

[Makcei, Polo Sebtn, KiiRioo.F-P«Mifi{^; CaiOoTt Honf, ami UooHt OaL, 414] 

? 25 A. — Accipiter etevensoiii, Oumey. 

[Simgapgre, Wolf. Uii, 1868, S16.] 

^Sl.-^Aqnila pennata^ Gm. 

[Siogapon.] > 

^32. — Neopus malaiensis, Reinw. in Tern. 

[llalMca.] 

^34. — lAmnaetus caligatw, Raffl. 

[Malaooa; Tmkaang^ Omtor, Hattf, and Koor§, Oat Mut. Jff. X. C, 414.] 

*S4 A.-^Limnaetw iarsfieldi^ Fig, 

[Halaooft ; Fmum^f GMtor, JSor ff. and Moore, Cat, Jfnt. X, I. C, 414.] 

*34 ter.'-'ZimnaeHu aXtHmigerj Bly. 

[SiDgapora; Tmmag, UaUoeOf BI9. aa!had, XT. M 3., 15.J 

S7 .'^Lophotriorehis Ideneri, 6erv. 

[Malaeeoj Sharpo, B. JL Cat. L, 268.] 

''^39 gnat A. — Spilornis pallidns^ Wald. 

[Malacca, Kealji, Johore.] 

? 39 quint. — Spilornis baeba^ Daud. 

[BingapoMy Big. Balvad. V. dt B., 8; Malaoea, Bhifpo, B, Jf. Cat J., 291.] 

I tbink tbis species, fonnded on Levaillant's platCi sbould be 
rejected ; it is impossible to identify it witb certainty. 

40. — Pandion haliaetui, Lin. 
Davison feels sure be bas seen tbis along tbe coast. 

41. — PoliocLetus ichthyaetusj Borsf. 

iPenang, CatUor, Hortf. and Mooro, Cat, Mut, B. I, C, 416.] 

41 ter.'^Polioaetus humUiSj S. MtiU. and Sehl. 

IMalaeeOj Big. ; Bingapore, Btriekl, Bahad, IT. di B,, 7.] 

^iS.-^Haliaetus leucoffaster^ Gm. 

[Singapore.— JfaZatfM, WaU. Baload, XT, <{t B., 6; Ponang, Cantor, Uortf, and 
Moore, Cat, Mn». B. L C, 416.] ^ 

4g lig^ — Btttastur indicuSy Gm. 

[Malaeea, Egton, Balvad, U. di B,, 9.] 



WKSTXBH HALF OF THE MALAY TENIKSULA. 45 

53 A, — Circus spilonotns, Kaup. 

IKtOagtm FtHhrnOa, Bkarp^, B. M, Cat. L, 69.] 

*54. — Cireus aruffirumUf Lw. 
55. — HaKastur indusy Badd. 

TMaiaoea, Wall Saivad, U. di B., 12 ; Pm^ang, Canior, Hbrrf, and Uow, 
CM. JTm. JP.Xa,416.3 

Seen at SiDgapore by Davison. May prove to be B, inter- 
mediue. 

56 ter. — Milms affinU, Gould. 

iPmumg, Camior, Wmf and Moon, CaL Mut. E. L a, 414] 

*57. — Pemis jaUarhyneJuif Tern. 

[Stngapon.] 

*67 bis. — Perms brachypteruS| Bly. 

[litllOM.] 

I am much disposed to consider this form distinct ; see my 
remarks^ S. P., VI, 24. Certainly we get in the Malay Penin- 
sula, two types, one the normal Indian form, the other a 
smaller, intenser colored, very long-crested race. We have as 
yet, however, too few specimens to speak positively. 

57 1^. — MacIuerampIiMs idcinue^ Westerm. 

IKaJaeea, Gray, Brit. Jf. H. Idsi, 86.J 

58. — Baza laphotesj Cuv. 

[Udlaeea, Bdil Wall Iftif, 1868, 19; Sharpe, B, U. CaL X, 863.] 

58 hie -4.— Baza jerdoni, Blyih^ J. A. S. B., XL, 464 ; XV., 4. 

I do not think that this species has yet been satisfactorily 
identifi^. Blyth's own identification was, I think, certainly 
i^rong. It may prove identical with my Baza incognita, but 
1 do not think it is either magniroetrie, eumatreneis or 
reinwardti. 

59. — Elanus earuleiUj Desf. 

\Ftaang, Cantor, Horrf, and Moore, Ofl. Mw. B, X. C, 414.] 

60.— £^r»;i; javanicay Gm. 

IMaHacea, Saload, U, di B.^ 23.] 



46 A FIBST TSlJrTA7iyB LIST OF THB BIUDS Q¥ 7HB 

62.— PhodiluB badiusy Hor%f. 

[tfa^0M, FoM. BdlMd. U.diJB^ 89; ^«mmi^, Cwtor, JE&nf. ai4 JCoofv, Oofc 

*68 ^.— Syrniam maingayi, Hume. S. F, VL, 27. 

[MalMea.] 

65 ^M. — Syrmum eeloputo, Horsf. 

IPmumg, Walk BaUfod, U. di S,, 21.] 

''^Tl bie.'^Bubo orietdaliej Horrf. 

[Palo Seban ; Malaeea, Ocmtor, Honf. and Moore, Cat. Uu§, JB. J. C, 416/ 
Singapore, WaU^ ^e,, SaUtad. XT, <U £^ 20.J 

*78 hU, — Ketupa javanensis^ Less. 

[HaUocft, Pulo Sebftn, Nealyt, Johore ; Fenang, Cantor, Hortf. and Moore, 
Mmm, JB, I, C, 416.] 

*74 A. — Scops stictonotusj Sharpe, 

[Mjilaooa.] 

I am now becoming inclined to doubt the validity of this and 
many other species of Scops, which I have hitherto admitted. 
I fear we shall have ^^ to lamp '* extensively. 

* 74 sex. — Scops malayaons, ffojf. 

[MaUumu] 
74 nov. — Scops sagUtatus^ Cassin. 

IMaiaeea, Or. B. M. H.-LUt, 46.] 

74 nov. -4.— Scops rufescens, Horsf, Tr. L. S., XIII, 140. 

[Mt. Opkir, Malacca, WaU, Skarpe, B. Jf. Cat, IL, 106.] 

* 75 guini. — Scops lempiji, Horsf. 

Mne?B^,,^^IT"' ^'^'^' ^*''^^^"- ^^«^»'» ^^^* ^ Moore, Cat, 

? 77.— Glaucidium radiatum, Tick 

IQ^tedai^ Cantor, Borrf. and Moore, Cat, Mne, E. 2. C, 416.] 

I do not for one moment believe in the occurrence of this 
species in the Malay Peninsula. Probably some Siamese repre- 
sentative of this and the Javan castanopterum, occasionaliy 
straggles into both Tenasserim and the northern portions of 
our present region 

* 81 his, — Ninox scutulata, Raffl. 

r 4 '2^•^/^^^c^•°• ^^^P»°' Singrapore j Penang, Cantor, Horef. and Moore, 
tat, Mne, JC. i* o,, 416.] 



WaSTBBK HALF OT THE MALAY PKM1N8ULA. 47 

* 82 bis.—Hiruruh ffUttw^is^ Scop. 

rSCalaoea, Pulo^lwny Kiinoo, Johore, Singapore ; Psnauif, WaUU^ Saltad. U. di 

83. — Uirundo javanica^ Sparrm. 

IMaJaeea, Moor§; Pmumg, (kmiar, Sdhad, XT, di B., 1S6.] 

I have never got the bird, and 1 must aay that I feel doubts 
as to its complete identity with the Nilghery domicola^ Jerd. 

* 85 quint A. — Hirando archetesi Eume. S. F., V, 266. 

[Malacoft, Karroo.] 

There is a Hirundo badia, of Cassin, Or. H. List, 69, which 
nun/ be this species, but I cannot discover where it was de»- 
cribed^ and should be much oblio;ed to any one who would send 
me a copy of the description. The bird is at any rate quite 
distinct from hyperyihra of Ceylon. 

* 95 6m. — ChiBtura UucopygialU, Bly. 

[Kunroo, Nealyt, Johore ; Penang^ (kmicr^ Balvad, U. di B., 126] 

96 bis. — Chatura gigantea. Hast. 

[Malaeea^ Bljf.i Pmumg, CaiUor / Bingt^Ut Watt,; Baltad. U. di B., 124.] 

100 bis.-^Cypsellus subfurcatusj Bly. 

[Pmiang^ QoMtor ; MaUeea, Cantor ; WIM; Salvad, V, di B., 110. ' 

101 bis. — Cypsellus pae^fieus, Lath, 

IPmumg, Cantor ; Malacca, Bl9,,8dhad. XT. di B., US.] 

* 102 bis. — GypseUua infumaJtus^ Sclat. 

[Johore, Singapore.] 

''^ 103 bis. — ColloeaUa linchi^ Horsf. 

[Johatt; Malacca, Walt Saioad, XT, di B,, 121.] 

103 quai, — CoUoealia spodiopygiaj Peak. 

[f Malacca, Jerd. Balcad XT. di B,, 121 J 

lOS quat A, — Collocalia troglodytes, O. R. Gray, 

IMalacca, Big,, Cat. Mm. A. 8. B., 886.] 

* 104 bis. — Dendroehelidon camata, Tern. 

[Johore.] 

* 104 ter.-^Dendroehelidon langipetmisj Rafin. 

[Malaoea, Pulo Sehen, Johore, StngApore.] 

* 105 ter, — Batrachostomua afBnis, Bly, 

[MftlMCft] 



48 A FIRST TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE 

^105 ter A. — Batrachostomns stellatos^ Goutd. 

[Ifalaoea.] 

''^ 105 ter C. — Batrachostomos auritus. Tern. 

[Malicoa.] 

? 107. — Caprimulgtu indicus, Lath. 

[Ifafatfca, Horif. and Moore, Mu9» E, 1, C, 113.] 

I doubt the occurrence of this species if jotaka be reallj 
distinct, for in that case it would be the latter that would 
occur here. 

* 110. — CaprimtUgui macrurus^ Bonf. 

[Mftlaoo, Polo Sebon, Koroo, Singapore ; Fmtang and WtllM, Trot, 8M.] 

114 bis. — Lyneorfds eervinieepsj Gould. 

The note of this species is quite distinct from that of tern-- 
mincki ; Davison feels perfectly certain that he has heard it in 
the northern portions of the region. 

* Hi ter. «4.— Lyncomis temmincki, Gould. 

[Malaoea, KaRoo» Nealyi, Johoro ; Pmtangt Cantor, Salvad. XT, di B., 116J 

''^ 115 A. — Harpactes diardi, Boie. 

[Halaoea, Palo Seban, Karroo, Nealyt, Johore, SiDgap<«re.] 

''^ 115 B. — Harpactes kasumba, Raffl. 

[BCalaeoa, NmIjs, Singapore ; WoOnUg Fro9. SM'I 

* 115 bis. — Barpacles duvaueelif Tern. 

Malaeea, Karroo, Nealye, Johore.] 

* 115 iw. 2<.— Harpactes rutilus, rieill (S. P., VL, 65.) 

[ICalaoea.] 

* 117 A. — Merops sumatranus, Raffl. 

[Malacca, Palo Sebao, Karroo^ Chohoag, Siogapore; Fonang^ Cantor, Borrf. and 
Moaro, Mm. E. X. 0., 41&] 

^ 1 1 S.'-'Merops phiKppinus^ Lin. 

Lllalacoa, Pulo b'ebaii, Karroo, Noalji, Singapore ; WilMojf Froo. SM.] 

* 119. — Merope tvAnhoiij Bume. 

[Tonka, Peoanfr.] 

* 122 6m. — Nyctiomie amictus^ Tern. 

[Malewoon (ICalaj. Pen.), Malaoea, Karroo.] 



* 126. — EufyHamus orientaH$^ Xf'n^ 

* 127 bu.^Pehxrgcpm hurmamsOj Sharpe. 

* 127 ftu A. — Pelargopsis maUooensis^ Sharpe. 

£f9lo StihVh ^Wf^ Jobof9,\ 

* liS.'^PelargopsU amaurapierus, Pears. 

[Kopth.] 

** 129. — Halcyon smjfmeniis, Lin. 

[Polo Sebta, Nealjt, Sugaporei— Pmnh^, 0lm<or, Monf. mtd Moort, Mmt, E, I 

* ISO.— Baltytm piUata, Bodd. 

[XopAli, ValiMt, Balo Sabfo, XutfOOf tlagtpora ;— ITfKtffiqr Ftyv. 8M. ; 
Pmm^ 43ini0P^ JEEvi^. mid KpoM, JCh«. Ji. £ O^ 417.] 

* 131. — Halq^an earomanda, Zath. 

* 181 lnt.'~-'Ealeifon eoncreta^ Tern. 

[KalaMt.] 

*1S2.— £ra%o» dUom, Bo{2i. 

CMalaeM;— PffUM!^, Ocmlor, AifMii. (T. 41 B., 108.] 

'"^ 182 ter. — CareinetUea puleheUuBy Horsf. 

* Ifi3.—Ceyx tridaetylm^ Pall. 

[MdflO0l^ Palo Sebtn i^WiOkOesf. Prwt, BM; FmMn§, Ctmtor, Ronf'^' Mcor^, 

* 183 A. — Geyz rafidoMUSi SirieiL 

[Malaoea i-^Singtgpor^^ Skarpe^ Salvad. XT. di B,, 97.J 

* l9i.r^Akedo bengalemis, Om. 

[lfa)«pi», JPvOp S^teiv^ Nealjiy Choh^ng^, fimgiiptm f^Fsnat^, CoMt^fr, SaUtad. 
U. diB^ 88; WMmUg Frw. Biol,] 

* 135 his A. — Alcedo earyzonaj Tern, 

[Kidaooa, Blfik sMalvad, IT. di B., 06.] 

Whether euryzona and nigrieana are reaHj ideniicaly and 
if fkoi^ which of th^ two occurs in th^ Prain^alai is .^11 doubt- 
ful (vide S. P. VI, 82.) 

7 



50 A FIRST TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS 6T THE 

^185 ier.'^Aleedo memntinffj Boraf. 

[MalMea, Smgapofe;— Pmoiii^, Camior, StOvad. U. cK B., 94.] 

136. — CeryU rudia, Litu 

[QiMdoil, Cemtor, Hor§f. and Moore, Mut. B. I. C, 417 ] 

^137 bis. — CalypUmena viridisy Raffl. 

[MalAcca, Chohong, Johore, Singapore i-^WolUeUjf Frov. 8ioL ; Fmumg, OamifiTt 
FLortf* and Moore, Mut. B. I, 0., 417.] 

* 139 ier. — Eurylamua javanieuSj Horsf. 

[lialaoea, NmIji, Johore, SLagapon.] 

* 139 ter A. — Eurflamtu oehromekiSy Baffl. 

[Malaoea, Nealys, Johore, Singapore y^ToiUMg, Wdld, SaUfod. U. di B^ 108 ; 
WeUeeUp Frov, 8tol'] 

* 139 quint. — Cymbarhynehua macrorhynohua, Gm. 

[]£alaoo«, Palo Seban, Karroo, Nealyi, Ohohong, Singapore ;—Yr#)fMl0y Prov. 
Biol,^ 

* 189 aex. — Corydon aumatranua, Raffl. 

[Malaooa, Singapore i^WetteeUjf Fro9. BtolJ] 

140. — Dichoeeroa eavatua, Shaw. 

[Malaeea, Fonang, (kaUor, Soref. and Moore, Mue. B. I. 0., 684.1 

^ 140 A. — Baceroa rhinoceroides. Tern. 

[Malaooa, Jdhatei-^ingapore, Diard, SaUtad. XT. di B., 87.] 

* 141 hia. — Hjdrocissa convexa. Tern. 

[Malaoea i^Femmg, Oamtor ; Singapore, Wail, Sahad, U, di B., 81.] 

* MS'Kw.— Hydrooissa malayana. Raff. 

[Malaoea;— TTtfltM^y Froo, Oamtor, JSartfi and Moore, Mme. B. L C, 699.] 

* 148 bia A— Hydrooissa nigrirostris, Sly. 

[Malaeoa, Karroo.] 

I know that Elliot^ following^ Wallace, considers this and the 
preceding to be identical ; bnt while not dogmatizing I may 
say that our investiorations^ thus far, almost seem to point 
to a different conclusion. 

? 143 bia B. — Hydrocissa migratorius, Maingay. 

\Medaoea, Grag, B, M, H. LiH, 188.] 

I cannot find that this species has ever been described, nor 
have I the least idea what it is intended for. 



WS8TBBN HALF OF THE MALAY PBIJIIMSULA, 51 

145 ier. — Berenicornis e(>matu8,,Rqffl. 

[JfoteMo, OoMtor, Horrf. ami Moon, Mm. J. J. 0., 696.] 

*14>5 quai. — Anarrhinua galeritiu, Tern. 

"^145 qttat J. — Craniorrhinus corrugatus, Tern. 

[ICalaeea.] 

*146 bis. Shyticeras undtUatus, Shaw. 

[Malaoea;— PffMM, Canior, Sdhad, U. diB, B6; Horrf. and Moor*. Mm, 
M,t0^ 689.] 

'^146 quint. — Rhinoplax vigil^ For at. 

[BCdaeoa;— QMciaA, Obiitor, Horqf. amd Mooro, Mm. B.L C, 68S.] 

? 148. — Ptdaomis iorqucUusj Bodd. 

{Tmomg, Cantor, Horrf. and Mooro, Mm. JS. I. C.» 012.] 

This^ I feel snrei is another of Cantor's ea^ birds. I feel very 
confident that this species does not occor wild on the Peninsula. 

? 151 ter. — PdlaornU canicepsj Bly. 

[Ponang, Cantor.'] 

The same may be said of this species. The bird is a Nieobar 
species pur et nntple^ though continually brought over in cages 
to the Peninsula, by IJdalay, Burmese and Chinese Junks that 
trade between its ports and the Nicobars. 

? 152.— Pai£8omw fcueiatus, P. L. S. MiM. 

\Maiaeea, Bakud. XT. di B., S6.] 

This species may occur in a wild state in the northern part 
of the Peninsula, but I doubt it. 

*152 ter A — PalsBornis longioauda, Elodd. 

nUtnoo^l-^Ponanff, Mm. BrU. Sdload. U. di B., 88; Omtor, Bortf. and 
Mooro, Mm. B. I. C, 619.] 

'^153 A. — Loriculus galgulus, Lin. 

[ICalMM, Johore,— Singapore y^WtllUUjf Froo. Biol.'] 

*153 ter. — PdUinae ineertus, Shaw. 

[Mftlaeea. Pulo Seban, Karroo, Nealys, Chohong, 8mg»poro ;^~P§nang, Cantor, 
\ and Mooro, Mm. B. I. C, 009.] 



*163 6w. — Yungipkus eanicapUltiSy Bly. 

[JiAote, Singapore i^Malacca, Bl$, Salvad, U. di B,, 42.] 



6i A FIftBT TtHtATlVl U8t OF TfiH MBM 09 TBK 

^164 il.— Bemwardtipiciis Talidnt, Rein!». in Tim. 

fMakeoa, Pulo Beftu, Kimbo i— ir«U«ti«y JPlWk BML] 

''^IGS &i« A. — Bemkercua iordidtUy Ej/t. 

[Makcoa, Polo Seten, Kunoo, Nealyi, Johoro, Singapofe.] 

''^165 ier^ — Meiglyptes triatUt Sorrf. 

[Malacca, Fnlo Seban, Kealya, Chohcmff, Johon i-^Singttpor*, Bl§, 8almi» U, di 
B., 66; Fmtmg amd WOU^Ug^ Frov^ Btol] 

*16S juiuL^^Mmghfptea iukkij Le$8. 

[Malacca, Pnlo Scban, Kunoo, Kcaljs, Johon, Singapon.] 

? 166. — ChrgiocolapteB wUantWj Hodff9. 

[Fmumgt CtuUor; Borrf. and Moor^, Mu$, JV. I. C, 668.] 

Ib this not rather C. UriciiiBf Horsf. Malh. Pi€. pL LXVj f. 
1-5 ? I must Bay I altoji^ether doubt the true guUaneus occor- 
ring here. 

«168. — Muelleripieus pulveruUfUuBf Tern. 

[Malacca, Johore ;—P#iMnit^, Om<or; &ffqf. otA ^oofv, JlfM. IP. Z C, 661. 
SimgapoM, Bljf, CteC Km. A* 8, B., 64.] 

^169 ptaJt.'^fhnponax ja0enB%9y Horsf. 

[Malacca, Ptolo8eban,KiimK^ Johon ;—iral«Ml^, Pnci flloC; P^lMMf, B^ 

171 &w. — GtfctitiM vitiatusy FieiU. 

IMalaeca, Bwnd. Bdhad. XT. dH B., 06.J 

* 175 his. — CaUoldphus tnentalis. Tern. 

[Malacca, l^ilo Sehan, Vealys, Ghohong, Johon y-^Bkigtgptn^ DarUi g BaHmd. IT. 
di B^ 60; WaUtiUg Proo. Biol.] 

* 175 ter. — Callohphua punieeuB, H&rff. 

[Malacca, PaloScban, Kunoo, Kcalji, Johon ;«»PiMi^, B^. Cai. Mug* 

jLi B» B*, 69 .J 

* 175 gucU. — Callolophus malacceniu, Lalh. 

[Malacca, Kunoo, Kcidjs, Johon.] 

* 176 bis. — Blfthipieu8 porph/rcmehu^ Bote. 

[Makcca, Kunoo, JohOn i^WelUiUg Prav. Afol.] 

* 178 his. — Micropiemus bracAyvruf, VieilL 

[Penaog, Malacca, Pulo Sebaa, Singapon j—TTaJfot^, Prov. 8tol\ 



WUTKU BALT OV THB HAIAT PSRIMSULA.. 53 

1 84.— Tiga javoMennSj Ijufigk. 

Tmtaag, Cmiar, Barrf. mtd Hoan, 2iM$. JB, L C, 668.] 



* 186 bii.'^Oimrcpieoidei rajfUii^ Viff. 

JV«o.A<ol.] 

* 187 ftif . — Sasia abttormiB^ Tern. 

[ICdaoca.] 

* 190 bis.— Cahrhamphus iayi, J. E. Gr. 

IMftlaooi, Pido Seban, ITmIji, Johfln, Bingftpon.] 

* 196 &M A. — ^Megalsma henrioi, Boie. 

[lUkoM, JoluKie, StogapoM.] 

* 196 qaat. — Megalmma myitaeaphatnu^ Tern. 

* 196 qutd A.^^Ttegalwnh verricolcyr, Baffl. 

[Halaoea, Johora, eingapore r— Pmmm^i Oanior, Mmd. XT, di B., 38 ] 

* 196 quat B.-^^Megalssma obrysopogon, Tern. 
197.— JCoA^ioteflia hamaeepkalay P. L. 8. Mitt. 

[Pmmn^, ITiUitligf Pfov. aiMt JfolcwMi, fffoL ; QMdaik, Oflifor, Hon/. c««l 
JboTf, JTm. X. £ a,646.J 

'"'198 terA. — ^Megakdma duvaaoeli, Less. 

[MalaeoB, Singapore ;—iraUM% Troo, StoW] 

* 200. — Cueultu siriaiuSf Drap. 

[lialaoca.] 

*202 il.— Oucalas pravatus, iTor^. S. F. VI.^ 1&6. 

[Ifalacea, Kwroo^ Johore.] 

*203.— ^Cucti/iM microptiruij Gauid. 

LMalam.] 

*206 A. — Hieroooeoyx fagax^ Harsf. 

[Halaoea, Knnoo.] 

*206. — Hieroeoccyx nirioolWy Hodg$. 

[Xalaeea.] 



6i A FIftBT TtHtATIVl U8T Ot TfiH BtSM Ot TBI 

*164 il.— Bemwardtipicos Talidofl^ Rei9ti&. in Tern, 

fMakoet, Pulo 6ebta» Kuvdo]— ir«tliti4F JPlWk AM] 
[MAkcoR, Palo Sebaa, Knnoo, Nealje, Johoie, Singftpon.] 

^165 ter. — Meiglyptes tristis, JQartf. 

r Makoea, Fiilo Seban, Nadyi, Oholimif , Johon ;-4Vii^pen^ Big, BaUmd. XT, ii 
B.» M; Fmtcmg and WMuUjf^ Fro9^ 0fol.j 

*165 quint.^^MtighfpteB inkkij Less. 

[Malaeea, Palo Seten, Koroo, Kaolyii JohoiB^ Singapon.] 

? 166. — ChryiooolapieB iuUaneuBf Bodjf€. 

[PMang, Camior: Hor^. and Moom, Mn$. B» I. O., 668.] 



Is this not rather C. UricUiSj Horaf. Malh. Pic. pi. LXV^ f. 
1-5 ? I must say I altogether doubt the true suUaneui occur- 
ring here. 

*168. — MnelUripieus pulveruleniuif Tern. 

[Malaooa, Johore ;— PMMny, Gtni^or; Morqf. and Mbcr$t 4ftif. JV. £ C., eSl. 
BingapoM^ Big. CM. Mm$,A. & B., M.] 

[HalaMa,Ptalo8eba&,KamxH Johon ;— ITatfatliy, Pmi. AM; mMKf, Btg, 

171 ftitf. — Gecinui vUhUuSj FieiU. 

IMalaeoa, 8wnd. Bahad. U. dt B., 05.J 

* \lh bis.-^CcMoldphuB fMnltaUi^ Tem. 

[Malawa, ^olo Seban, If ealyt, GholuMig, Johoie ;«Aii!$NqMf^ l>0rl« ; Bahod, XT* 
diB.,60i WaifUg Pro9. BM.] 

* 175 ter. — CaUolophuapuniceus, H&rif. 

[Malaaea, PaloSabaoi Karroo, FoalTi, JchM i-^mmig, Big. Oat. Mm* 

JL» B. B*f 60.J 

* 175 gucU. — Callolqphus malaccenM, Lath. 

[Halaoca, Karroo, Nadya, Johoro.] 

* 176 bi$. — Blfthipicus porphyromehu^ Sate. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Joh6re I'^WelluUg Pro: Biol} 

* 178 hit. — Micropiemus brackyurut, VieiiL 

[Penasg, Malacca, Pulo Scbao, Bmg$pon i^WahOeg, Pyvc. Btoll 



WmmS HAIiT Of THB HAIAT PraiN8UL4. 



53 



IM.—Tigaiavanen8%89 lyungh. 

Pmumgt Omtor, Horrf. tmd Mwtf, 21m$. X, L C, 668.] 



* 185 bi$.^Gaiircpic(ndeB fagUn^ Vig. 



* 187 Uf.— Sasia abnormiB, Tern. 

[Mtlaccft.] 

* 190^9. — Cahrhamphua iayi, J. E. Gr. 

LlUlMM, Fob Sabaa, ITmJji, Joboit, 8iiigapoi«.l 

* 196 Ha A. — ^Mes^tema henrioi, B(Ae. 

[ICakeos, Joliora» Slngapoi*.] 

* 196 quojt. — Megaimma fnjfitacaphamuj Tern* 

* 196 quai ^.^Megatoma versicdor, iZo^. 

(ICalaocR, Johore, Kngapow r— P«i«Vi Cantor, /BalvoA XT. di Jt., 88 ] 

* 196 juat i?.--Megal83ma obrysopogotii Tern. 

IMMlMakv^WaMUf Jhrw, 0toi.] 

197. — XanUiolama hamaeepkalaj P. L. 8. MMU. 

[Pmmv, W4a$at9 Pro9. and MaUMO, Btoti Quddk, Otmiar, Sm^. and 
Mbor^Mn§.S.L 0..646.J 

* 198 tef A. — Megakdma duTanoeli, Less. 

[llaltMW, Singapoie;— IFtfZ^iil^ Troo, StoW] 

* 200. — Cueulua striatusj Srap. 

[MalMNML] 

♦202 il.— Cucalus pravatus, Harsf. S. F. VI., 156. 

[ICalaeea, Kuroq, Jobore.] 

*203.'^Cueulud mkrcpiirutj 6<nUd. 

[MalMca.] 

*S05 A, — Hierooocoyx fngax, Harsf. 

[Milaowi, Konoa] 

*206. — Hieroeoccyx nineolory HoigB. 

rMal«0M.i 



54 A FIB8T TSKTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE 

207. — Hierococeya sparveroidesj Vig. 

[Malaeea, Bl^. Cat, Miu. A, 8. B., 70.] 

208 A. — Cacomantis merulinus, Scop. 

iFimanffi Oant&r, Honf. and Moore, Mug, B, Z. C, 607 ; KaUoea tmi 8inga» 
pore^ Bljf. Cat. Mm. A. 8. B., 72.J 

*209. — Cacomantis threnodesy Cab. 

[Malaoea, NmIjs, Siogapore ;— Ptfnoii^, Canior, Horrf, and Moore, Mae, E, L 
C, 098.] 

*210.'^Sumicultu lugtibris, Horsf. 

[ICfllAooa.! 

*211 bis.^^Chrysococeyx aantharhynchusj Horsf, 
*211 ter. — ChryBococcyx malayanusy Raffl. 

[Pulo Sel>an ;— Ifatoow, BaJffL, Oanior, Balvad. XT. di B., 62 ; Simgttpore^ Big. 
Cat. Mae, A. 8. B., 78.] 

*213. — Coccystes earamandufj Lin. 

lMMiMoea;^8ingapore, BI9, 8akfad, 1T\ di B. 68 ; Vmaag, Canior, Hwtf. and 
Moore, Mae. S, I. C, 688.] 

*214 bis. — Eudynamis maiayanaj Cab. and Heine. 

[Malaoea \-^Veaang, Cantor, 8aU>ad, U,diB,,e8; WeUeeUg Brae, 8tol.^ 

? 215. — Rhopodytes tristisy Leas. 

IPenang, Big. Cat. Mae, A. 8, B,, 76.] 

May occar. Seems to me doubtful. 
*215 Ms. — Rhopodytes diardi, Less. 

[Malaooa, Pulo SelMm, Karroo, NealjB, Chohong i^WeUeeUg Broo, 8101,] 

*215 ter. — Rhopadytes sumatranusy Rqffl. 

[Malacca, Pulo Seban, Kunroo, Nealji, Chohong, Johoie i-^ingapore, Doria. 
Sdlaad, V, di B., 78.] 

*216 ter. — Rhamphococcyx erythrognathus, Hartl. 

[Malacca, Polo Seban, Kurroo, Nealys, 36bany^WeUeeleg JProo. Stol.'i 

*216 quai. — Rhinortha ehioraphaeay Raffi. 

[Malacca, Polo Seban, Karroo, irealye, Chohong^, Johow;— P«iaii|y, Cantor 
Sahad. U. de B., e» ; Welleeleg, Frov,, Stol,^ ' 

*216 quini. — Zanclostamus javanicusy Ilorsf. 

[Malacca, Pulo Seban.] 



WI8TIEN HALV OF THS If ALikY PBNIKSULA. 55 

^217 A. — Gentrocoooyx rectuDguis, Strickl. 

*217 quint i<.— Centrococcyx earycercmi. Hay. S. F., VI., 
170. 

[Halaeott Polo Sebaii, Knnoo.] 

*2]8. — Cemtroeoccyx bengaUnsis, Om. 

[Iffaliwi, Kaxtoo, Johorei Singaporo ;— PMoiy, Oa«ior, Salvad, U. di B., 77.] 

f 219. — Taeeoeua Uiehenaultij Less, 

[Mal4uea, Gra^, B. M. H.'JM, 907.] 

I utterly disbelieve the occurrence of this species in the 
Malay Peninsula. 

^24. — Araehnothera IcngiroHra, Lath. 

[Malarra, VeaXyty fiingapoM.] 

*i3A A. — Araehnothera crassirostris, Reieh* 

£KlllTOO*] 

^224 ^.—Araehnothera flavigastra, Eyt. 

[Ifilaeet, Pulo Sebuii Konoo, Chohoiifri Johore.] 

-i^^ C. — ^Araehnothera robusta, MiM. and SehL 

[Kakooa.] 

''^224 D. — Araehnothera simillima, Bume. S. R, Y., 487; 
VII. 170. 

[MalMM.] 

^24 &i9. — Araehnothera tnodesta, Eyt. 

[MdaeM, Kuroo^ Kaalys, diohoDg, Joliore;->P«Maii^ iNui WM49Ug Bron, 
tt0l.] 

^24 fer. — Araehnothera chryaogenys, Tern. 

[lUkoea, Polo Seban, Kuroo^ Siogapore.] 

*225 ter A. — ^^thopyga siparaja^ Raffi. 

[Panang; WaUealfly Provinot, Singapore;— IfatoMOy Cah, Sdhad, U, di B., 174.] 

*231 ter. — Chaleoatetia ineignis^ Jard. 

LCopah, ICalaoca, Singapore ;—PMaii^, Qauld. Salvad, U. di B., 178.] 

*233 bis. — Cinnyris brazUiana, Gnu 

[Halaeoa;— Pmmhv, Uoon, Bat/pad, XT. di B., 177 ; Wmmh9 Prov. SUd.] 



56 A FIBST TBHTATIVB LIST OT THB BIRDS OF THE 

^33 ter. — Anihreptes in(daeeen$i$^ Scop. 

[Tonkah, Gopah, Peiuuig, Malaeoa, Pub Seban, Kunoo, JXetHjB^ QMoog, 

^33 ier A. — Anthreptes rhodolaama, Siell. 

[ICalMoa, Singapore.] 

233 quat. — Anthreptes eimpleXy S. MUtt. 

[au^apore, MaUoea; Bl^., Bakfod. JT. di. B^ 178.] 

^833 quini. — Anthrepie% hj/pogrammkay MulU 

LHalaooa, Knnoo^ Singapote ;— Pcmm^, Moor; BaUad, U. di A, 17S.] 

*2S3 sea. — Cialeoparia stngtdensis^ Om. 

[Malacca, Polo Setwn, Jdhore.] 

^34 bis. — Ctniiym pectoraliSf Horrf. 

[Penang, Singapon.] 

234 ier.—Cinntfris flammaxUlarisp Big. 

iWitteOi^ Pra9. BM ; Pmtmg, CmUor, Eorqf' f«^ Jf aor«, Jf«. A I. C^f».] 



^36. — Didaum erueniahm, Tern. 

[Obpahf Xalasoa, Khroo, Siagapofe;— ITWlMliy Pfov. Stol; fmrnig, Otmhr, 
Har^. and Mo9i% JTm. S. L C, 748.] 

^86 bis. — Dicmwn triffonostigtna, Seop. 

[Peoang, Malaooa, Naalyi, Johore^ Singapore v^WOMUjf Prop, am.] 

*ii7. ^Dieaum ehrysorrhmum^ Tern. 

[Malaooa, Palo Seban ;— ITeUfeUy ^ro9. aioU\ 

*237 Uf. — Dieaum olvoaceumj WaU. 

[Xonoo.] 

*240 qaoL—PfionoehUus percussus^ Tern. 

[lialaoca, Kunoo^ Jolioce.] 

*240 quint. — Prianochilus maeulatus, Tern. 

[Malaooa, Kealya;— PmmnVi Owilor, Balvad, V. di P., 164.] 

*iiO ses.—PmnoekUus mpdestus, Hume. 

[Copah.] 

*240 sept,—?tiowdniu» tboracicusi Tern. 

(ICalaoea, Johofe.] 

^iiS.—DendrophHafrantaliSt Bare/. 

fUaUcoa.] 



WBST£RN HALF OF THK MALAY PENINSULA. 57 

*257A, — Lanins bentet^ Horrf. 

[Singapote.] 

*260 quat. — Lamu8 magniroBtriSj Le$s, 

[ICftkeea, Pnio Seban, Kurroo, Nealyi, Chohong, Johore, Sin^pore ;^WelU$Uf 
Prc9^ BtoL ;— PMMiy, Camtor, Honf. amd Moor§, Mut. JB. J. C, 419.] 

*261. — Lanius eriatatuSf Lin. 

[Malacca;— P«iMm^, Cantor, Hortf. and Moor; Mm. X, J. C, 419.] 

? *261i!l. — Lanius supereiliosus, Lath. 

[Malaeea, Pulo Seban, Chohong, Singapore; — Tonang, Cantor^ Morrf, and Mooro^ 
Mm$. JB.LC., 894.] 

I believe this to be only the adult of L. crutatua ; iv. S. F., 
VIL, 270.) 

*261 bis. — Lanius lucianensisy Lin. 

[Pulo Seban, Kuxroo, Nealys, Singapore ;— TTtf/IavI^ Frot, BtoL] 

*263A. — ^Tephrodornis gularis, Saffi. 

[Malaeea, Johore ^-^Bingapore, Big,, Saload, U. di B., 167 i-^Pmumg and WMsi- 
Ug Troo.y Btoh'\ 

*266. — MuscUrea ffrisola, Bly. 

[Singapore i-^Fmangt Big. Balvad, U. di B.y 168.] 

*267 bi$. — Hemipns obscnrus, Horsf. 

[Malaeea, Knxroo, Nealya, Jobore.] 

*267 6m a, — ^Xanthopjgia tricolor, Bartl. 

[Malaoea;»PmaiV, Cantor, Hortf, and Moore, Balvad, XT. di B,, 428.] 

*268 ter. — ^Volvocivora cnlminata^ Bay, 

[Malaeea, Jobore, Singapore ; — Malaeea, Btol.^ 

*269 ter. — Lalage teraty Bodd. 

[Malaeea, Neaija, Singapore i-'Penang, Barhe, Saload, U. di P., 146.] 

270 quat A. — Graucalns sumatrensis^ S. Mull. 

[Malaeea^ Wald, Balvad. U, di B., 160]. 

*273 bis. — Pericrocoius i^neua^ Bly, 

[Malaeea, Jobore.] 

273 qu€U, — PericroeotuB flammifer^ Hume. 

[WeUeeleg Trov., Btol'i 



58 JL riRST TENTATIVE LIST OF THK BiRDB OF *BB 

*273 guaL J. — Pericrocotus ardens, :Boie. 

[Johore; — MaUeeetf Wold.'] 

*273 quat. B. — Pericrocotus ? 

[Malacca.] 

Appareuily a quite distinct spetstes. 
*£77 ter A, — Pericrocotus cinereus^ Lafr, 

[Malacca, Pulo Se^an, Kari^, Singapore.] 

This is quite distinct from tfae Tenasserim form P, mmodes" 
tuSf fiohis. 

*279. — Diemrtis annectanSy Hodgs. 

[Malacca, Palo Seban, Karroo, Kcalys, Johoro, Singapore.] 

280 ter, — Buchanga I^ucopAcsa^ VieilL 
*£80 quat — Buchanga leucogenysy Wald. 

[Malacca.] 

*282 bis. — Chaptia malayensisy Hay. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Nealji, Johore.] 

*285 A. — Dissemurus platurus, Vieill. 

[Malacca, Nealys, Chobon|f, Johore, Singapore i-^JPenang and TTsUmTey Prov^ 
Stol.] 

*2S9, —Museipeta afinis^ Hay. 

[Malacca, Palo Seban, Nealya ;— P^wwiiy, Wald, Saload. U. di B., 137.1 

*289 A. — ^Muscipeta incii, Gould. 

[Malacca, Singapore] 

*289 B. — Muscipeta prineepR, Tern. 

[Malacca, Karroo.] 

*289 bis. — PhiUhtoma pyrrhopterwn^ fern. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Chohong, Singapore.] 

*289 ten — Philsntama velaium^ Tern. 

[Malacca, Chohong, Johore ;—8Ni^c^M, GimU; Smiwmd. U. di B., 1S9;*- 
WaU^leg Fro9., Biol] 

m 

''^290. — Hypothymis azurea^ Bodd. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Johore; — W^Utmley Prov.^ BM."] 



WE9TXIM 9AI^ OF THS XALAT PUJONaXILA. 59 

*291 A. — Leucocerca perlata, Will. 
*293 4m. — Jjeueocerca javanieaj Sparrm, 

[Peiumg» K^lMW, Nealyi^ Siagftfo^aJ 

*295. — Ctdieicapa eeylonemis, Sws. 

[KuROO, Jobora ;-~Malaeea, Cantor, Bmbtad, JT, di B., MS.] 

^^97. — Alseonax latirosirisj Raffl. 

[TonkA, Makeea, Polo Seban, Nealyti Sinf^pon;— P«iMNif, Cantor, Salvad. 
U. di B^ 180.] 

"^299. — AUeanaa ferrufftneu^^ BodgA. 

[Kurroo.] 

*301 J.-*--StQpoiFal9thaIft49oide9, Cob. ' 

fJohon.] 

*303 ^.— Cyornia cyanopolia, Boie. S. F., V.,489n; VII, 516. 

[ICalaoea.] 

*304 -4.— Cyornis efegans. Tern. S. F., VI., 228. 

LHaImca.] 

*807 ter irf.— Cyornis albo-olivacea, Hume. S. P., V., 488. 



824 A. — Erythrosterna erythaca, Bly. 

iMalaeca, Blyth, J, A. 5. B., XVT, 126 ; BahiaA, V, di B., 1S7.] 

*386 A. — Brachypteryx maUoo^naia, tfartl, 

[MalaoM, Johore.] 

*&4A fuoL — PHta earuhay Raffl. 

[ICalaoM.] 

*845 fcii. — Pitta molueeenris, P, L. 8. MolL 

[TuDpin, Mdacca ; — Pmmm^, CaiUar, B[orsf, and Moore, Mu§, B. I. C, 419.] 

"^345 quat — Pitia coceiniaj Eyt. 

fMAlaMA, Johore, Sin^pore ; — WMetUjf Proo,, 8M.] 

*84ie.—PUia euetUata, Bartl. 
*346 1x8 i4.— Pitta boschii, Mull 

[UaUoca.] 



60 A FIRST TENTATIYE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE 

?355 ter, — Geocichla innotata, Bly. 

{Jfalaeea, Cantor; Sonf. a$id Moore^ Mum, JB, I. C, 400.] 

I do not believe at present in this species, vide S, F.^ YL, 250. 
*356 i4.— Geocichla avensis, J. E. Gr. S. P., VIII, 89. 

[Bambow.] 

*369 bh. — Tardus obicurusj Gm. 

[Malaoea, Singapore ; — WellUUjf Frov,, Stoh} 

*iS7 .—Trioliastoma abbotii, Bly. 

[MalAOoa, Kealji.] 

387 A. — Trichastoma rostratnm^ Bl]/. 

\Ualaooa, Cantor; Mortf. and Moore, Mug, JB, I. C, 406.] 

387 B, — Trichastoma olivaceam, Strict. A. & M. of N. H., 

1847, 132. 

IMalaeea, Bly. Cat. Mum. A. B, B., 147.] 

*390 A. — Alcippe cinerea, BZy. 

[Neftljs ; — Ponangand MalacoOy Cantor, Sortf. and Moore, Mum, B. L 0,^ 406.] 

*390 ter A. — ^Turdinus macrodactylas, Strickle 

[MaliUMsa, Johore i^WelleeUy Prov., Stol.'] 

*395 A. — Macronns ptilosus^ Jard. and Selb. 

[Malaoos, Polo Soban, Johore ;'-^ingapore, Monf, and Moore^ SaXvad, V. di 
B., 216.] 

*395 bis. — Mixomis gularis, Raffl. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Cliohong, Johore, Singapore.] 

*396 A. — Timalia nigricollis. Tern. 

[Penan?, Malacca, Karroo ;—5tfli^apor«, Bl$. SaXvad. XT. di B., Vl^i-^WeUeeUp 
Prov, 8toL\ 

*896 B. — Timalia maoaIata> Tern. 

[Malacca, Johore.] 

*396 C. — ^Timalia poliocephala^ Tern. 

[Malacca, Johore.] 

*396 bis. — Cyanoderma erythropterum, Bly. 

[Malacca, Polo Seban, Karroo, Johore.] 

396 bis J.— Cyanoderma bicolor, Bly. S. F., III., 822». 
VI, 269. 

IMalaeea, Graf, B. M. H.'Id9t, 816.] 



WSBTIRK HALF OF THE MALAT PENINSULA. 61 

*396 bis B. — Eenopia striataj Blf. 
*396 bu C, — Trichixos pyrrhopygus, Le$9. 
*a6 ter.'-'Malacopterum magnum^ Ej/t. 

[Makem;— PMajt^f, Bly. Salvad. TT» di B,, 826.] 

*896 /«r. id.-^Malacopteram cineream, Ei/t S. F., YI, 271^ 

272. 

[Malaccni Fob Seban, Karroo, NmIti, Johoie.] 

*396 ier B. — Malacopteram magnirostris^ Moore. 

[Mftlacwi, Karroo, Johore.] 

*S96 ter C — Malacopternm affinis. Big. 

[Palo Sebfto, Karroo, Johore i—MdlaeM, Big. Salvad, XT, di B,, 831.] 

896 ter D. — Setaria albognlaris^ Bit/. 

[Mdlaeea, Big. X A. 8. B., XIJJ., 886, JTPX., 468 i^Salvad, U. di B., 888.] 

896 ter E. — Alcippe cantoris Moore. 

[Pmoty, Cantor, Hortf, and Moore, Mm. B. I. C, 406]. 

^396 quat. — Malaeopterum/erruginoeum, Bly. 

[Malaooa.] 

*396 sept. — Drymocataphue nigrieapUatUB^ Eyt. 

[Malaeca.] 

-^^399 eex. — Peliomeum euboeiraceunij Stoink. 

[TbnluL] 

''^402 A* — Pomalorhinus borneensis. Cab. 

[KftlMoa.] 

*447 ter. — Hypeipetee malaccenssy Bly. 

[Malaooa, Johore, Nealyt.] 

"^^449 bis. — Traehycomus ochrocephalusj Gm. 

[Kopah, ICekoea, Polo Seban, Karroo i^Fenang, Orag, Saload. XT. di B,, 197.] 

4>450 il.— Criniger tbeoides, Hume. S. F.^ IV., 214. 

[Johore.] 

^451 ter. — Criniger giUturaUsj MulL 

f Iffalteoa, Karroo, Neelxi.] 



6S A FIRST TSlCTATiVft LIST OF THfl BIRDS OF XflK 

♦461 quat. — Criniffer p/ueoeephfidua^ B<wtl. 

[Mftlaeoa. Johore i^Sinffaport, DtStorr, ; ^mang, BarU ; SahmL V. U B^ 

♦451 quint, — Criniger triith^ Bfy. 

[Polo Stibaxk, Malaeoa, Johore.] 

?451 quint. A. — Euptilosus enptilosus, Jard. and Selb. — (lU^ 
Om. New Ser.jpi. 8,— Gray, 3. M. H.—Litty Vtl.) 

This may be a good species, or it oaay be a sjnoajm oi 
some other. I can make nothiDg of it 

*451 $ex, — TricholeHes criniger, Bay, 

[Kalowoon, (M«kj Ptom.), Makoea.] 

♦452 ter. — Ixue finlayeoni^ StriekL 

[Tonka, Malacca, Karroo, Naalya, Chohimg.7 

♦452 sex. — Otocompea analia, Horsf. 

[Malacca, Palo Seban, Nealjs, Chohong, Johoi^o, 9i&g»P<lBe ;<*-P«Mti^« (kmioTf 
aaUtad. U, di B., 197.] 

♦452 sept. — Txiu plumoeus, Bly. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Chohong, Johora.] 

% 

♦452 act, — IxuB brunneue^ Bly, 

[Malacca, Palo Seban, Nealyt, Johore, Singapore.] 

♦452 oct. A, — Ixuefinsehiiy Salv, 

[Blalaooa, Palo Seban, Kurroo, Chohong, Johore.] 

♦452 tiov, — Ixiu pusillusy Salvad, 

[Karroo, Johore.] 

452 nov. A, — Microtarsus oliTac^ns, Moore. 

[Jfo/acoa; Bonf. amd Moor; Ifat. B. I. C, 840.J 

This is not improbably identical with 1. pueillus, Salvad^ 
in which case Moore's name would stand. 

♦452 dee. ^.— Izus olivaceus, Bly. S. F., YL, 314. 

[Malacca, Johore.] 

♦462 dee. B.—lole terricolor, Hume. S. P., VII., 141, 451. 

TMahMcal 

452 dee. C.-^Iole cinerea, Hay. (Bly.) J. A. S. B., XIV. 

573.) 

[Malacca ; Hay, Sl$, Cat. Mu9, A. 8, £., 330.] 



WSSTBKir HALF OF TBI JfALAT PSKINStTLA. 63 

This may possibly prove to be tiie iMnse as I. ierrieoloTj 
Haoie, in wUeh case Hay's nane would (Stand. 

^453 J. — Microtarsus melanoleucus^ Eyt 

rMtlaeea ;— Pmmm^ amd W^llul^ Frov,, Biol] 

^457 bis. — BrachypodiuB melanoeepialiu, Gm. 

[Kopah, Peiumg, llAlAoea, Pulo Bebu, Bealf B;-*1F«U«ifay Pf09 , Siol.l 

^457 quint. — laidia cyamventrisj Bly. 

[MalaoM, Johore, Smgapoire \—Fmumg and WtXUtiUg Fran., Stol.] 

*457 quint, il.— Ixidia webberi, Bume. S. F., VIII, «. 

[TonluL] 

*460. — Otoeampsa emeria, Lin. 

[Penang]. 

*468 ter. — Piyllornia javensis, Hcrsf. 

[Ttfalaon, Polo Seban, Nealya, Jt>hora, Smgiipore ;— irtfUtftlty Prov., Binl^ 

"^463 ter A. — Phyllomis icterocephala. Lens. 

[Malftoea, Palo Bebani Karroo, Nealji, Johoro, Smgapoiej^PMum!^ -fliid fF*!- 
ImUjI Frw,^ Bioh'l 

"^463 quQi, — Phyllomis cyanopogonj Tern. 

[Malacca, Pulo Seban, Ghohong, Johoze i—Benang, Canior, Bahad, IT. ^ 1^^ 194 ; 
Hoftf. and JiooM, Jr«f . X, I. a, 411 ; ^WelUiUg Proo,, 8tol'\ 

*468. — lora tiphia^ Lin. 

[Penang, Malacca, Palo Seban, Nealya, Singapore.*) 

*468 ter, — lora viridissima, Tern. 

[Malacca, Nealji, Joh'>re ;— Pmmm^ and WelMUg Fro9», Btol.'] 

*468 quat. — lora lafresnayij BartL 

[M»lmea^W0lle8Ug Fro9,, Btol^ 

It still remains to me an open question whether /. innotata^ 
Blyth^ is really identical wiUi this species. See farther S. F., 
V- 428. 

*469 A. — Ireca cyanea, 3egbie. 

[Malacca, Jobore, Singapore i^W^lletUy Froo. , Btol.] 

*471. — Oriolus indictM, Jerd. 

[l^laoea, Karroo ;—PMaii^, Cantor, Korrf. and Mooro, Mm.M, I. 0.,4a.] 



64 A FIBST TBNTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE 

*478 bU. — Oriolus xantionotuiy Borsf. 

[Malaoea, Palo Seban, Karroo, Nealji, Johor«, Singfaporo ;— TFtfUdtliy Pf09.» 
atol.i^FmtcMff, Cantor, Horif. and Moore, Km. B. I. 0., 422.] 

*475 his. — Cqpst/ehus musicus, Rqffl. 

[Kopah, Malacca, Penang, Karroo, Kealje, Johore, Singapore j—TTtflZMl^ Prov., 
atol}] 

*476. — Cercotricha$ maeruray Gm. 

[Malacca, Johore, Singapore i^Welletley Prov., 8tol. i^Penang, Cantor, Hon f 
and Mooro, Mm. B I. C, 422.] 

500. — Buticilla auroreOy Pall. 

[Malaeea. Bly. Cat. Mu$.A. 8, B., 168.] 

*507 6m. — Larvivora cyane, Pall. 

[Malacca.] 

''*'515 bU. — Jcrocephalua orientalisj Tern, and SchL 

[Singapore]. 

ilS.-^Aurundinaa adon, Pall, 

[Malacca, Or, B. M. H. lAct, 208]. 

* 530 6w. — Orthotomua atrigularis, Tern, 

[Malacca, Karroo, Nealjs, Johore, Singapore.] 

* 630 bisd. — Orthotomus maculicollis, Moore. P. Z. S., 
1854, 309. Sharpe, " Ibis," 1877, 116. S. F. VII, 452. 

[Singapore.] 

» 

* 530 ter. — Orthotomus ruficeps, Less. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Singapore.] 

* 530 ter A. — Orthotomus cineraceoSi Blj^. 

[Singapore i^Malaeca, Bl$. J. A. S. B., XIT, 689 j^^alvad U.di B., 948.] 

* 532. — Prinia flaviverUris, Deless. 

[Singapore.] 

*539. — Cistieola eursitans, Frankl. 

[Singapore and Welleiley Prov.] 

* 556. — Phylloscapus magrdrostrisy Bly. 

[Karroo.] 

* 556 bis. — Phylloscapus borecUis, Bias. 

[Kopah, Penang.] 



WtSTKBR HALF OF THB XALAT PKN[NaCLA. 65 

* 563 }»».~Rtg*loidet caronatvi, Tern, and Schl. 



*564. — Btg^doidet troeliiiotdet, Sund. 

? 584 ter. — Hndcunu UtchenauUi, Vieill. 
\WaiaUf Prm, SM., J. A. S. B^ XZXIX., SCM.] 
X do not believe that thii get« dowa so far south, 

*584 quat. — ffenieurua frontalis, Bly. 



*688 bit. — Bemeurut rufieapillui, Tern. 

[UakocMi— ^•IldlqF Froa., Ato).] 

692. — Calobaiet melanope, Pall. 

rpMOVt Oamtor, Sor^. tad Koon, Mut. B. I. C, S60.] 

5^^.^BudyU» cinereoeapilla, Savi. 

[MtloMo. Bit., aatmad. V. di B., SOI.] 

593 6m. — Badyte* melanoeephala, Lieht. 

[Mataeea Oantor ; Sahad. V. dl a. SW ,-— Hon/ and Utort, Mat, I.I.C., 861.] 

*593 ter.—Bitdytet fiaxa, Lin. 

*59S.—LtmaMidr<»nuB indietu, Om. , 

[Faouf, lUUeet, Palo S^md.] 

*596 fi)<.— Eupetes macrocercat, Tem, 

CM>lUM -.—WaUtlf Prot., 8M.\ 

*800 4m. — Cort/dalla malat/ennt, Eyt, 
[Kop«h, Uahoei, H««]y», Siogipore.] 

•631 d. — Zotteropt lateraUt, Tem. 

[Puaog, Mkltooa.] 

*650. — Mafanochlora lultatua, Hodgt. 

[Udaoa, Eurcoo, SmIjm, Johora -.—WtUttUt Proo., SfaJ.] 

660.— forriM maerorhynehiu, Wagl. 

«662.— Corros enca, Hortf. 
[UiUcc*, Jobarv.l 




66 A FIBST TBNTATIV« LIST OF THS BIBD8 OF THE 

^668 ter. — Platjfbplue arderiacue, Cab. 

[Malacca, Nealyi, Johore ;— Pmoiv and WelleiUjf Prov., 8tol \ 

? 678 quat. — Crtfpsirhina varians, Lath. 

[f Malaeea, Sahmd, TT. di B., 880.] 

I doubt this getting dowu so far south. 
*678 quint. — Platysmurua leucapiemsy Tern. 

[Malacca, Polo Sabon, Kttzfoo, Jdiore.] 

?686. — Aeridoiherea fuBcus, Wagl. 

[PMtmg and HalaecOt Cantor, Horrf. and Moore, Miu, S. J. 0., 53a] 

I must believe that this was another of Cantor's caore birds. 
It often comes over in cages in vessels trading to the Madras 
coast. 

689 sex. — Stumia stumina, Pall. 

iUalaooa, JSyton, Cantor, Salvad, XT, di B., 271.] 

*690 his. — Calomis ehalybceua, Horaf. 

[Eopali, Malacca, Polo Seban, Singapore ;-^PMMfi^ and W»lU$Ujf Prav. 
8iol\ 

*693. — Eulabes javanensisy Osh. 

[Malacca, Karroo, Nealya, Johore, SingBpoTet^Well0$lo$ Pivo., Stol.l 

*694 bis. — Ploeeus baga^ Bit/. 

[WoUesley Rfov., Malacca.] 
r 

*697 A. — Amadina maja, Lin. — S. F. I, 460. 

[Welleslcy Ptot., Singapore i-^Malaeea, Bly. ; Ponang, Cantor ; Salvad. U, di 
B.,a64.] 

^698 A. — Amadina atrieapilla, VieilL 

[Welleeley Prov. i-^Ualaeea, 8tol ; Singapore, Doria ; 8<ihad, 17. di B., 866 ,• 
Penang, Cantor^ Rorrf. and Moore, Mue, B. J. 0., 608.] 

Differs from ruhronigrOy in wanting the blaci ventral patch. 
*699 A. — Amadina nisoria, Tern. 

Pulo Seban, Kurroo^ Nealys, Singapore i-^enang, CmnUr, Rorrf, and Moara^ 
Mut. X. I. 0., 606.] 

*701 his. — Amadina leucogastra^ Bly. 

[Malacca, Big* Salvad. U, <fi B., 267.] 

*702. — Amadina acutieauda^ Bodgs. 

[Kurroo, Johoro, Singapore ;—TF«/2«»% Prcw., Biol,; Malacca and Penang^ 
Cantor, Rorrf, and Moore, Mue, B, L C, 611.] 



WB8TEBK HALF Or THX KALAT PXNIK8ULA« 67 

^03 bU* — ^Amadina oryzivora, Lin. 

[Slngapon ;^P Jfa/oMO, (kmtor^ Salvad, TT,diS., 968.] 

As already noticed (S. P., VI, 403) I believe this occurs, 
wild, Dowhere in the Peniosnia except on the island of 
Singapore, and there it has, I think, been introdaced. 

70S ter. — Erytkrura prarina, Sparrm. 

[f Uataaea^ Sahad. XT. M B„ 809.] 

*710. — Passer montanuSf Lin. 

[Singapore, Tonka (Junk Seylon.)] 

^23. — Euspiza aureola, Pall. 
*771. — Treron nipalensis, Bodies. 

[Malaeoa, Johoie, Singapore.] 

♦771 A. — Treron capellei. Tern. 

[Malacca, Johore.] 

*774 A. — Osmotreron olax, Tern. 

[Malafloa, Pulo Seban, Nealyif Chohong, Lahore, SkagKff^nf^JPmtangand W^lUi* 
hgf Pro9., SioL] 

*774 bis, — Osmotreron vernans, Lin* 

SioT 



[ICalaeea, Bingapoce ;— Pmmm^, WaU, Sahad. XT. di B., fl86;-*7rtf{M^ Trov,, 



776 bis* — Osmotreron fuMcollisj Wagl. 

[Kedaeoa, Tmn. Salvad, V. di B., 888.] 

778 -4.— Sphenocercus oxyums, Reinw, in Tern. — (P. O.y2i0.) 

IMalaeca, Bp, ; TFalt, *« XMt/' 1865, 878.] 

778 A— Sphenocercus korthalai, jB)?.— (Oonap. II, 9.) 

IMaiaeea, Jjp., Wall, *'Ibis,*' 1866, 874.] 

*779 A. — Ptilonopus jambn, Om. 

[Malacca, Polo Seban, Singapore ;— 7r«2{M/iy Frov^ 8tol\ 

ISO.-^Carpophaga aneaj Lin. 

[Malacca, Wall Salvad. If, di B., 890.] 

♦781 ter A. — Carpopiaga badiaj Raffl. 

[Malacca.] 

781 quint.^'Carpophaga bicolor, Seop. 

{Malacca. Bt$., SaUmd, XT, di B.^ m% i^WcUal^ FfW., Caathr, P. Z. S., 
1860, 466.] 



68 k FIRST TINTATITB LIST OF THI BIRDS OF THB 

?781 qmni. A. — Carpophaga ^rigea, Bp. — (Consp. 11, 36.) 

IMaUuia, WaU. «* Aif," 1866, 886.1 

791 ter, — Macrapygia asrimilis, Hume. 
*795 6(8. -^Turtur tigrinus, Tern. 

[MalaeoA, Smgtpora i-^^Fmumg amd WtHMUg Pro9,, Afol.] 

797 bU.'^Turtur humilu, Tern. 

[Kdlacca, WaU. »*Ibi$r 1866, 899.] 

*797 ter. — Geapelia striata, Lin. 

[TookM, Peiuuig, Singapore ;^J£aiaeM, B<jr., SaUad. U. di B., 899 \-^WMUUjf 
Froo,, StQU] 

^IdS.-^Chalcopiaps indiea, Htl 

[Kimoo i^Kalacoa, Bis- Sahad. XT, di B^ 800.] 

?798 bis.^Calanas nieobarica^ Lin. 

[UaOasem Fm^ Bl^. Cat. Ifmi, A. 8, B., 388.] 

I very much doubt the oooarrenca of this species on the 
Peniosala. Juoks trade between the Straits and the Nioobars, 
and specimens are oontinaallj broaj^ht over in cages to the 
Peninsala ; aad these die ^nd the birds are skinn^ there ; 
bat the species does not, I beiieve^ occur wild on the Peninsula. 

803 bis.-^Pavo mutieuSg Lin. 

IFmumg, BI9. Oai, Mm. A, 8: B^ 840.] 

^803 ter.^Argus giganteuB^ Tern. 

riCalMea.1 

*803 guin^.— Polyplectron bioalcaratnoiy Lin. 

[ICaUom;— Tf'fftMtdy Frov., BtoLi-^ Fitumg, Big, Cat. Mat, A. 5. A, 848.] 

'^811 A. — Alectrophasis erythropthalmus, Raffi. 

[MalaocA.] 

*81l quint. — Euplooamus vieilloti, 0. R. Gr. 

[lCakcea;^jrr. Fmumg, Bi^. Oai. Mm. A. 8. B., 843.] 

*812. — Oallue ferrugineiUy Gm. 
813 A. — Gallus variusi Shaw* 

[/•Jbrt, Wampoa :^Mdla^an Fm,, Bl$* Cat, Mm, A, 8, £., 889.] 



ITESTBRN HALF OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. 69 

Mr. Wampoa showed Davison a magnificent live specimen of 
this species, ^ven him by the Maharajah of Johore, who assured 
him that it had been captnred in his own territories. 

825 quat. — Arboricola charltoni, Eift. 

[Pmoi^, Bljf.9 Cat Mfu. A, 8, B*, 863.3 

*8S1. — Blxealfaeioria chinensisj Lin. 

[MakMft, Nedyi;— PmoN^, JTitf. Brit. 8al9€uL U. dt B., 81L] 

*831 ter. — Rolbdus roulraul, Seop. 

[MalMOi, Johora i-^WaiuUjf Pro9., 8tei .] 

*831 ier i4.— >MeIanoperdix niger, Vig. 

[ICalaooa.] 

831 quat — Calhperdix oculeui^ Tern. 

[Kalaeea, Big., Ballad. TT.MB., 810.] 

''^831 quat. A. — Bhizothera longiroatris, Tern. 

[Johon;— JfofaMO, MaUtgagt Bl$., SaUad. U. di B., 311 i-^Oai. A. S.B,, 



*883. — Turnia plumbipetj Tern. 

[MalMoa, Karroo, Singapore ; — WtlUtUy Proo., 8tol ] 

The Marquis of Tweedale held that the Javan pttgnax was 
distinct. 

I have had no opportunity of comparing this, vide S. F.. VI., 
451. 

"^842. — Glareola orientalis, Leaeh. 

[Smgftpore.] , 

846.— •CAaraA*ui«yi«Zvtf«, Om. 

\MdUieca, Big., Salvad. XT. di B., 814;— J^r<M« P. Z. 8., 1880, 107.] 

'^847. — ^ialitii mongola^ Poll. 

[Siagspore.] 

*849. — JSgialitis duhia^ Seop. 

[TonkA, Singapore.] 



"^55 bi$, — Lobivanellus atronuehaliBf Bfy. 

[Malaeea, Nealjt. J 

*870. — Gallinago sthenuray Kuhl. 

EWeOedey Pro?., Malaoea ;— ^m^jMrtfi P$aUf SalvMd. U, di B., 886.] 



70 A FIRfiT TBMTATIVB LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THB 

*871. — GalliMogo galUnaria, Gm. 

[ICalaoea.} 

*876. — Terekia cinereaj GiUd. 

[Eopah.] 

*882. — Tringa vubarqualaj Quid. 

[Sinj^pore.] 

884 bia. — Tringa rujicollis^ Pall. 

[MaUuma, JB^Um, P. Z. 8., 1889.] 

*89l. — Rhgacophila glareola, Lin. 

[Halaooft, Pulo Sebaiii Nealys.] 

*898. — Tringoides hypoleueua, Lin. 

[Kopth, Malacca, Chohong, Singapoiv.] 

*897. — Totanu8 catidris, Gin. 

[Singapore.] 

902i4.— Porphyrio calvas, risUL S. F., VII., 13, 16. 

[MaU^an Fen., Big. Cat. Mm. A. 8. 3 ^ 939 ;-^Ualaeea, EgUm, P. Z. S.r 
1889,107.] 

*903 bis. — Podiea personataj G. R, Or. 

[Malacca.] 

9C4. — Gallicrex cinereus, Gm. 

IMalagan Pen,, Bly. Cat. Hue. A. S. B., 288w] 

*907, — Erytkra phcenicura^ Penn. 

[Malacca.] 

*910 ler. — Porzana cinerea, Vieill. 

[SiDgapore;— IfaZacea, By ton, Blyth, Salvad, XT. di B., 8811.] 

*912 bis. — RaUina fasciatay Raffl. 

[Malacca, Palo Seban, Singapore.] 

*912 bis A. — Rallina superciliaris, Eyton. (R. telmatopliila, 
Hume. S. F., VIL, 142, 451.) 

[Malacca.] 



*913. — Hypot(enidia stnaia^ Li 

[Malacca, Nealya, Singapore.] 

915. — Leptoptilus ar gains, Lath. 

[Malaeea, Jerd*, Salvad. U, di B., 867.] 



' 



WS8TSBN HALF OF THR MALAY FKNIKSULA. 71 

91 6. — LeptoptUus jatfanieuSf Horsf. 

[Kalaeea, Jerd^ Saivad^ U. di R, a66.] 

?920. — Diuuta episecpa, Bodd. « 

[Malmy cowmMM, Bl$. Oat. Mn§. A. 8, B,, S77 ] 

'*'927. — Berodias garzetta^ Lin, 

[Milaoca.] 

930 A. — Ardea lencoptera, Bodd. 

IMalaeea, Qrag, B, K. R, List, Vol III., 90.] 

*931. — Butarides javanica, Horsf. 

[HalaMS.J 

^32.— Ardetta flavicollis, Lath. 

[Sin^poro;— lfa2ajraii Pan., B(y. Oat Una, A. 8^ B., 282.] 

^33. — Ardetta cinnamomea^ Om. 
*9Si»~^Ardeita tinensUf Gm, 

[lUlMea.] 

*986 bi$. — GouakiuB melanolophus^ Raffl. 
9S8i4. — ^Tantalas lactens, Tern. 

{Malaeca, Blf.^ Cat Jf«t. A, S, B., 276.] 

951. — Nettopuseoromandelianus, 6m. 

IMalagam PmL, Bl^, Cat. Miu. A. 5. B., 802.] 

952, — Dendrocygtux javaniea, Horsf. 

[liaUuea, Big., Balvad. U. di B., 862] 

990. — Sterna media, Horsf. 

[UalaeMt Big., Sdhad, U. di B., 877.] 

991. — Sterna sumatrana^ Haffl. 

lMaiap$a, JmL Salmdj U. di JB., 876.] 

992.^ Sterna anaetketa^ Seop. 

[8ingap9r$y Big. Salvad. V, di £., 874 ; Cat, J. A. 5., 298.] 



72 RBCEMTLT-DXSCRIBCD 8PSCIB8, 

993. — Jnous stolidtss, Lin. 

[N^iffhbaurhood of Malaeea :^Vo]f* Jfooara, Salvad. U. M B,, 870. j 

*998. — Sula au^ralis, Steph. 

[Between MalafOoa and Ponang.] 

1004. — Pelecanus philippensUj Gm, 

[Malaeeat Maingay, 8ahad, U, di B^ 863.] 



^e«nllB*bfsm6cl) Species. 



Republications. 



Acridoiheres xnelanostemuSi Legge. 

A comparison of the entire series of Aeridoiheres truiii in 
the national collection, from all parts of India, as well as from 
localities into which the Indian species has been introdnoed, 
sach as the Mauritins and Bourbon, has convinced me of the 
propriety of separating the Cejlonese race ; and for it I propose 
the above title. 

Messrs. BIyth and Jerdon pointed oat many years a|;o ihat 
the Ceylon birds of this species were darker than the Indian. 
The former, in liis Catalogue of the Birds of the Asiatic 
Society's Museum (1849), has the following remark: — ^^'No, 
574, Vark variety from Ceylon. Presented bv Dr. Templeton," 
Jerdon follows, in his ^' Birds of India," Vol. II.j with '^ those 
from Ceylon appear to be always darker .'' It is true the 
Ceylon race is much darker, both as regards the colouration 
of the upper surface and the hue of the flanks; but the 
writers in question appear to have overlooked a feature in the 
plumage of the bird, which is constant in the Ceylon race 
and always absent in the Indian, viz,^ that the black of the throat 
descends down the centre of the breast, and passes above the 
white abdomen, forming a sort of border to this region. 
In the Indian race this part is somewhat lighter than the 
surrounding plumage, instead of being darker. Specimens 
from the northern parts of the Peninsula are less albescent 
down the centre of the lower breast, and the sides of it are a 
pale, though sullied-looking, isabelline colour. 

The nearest approach to the colouration of the Ceyloneae 
bird is found, as one would naturally expect^ in those from 



A ROUGH TBNTATIVK LIBT OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 73 

TVavancorej which have the blaok of the throat descendinff 
a little more upon the breast than Uie northern speoiinenB, and 
have the inner webs of the feathers, exactly down the centre 
of the breast, blackish brown ; but this is all, and this trifling 
amount of nigrescent does not continue down to the white of 
the abdomen.— A. & M. N. H., 5th Sen, III., 168, Feby. 1879. 



Fjrctorhis nasaliSi JLegge. 

The Ceylonese race of Ptfctorkis HneneiB has the nostril 
as black as the bill, there being no trace of the yellow colour 
round the nostril which characterises birds from all parts of 
the Penmsula and Burmah. It is altogether a darker bird 
than the Continental, the latter having the head reddish brown, 
and the outer webs of the quills cinnamon or pale chestnut- 
red. A comparison of a fine series of Ceylonese with an 
equally good one of Indian examples shows me that the pale 
character is constant in the latter, and the dark coloration 
equally so in the former. The insular bird has the primaries 
margined externally with reddish brown, which imparts a very 
different appearance from that which is noticeable in the red 
closed wing of the Indian form. It is somewhat remarkable 
that such a peculiar distinction should exist as that which I 
have noticed in regard to this bird's nostril ; and I there* 
fore have proposed the above title for our race, which I think 
will be found to be a well-marked subspecies of the genus in 
question.— A. & M. N. H., 5th der.. III., 169, Feby. 1879. 



% 3m\ ®entstifr« list of t((e ^ith at pbiir. 

At the earnest and repeated requests of numerous subscri- 
bers, I publish the subjoined very crude and tentative, List of 
THK Birds of India. 

It has been very hurriedly put together to meet an urgent 
and crying want, and will doubUess prove to embody innumer- 
able errors and to require many additions as well as corrections. 

In the matter of generic names, it will certainly be especially 

open to criticism, as I have not yet given much attention to 

generic synonymy, nor have I, except in a very few cases, made 

up my mind as to what genera have priority, which should 

be retained intact, which subdivided, which rejected. 

I ought, perhaps, however to note here that I have employed 
a few generic names, chiefly my own, which are doubtiess not 
generally known, viz. :— 
OcyceroB, (Nests and Eggs, Bough Draft, 118, 1873). Type 

JBuceros biralrisj Seop, 

10 



74 A BOUGH TBHTATIVX LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

Cyanocindu9f (Nests and Eggs^ Bough Draft, 226, 1873). Tjrpe, 

7\irdu$ dj^amUf Lin. 
Mclpastesy (S. P., L, 378, 1873). Type, Mu9cioapa luBnwrrhoaaa^ 

Cfm, 
Turdinubu, (S. F. VI, 235, 1878). Type, Turdinuhu robertiy 

OocL'Aust. ^ Wald. 
Blanfordiusy (S. R, I., 300, 1873). Type, Blan/ordius striatulus^ 

Hume. 
Dissmuroides, (S. F., L, 408, 1878). Type, DUsemuroides di- 

cruriformis^ Hume. 
Heteroglaua, (S. F., L, 467, 1873). Type, Eeteroglaius blewUti, 

Hume, 
Heterorht/nehus, (S. F., L, 415, 1873 ; V., 238, ). Type, 

Hetercrhynchus humiiy MandeUL 
PtfcnorhamphuSf (SestR and Eggs, Bough Draft, 469, 1874). 

Type, Coccotkraugtes icteriaidee, Vig. 
Pseudototanua, (S. F., VII., 488, 1879; IV., 347). Type, 

Totanut haughtofiiy Armstrong. 

All of these (except perhaps Blanfordiusy which might possibly 
be merged in DrymoBOOy though I am not sure of this) indicate, 
so far as I can at present judge, generic divisions, for which 
no previous, unoccupied, name exists, and which, unless we agree 
to lump nearly all modem generio divisions, are necessary and 
proper to be retained. 

The specific synonymy I have partially worked up for about 
two-thirds of the species, but in the remaining third, in which 
I have merely followed other writers without any personal 
investigation, there may, for all I know to the contrary, be any 
number of errors. 

In the arrangement I still follow Dr. Jerdon ; firstly, be- 
cause his is the only complete work on the Birds of India aa 
yet available ; and, secondly, because defective and illogical aa 
his classification, in some respects, doubtless is, I have as yet 
met widi no general system which did not appear to me to be 
equally, or even more, open to objection, and I have hitherto had 
no time to work out, in the light of modem research, a classi- 
fication that I can myself approve. 

The simple numl)ers in this list are those of Dr. Jerdon'a 
work ; all species to which these are prefixed will be found 
there described. Numbers compounded with ftw , ter, ^c. A, B, 
Ac., indicate (with some half dozen exceptions) species not 
included by Dr. Jerdon, but which have been (more or less 
satisfactorily) described in Stray Feathers. 

For the help of fellow-workers I have added, after each species, 
references to some of the places in Jerdom's Birds of India 
(Jerd.) and Stray Feathers (S. F.), at which it will be 
found described, discriminated or discussed. 



A ROUGH TSKTATIVE U8T OF THE BIRDS OF niDIA. 75 

I have not referred to passages merely giving an account 
of breeding habits or nidificabon^ becanse all these will be 
eiuiest referred to in the new edition of NssTS and Eggs, now 
soon I hope to issue. 

Of coarse the bird will not always be found described under 
the particular name now adopted in the list. Thus^ takiug 
91^9. — Ftyonoprogue obsoleta, Cab. — S. P., I, 1, 417. Turn- 
ing to the first reference, the reader will find a Ftyonoprogne 
pallida, Hume, described, but a glance at page 417 (the second 
reference) will show that ' the two are identical. Thus too in 
the case of a vast number of species on turning up the reference 
to Dn Jerdon's work, the reader will find there, under the 
same number^ a bird described under a different name to that 
utod in this list The conclusion to be drawn in all such 
oases is, that I believe that the bird described by Jerdon, in the 
passage and at the number indicated, should stand under the 
name given in the list, and not under that adopted by Jerdon. 

A full and complete description will not, in some casesj be 
found at any one of the places referred to, but any one who 
reads carefully all the several passages to which references are 
given, will generally have little difficulty in identifying the 
species, since even where no detailed description has been fur- 
nished, the characteristic points of difference between the 
species in question and other nearly allied and more common 
ones which iave been fully described, will have been clearly 
set forth. 

It will not unfreqnently happen, that on looking up all the 
references, contradictory opinions will be found to*have been 
expressed. Where these are by the same authority, the author's 
latest utterances must be accepted as his more mature opinion, 
but where they are by different authors, the reader must 
accept the point as an unsettled one, and do what he can 
towards elucidating it. 

This list includes the Birds of the whole Empire, except 
Belnchistan, Afghanistan, fiadakshan, Wakhan, &c., on the 
North-West ; the Maldives, the M ergui Archipelago, tod the 
western half of the Malay Peninsula. 

I have for loifg had in hand a complete list including the 
birds of these also, (so far as they are known to me,) with the 
full specific synonymy of each species, together with its distribu- 
tion within the Empire as a whole. 

The first draft of this, however, which is a work involving 
great labour, can hardly appear in less than two or three years, 
and in the meantime this list will, I am assured, be very useful 
to my numerous coadjutors, will enable them, I hope, to identify 
antf species they get, will show the names that, so far ae I have 



76 A BOtJGH TKNTATITX LIST OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 

yet gone ifdo the questiotij shoald I belioFe be borne by each 
speoies, as Also what spedea of each genns I at present accept 
(E. & O* E.), as occarring within the narrower limits abore 
indicated. 

Names printed in italics indicate species whose ooenrrenoe 
within our limits, or whose yalidity or distinctness^ I disbelieve 
or seriously doubt. 

There are a good many species, of whose yalidity as species 
in some cases, or as to whose occurrence within onr limits in 
others, I am by no means certain. It is not so much that I 
actually disbelieye in these^ as that 1 have as yet been unable to 
acquire any certainty in regard to them ; these I have printed 
in ordinary type, but I haye prefixed to them a note of inter- 
rogation^ signifyin/e: that I persondly do not guarantee them, 
and am not to be quoted as asserting either their validity as 
species^ or occurrence within our limits, as the case may be* 

Throughout, the authority that I have quoted, is the giver 
of the specific name, and this being stated, I have deemed it 
unnecessary to cumber the page with the sign fep.) after every 
name, as recommended in the Code. (§ D. vide S. F., V., 377.) 

Generally I may say that I have honestly endeavoured to 
act up stricUy to the precepts of the British Association 
Code. 

Pace the editors of the Ibis {wde S. F., VII., 521.) I assume 
(there being nothing about this in the Code) that whatever their 
derivations or construction^ all generic names are used* as sub- 
stantives, and all specific ones as adjectives, and where the gender 
of the former is ascertainable either by its derivation {e.g. 
Columba), or from the form nsed {e,ff, Perdicula)^ I have endea* 
voured always to make the latter^ if of classical origin, agree, 
except in the ease of Linniean names which Idnn^ printed with 
a capital first letter, and which, so far as I know, I have always 
left intact as regards gender. Whether or no I have done right 
in this, seems quite an open question. The Code is silent here. 

Genders are, however, not always easily ascertainable. Many 
words were used in both genders by the ancients, and have 
continued to be so used, indiscriminately, by naturalists. 

In some cases there is no real difficulty. Thus the word Spvtf 
enters as the last member of the compound into a great many 
generic names, and writers use these indiscriminately as mas- 
culine and feminine. No doubt^ the word woe not unfrequently 

* For inatanee, the geDerie name Oehromsla is, of oourMi by. deriTation a pure 
adjeetiTe, but when applied at a generie name, I eontider it to' be iiaed labetan- 
tiTely jnv hoc, and to atgaifj *' The black and ochraoeovi one." 

▲gam the apecifie name re9» in BaUmieept m, it of conne by deriTation a 
anbatantire, bnt in ita eapadtj of apecifio appellation, 1 hold it to be oaed at an 
adjectiTe, and lead the aaae as signing **7m Kinglj Whala-head." 



A BOUGH TENTATIVB LIBT OT THE BIBD8 OF INDIA. 77 

In later Attic used as feminine, especially when '^ a hen'^ was 
talked of, but speaking of birds generally, and taking the whole 
range of Greek literature opyi^, was as a rule treated as 
masculine. Under these circumstances no reasonable objec« 
tion can be raised to treating all such compounds uniformly and 
invariably as masculine, despite the present popular tendency 
to treat most of them as feminine. 

But other words (e.g. iFiph^, 8P^^9 &<^*i) ^^i^ used absolutely 
indiscriminately at all times as both masculine and feminine, 
and here as some rule is necessary to ensure uniformity ^ 
I have had to adopt, what the ancients ungallantly termed^ 
the nobler gender. 

Some words again are masculine or feminine according as 
yon spell them, e,^., ^pialites, masculine, and ^ffialitis, femi- 
nine ; both forms are equally correct, and we can then only go 
back to the original definition of the genus and see which form 
was used* In this particular case, Boie, who gave the name in 
1882, used the feminine form ; Kaup, quite unwarrantably 
changed it to the masculine in 1829. I have of course kept it 
as feminine. 

Other words, again, are not really classical, but are only 
formed, often irregularly, on the model of some classical com- 
pound or derivatiye {e.g. Arboricola), and here the gender can 
only be guessed with reference to that of its supposed prototype 
(in this particular case presumably agricola). I have treated 
all generic names ending in cola as masculine, despite the fact 
that most authors treat ^' SaasicoUC^ as feminine. 

Otbers again, perhaps ititended to be classical, are unintelli- 
gible. It is impossible, for instance, to guess what Bonaparte 
meant by the word Ciettuaia. Agassiz and others seem to 
have supposed that it was intended for a derivative of ^^'^^ 
a mane, and have spelt it Chatusia, but it is impossible to arrive 
at this latter by any rule or analogy, and it seems best in this 
and many similar cases to treat the name as a nonsense word, 
merely assuming its femiuality from its termination, to secure 
euphony in the specific name. 

The Code rule for converting Greek into Latin words will be 
found quoted, S. F., Y., 370. To this, as well as other rules, 
I have endeavoured to adhere consistently. 

According to the Code, ov terminal should become um ; how 
18 it that no one hardly is bold enough to give us Mahcopterutn, 
Troehahpterumj PolypUetrum, ^e, f In the majority of cases 
the rule is commonly adhered to ; in these and a few other cases 
it is ignored by almost every one. It seems to me that if you 
have a rule you should stick to it, and I have therefore adopt- 
ed in every such case the spelling prescribed by the Code. 



78 A ROITGH TBKTATIVK LIST OF THE BIBDS OF INDIA. 

Some one lookiofr over my list wishes to^ know why melano' 
poffOfiy Chelidonj Treran^ JBsahnj CorydoUf DelieJum, ^y are 
exempted; forgetting that raywy,. ^eXTBmf rpi^fmVf SuvaXmv, 
Kopviavj do not end in ov and that Delichan is one of those 
objectionable anagrammatic words like Daceh, &c.y which belongs 
to no language, and can be dealt with by no rnle. 

Delichon is not, I believe, a Greek word, only a kaleidoscopic 
re-arrangement of the letters of Chelidan. 

Although I have not altered Linnsaan specific names, com- 
mencing with a capital to secure agreement in gender^ I have 
not hesitated to do this to secure uniformity of transliteration. 
Thus Clangula glaudon^ the latter word being clearly derived 
from yXauxiovi a certain grey-eyed water bird, I have rendered 
in accordance with rule C. glaueium — similarly I have altered 
chrj/BuStoB to chtysa&uSj S^e, 

Another rule, the substitution of u for the Greek oti, is 
equally disregarded. You as often find Ynoermira as moerttra / 
Linn6 uses both forms of transliteration impartially, and gives 
us macrounM and PhasnicumSy but as the former is his own 
name, while the latter is one beginning with a capital and not 
agreeing in gender with the generic name, and hence not al- 
tered by him, but appropriated from elsewhere in its integrity, 
we may presume that he personally gave the preference to the 
former. 

Usually the generic name is spelt as Dicrurus^ but a purist 
like Cabanis, who alters everybody's names unhesitatingly, 
changes Vieillot's Vicrurus into DicrouruSy and in this Sunde- 
vall follows him, while he accepts Lesson's sHpUurtUj (which 
should be atipturua at any rate) and so on. 

Everywhere it is the same thing ; want of uniformity. 
Now these diversities are a stumbling block to neophytes, and 
should be got rid of. There is only one word dupa a tail, and 
it should always be rendered the same way. We, English, at any 
rate, have a fixed rule on the subject, and by that we ought, I 
think, to be guided, and therefore throughout my list I have 
spelt this set of compounds in one uniform way, vu., with the 
*' i«" and not with the '* ou.'' 

Pompadoura I take to be derived from the name Pompadour, 
and not to be a compound. 

Where simple words are manifestly mis-spelt, I have cor- 
rected them, for instance I have spelt Cypselku^ with two Vsj 
this being correct. Again Ithaginu can be nothing but itotyty^^ 
'^ noble," '^ genuine,^' and I have accordingly spelt it Ithagenee; 
while Eeaeus can only be derived from aio-axo^ (inappropriate 
as the term is), and I have therefore spelt it ^«acii« ; but I 
have not as a rule dreamt of correcting jua«t-irregttlar comr 



A BOUQH TBNTATTYS LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 79 

poands, sach as Buta$iur, pomarinui, BhyticeroSi &c.y where 
syllables have been deBignedly elided by syncope or fused by 
syncrasis for the sake of enphony or to avoid an unpleasant 
alliteratioii. From tliis rule I have only deviated where such 
syncope has led to misconception, as where a black-backed bird 
has been called melanoius (for Melanonatus)^ and this has led to 
its ^nerally appearing as melanotis^ or black-eared. 

'There are many names of which I can make nothing, and 
with whose orthography or transliteration, treating them as 
nonsense names, 1 have not concerned myself. Take, for in- 
stance, Jerdon's Bradg^podiui pciocephalus. If poio were taken 
from the Greek, it should be spelt poeo^ but there is no Oreek 
word apparently from which it oonld come, except the Dorio 
or Ionic forms of woa, grass, as in Toioyojxo^, feeding on 
grass. But '^ grass-headed" would be an absurd name for a 
grey-headed bira, the rest of whose body was green. I have 
no doubt that Dr. Jerdon meani to write poliocephala (hoary- 
beaded) or piaocephah (grey-headed), but he did not, and so as 
the word poio cannot be taken as from the Greek, I have written 
it poioeephahj as Jerdon did, an^ have not altered it, it being 
impossible to discover now whether he intended poliocephala or 
phmoeephala. 

Having thus briefly indicated the principles on which I have 
endeavoured to guide myself in compiling the nomenclature 
of this list, let me hasten to admit that most probably I have 
in my haste, unwittingly in some cases, disregarded these 
principles. 

A list like this must be full of errors of nomenclature, and 
I can only most earnestly invite the co-operation of every one 
into whose hands it may fall in correcting it 

In order to facilitate its rectification, I shall retain a special 
section at the end of all future numbers of this journal, where 
all corrections and additions proved or discovered to be 
neoessaiy will be indicated, and where all disputed points con- 
nected with it can be argued out and discussed. 

I by no means promise to accept all volunteered emenda- 
tions, but I do promise to give all such which are based on 
the Code a fair field, and to accept or explain fully my reasons 
for rejecting them. 

I say ^ based on tie Code^^ because it must be clearly under- 
stood that I am not prepared to re-argue points definitely set- 
tled by that Code. I do not personally agree with many of its 
dieta^ but I consider uniformity of such paramount importance 
as to render it the plain duty of eveiy British naturalist to 
abide strictly by om its dicta, (not merely those he may chance 
to concur iu, but by the Code as a whole,) until it shall have 



80 A BOUGH TRNTATIYi: LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

been modified by a consensus of naturalists as weighty as that 
which gave it currency. 

Clearly, if each man is to overmie the Code in whichsoever 
particular he deems this justifiable, all advantages of a Code 
disappear^ and we fall at onoe into the position of our continen- 
tal brethren, each of whom, for the most part, does whatever 
seemeth good in his own eyes in these matters. 

Strickland and his oo-adjutors have lived and written in vaih, 
if such a change can be deemed other than deplorable, and the 
only way to avoid this disastrous and retrograde movement is 
for all of us to sink private views, and first adhere strictly to the 
Code, so far as it goes ; and, secondly, combine to accept a supple- 
mentary set of rules dealing with the more important questions 
on which the Code is silent, and, should it be possible to secure 
agreement in these points, modifying it in one or two respects 
in which it's precepts are opposed to it's principles.* 

Altogether 1,788 species are enumerated, of which, as at pre- 
sent informed, I should reject 106 ; the names of these latter I 
have printed in italics. Of the remaining 1,682, 1 have doubts 
of 74 ; and to these I have prefixed a note of interrogation. 
My larger list contains at present 1,917 species. 

There are many entire groups, such as the Drymmeinaj the 
MusdcapifUBj ete., which I have never yet had time to look 
into properly, the number of species in which I have no doubt 
that I shall be able to reduce when I go into them. For the 
present I have accepted every one's species all round, though 
many of them seem to me to require confirmation. 

Altogether the time has not come for publishing any snch 
list. In the first place an innumerable number of detailed 
investigations must be carried out before any one could publish 
a really correct list of this nature ; in the second place, I 
haye not the time to make this list even as correct as existing^ 
available materials would allow. 

Still, as my readers will have it, and begin to retort on me, 
my favorite saying, bU dat, jui eito dot, here it is, and I can 
only repeat that my sole consolation in sending out such an 
imperfect work is, the hope that with all its shortcomings, and 
however little it may redound to my credit, it will yet prove 
of some little use to my fellow labourers here, and aid in some 
humble degree the progress of ornithology in India. 

Allan Huhb. 



• #.^., where in Tiolation of iti fundimentol law of prioritj, it njeeto food 
fenen of Mo$hring, and i^ood binomial appellations of Brunnieh, 



A ROUGH TBNTATIVJB U8T OF THK BIRDS OF INDIA. 8t 

[1-30 

1. Vultnr moDftchus, Zin.— Jerd. I, 6.— S. P. VII, 321. 

2. Oiogjps calvus, Scop. — Jerd. I, 7. 

3. Ofps/ulms, Gm.— Jerd. I, 8.— S. F. I, 149 ; III, 441 ; V, 217. 
3 bU. Ojps fnlvesoens, Bume.—S. ¥. I, 148 ; YII, 322. 

3 ter. Gyps himalayensis, Hume.—S. F. I, 148 ; VII, 323. 

4. Gypeindicus, Scop.— Jerd. I, 9.— S. F. VII, 165. 

4 ill. Gyps pallescens, Hume.—S. F. I, 160 ; VII, 165, 825. 
4 ter. Gyps tenairostris, Hodgi.—S. F. VII, 326. 

5. Pseodogypa bengalensis, Gm. — Jerd. I, 10. 

6. Neophron ginginiaQne, Lath. — Jerd. I, 12. — S. F. I, 150. 

7. GypaetuB barbatas, Lin. — Jerd. I, 13. 

8. Falco pere/sprinasy Gm. — Jerd. I, 21. 

9. Falco peregrinator, Stmd.— Jerd. I, 25.— S. F. V, 500. 

9 to. Paloo atriceps, Bume.—^. F. V, 128 ; VII, 826. 

10. Falco sacer. Cm.— Jerd. I, 29.— S. F. I, 152. 

10 to. Falco hendersoni, ^wm^.— 8. F. II, 530 ; V, 48 ; VII, 327. 

11. Filco jogger, J. E. Gr.— Jerd. I, 30. 

12. Falco babylonious, G^m.— Jerd. I, 32.— S. F. VII, 329. 
12 to. Falco barbarus, Lin.— S. P. 1, 19 ; V, 140 ; VII, 174. 

13. Falco aubbnteo, Lin. — Jerd. I, 33. 

14. Falco BeTeruB, Bonf. — Jerd. I, 34. 

15. Falco asaaloD, Tun^. — Jerd. I, 35. 

16. Falco chiqnera, Vaud. — Jerd. I, 36. 

16 to. Poliohierax inaigniB, IFaW.— S. P. Ill, 19, 417 ; VI, 2. 

17. Cerchneis tinnaDCQlaB, Lin. — Jerd. I, 38. 

17 to. Cerchneis eaturata^ Bly.—S. F. V, 129 ; VI, 3. 

18. Cerehneis naumanniy Fleiech.— Jerd. I, 40.— S. F. VII, 73, 331. 

18 to. CercbneiB pekinensiB, 8winh.—S. F. Ill, 384 ; V, 5 ; VII, 332. 
? 18 ter. Cerohneis inglisi, Hume.—S. F. Ill, 384 ; V, 5. 

19. CerehneU veepertina, Lin.— Jerd. I, 41.— S. F. VII, 332. 

19 to. Cerchneis amnrensis, Radde.—S. F. II, 527 ; III, 303, 362 ; V, 6. 

20. Hicrohierax csBrulescens, Irtn.— Jerd. I, 42.— S. F. Ill, 22 ; V, 127 ; VI, 3. 

20 to. Microhieraz melanolencna, Bly.—S. F. II, 525 ; V, 126. 
20 ter. Microhieraz iringillarins, Drap. — 8. F. VI, 5. 

21. ABtnr palnmbarios, Lin.— Jerd. I, 45. 

22. Astur trivirgatuB, Tern.— Jerd. I, 47.— 8. F. V, 8, 502. 

22 to. Astar mfitinctus, MeCUHS. P. V, 8, 124, 602. 

23. Aflinr badios^ Gm. — Jerd. I, 48. 

23 to. Astar poliopsis, Hume.— 8. F. II, 825 ; III, 24 ; VI, 7. 

23 ter. Astnr soloenBis, Borsf.—S. F. V, 124 ; VI, 8. 

24. Aocipiter nisns, Lin. — Jerd. 1, 51. 

24 to. Accipiter melaschistus, Bume. — 8. F. VII, 333. 

25. Accipiter virgatos, Reinw. — Jerd. I, 52. — 8. F. II, 141. 

26. Aqnila chrysaetns, Lin. — Jerd. I, 55. 

27. AqoiU mogihiik, 8. G. Gm.— Jerd. I, 57, aduU.—S. F. I, 290,925 ; VII, 835. 
W to. Aqnila nipalensis, Hodge.— Jerd. 1, 57, young.— S. P. 1, 290, 326 ; VII, 338. 
«. AquiUclanga, Pott.— Jerd. I, 59.— 8. F. 1, 328 ; III, 304; IV, 268, 271. 

28 to. Aqnila fnlveBcens, Gray.— 8. P. I, 463 ; VII, 339. 
». Aqnila vindhiana, iVa««.— Jerd. I, 60.— S. F. I, 464. 
30. Aqoik hasiata, Lea.— Jerd. I, 62. 

11 



82 ▲ SOCGH TRMTATIYB LIST OF THR BIRDS OF IHDIA. 

81-57] 

81. Hieraetas pennatas, G^m. — Jerd. I, 63. 

32. Neopus malayensis^ Reinw, — Jerd. I, 65. — S. F. VI, lln. 

33. Nisaetus fasciatus, VieilL — Jerd. I, 67. 

34. Limnaetus caligatus, Rajffl. — Jerd. I, 70.— S. P. VI, lln. 

? 34 ^. Limnaetus horsfieldi, Vig.—S. F. V, 9 ; VI, lln. ; VII, 247, and n. 

84 bis. Limnaetus andamanensis, Tyt.—Q. F. I, 52 ; II, 142 ; IV, 280. 

34 ter, Limnaetus alboniger, Bly. — S. F. VI, 12. 

? 34 quat. Limnaetus spbynx, Hume.— 8. F. I, 319 ; VII, 511. 

34 quint. LimnaStus lathami, TicL—S. F. II, 878 ; III, 816 ; VII, 198n. 

35. Limnaetus cirrhatus, 6m. — Jerd. I, 71. — S. F. IV, 356. 
? 35 Ha. Limnaetus eeylonensis, Gm. — S. F. VII, 511. 

36. Limnaetus nipalensis, Hodgs, — Jerd. I, 73. — S. F. I, 319. 
? 36 bis. Limnaetus kelaarti, Legge.—S. F. VII, 511. 

37. Lophotriorchis kieneri, ? ff^rr.— Jerd. I, 74.— S. F. I, 310 ; V, 9 ; VII, 38. 

38. Gircaetus gallicus, 6m. — Jerd. I, 76. 

89. Spilomis cheela, Za^A.— Jerd. I, 77.— S. F. I, 306. 

89 bit. Spilomis melanotis, Jerd.—S. F. I, 306 ; VII, 340. 

? 39 bid A. Spilomis spilogaster, £/;^.— 8. F. VII, 512. 

39 ter. Spilomis rutherfordi, Switth.-S. F. I, 306]; II, 147 ; VI, 15. 

39 quat. Spilomis davisoni, Hume.—S. F. I, 807 ; II, 147 ; IV, 281. 

89 quint. SpUornis bachoj Baud. — S. F. I, 306. 

89 Bex. Spilomis elgini, Tyi.—9i. F. I, 52 ; II, 144. 

39 sept. Spilomis minimus, Hume.—S. F. I, 464 ; IV, 282. 

40. Pandion haliaetus, Lin. — Jerd. 1, 80* 

41. Polioaetus ichthyaetus, 5or«/.— Jerd. I, 81.— 8. F. Ill, 29, ? 368 ; V, 129. 
41 bis. Polioaetus plumbeus, Hodgs.—S. F. Ill, 385 ; V, 129. 

41 ter. Polioaetus humilis, 3. Mall. Sf Sehl—S. F. V, 130* 

42. Haliaetus lencoryphus. Pall. — Jerd. I, 82. 

42 bis Haliaetus albicilla, Ltn.— S. F. I, 159 ; VII, 341, 467. 

43. Haliaetus leueogaster, Gm.— Jerd. I, 84.— S. F. II, 149 ; IV, 422, 461. 

44. BuUo vulgaris^ Leach. — Jerd. I, 87 {neg NUgheri speeimen.) 
44 bis. Buteo deseriorum, Daud.—S. F. IV, 359 ; V, 65. 

45. Buteo ferox, S. O. Gm.— Jerd. I, 88.— S. F. IV, 362. 

46. Buteo leucocepbalus, Bodgs. — Jerd. I, 90. — S. F. IV, d59n., 866. 

47. Buteo plumipes, Bodqs.— Jerd. I, 9L— S. F. IV, 358 ; V, 65, 848. 

48. Butastur teesa, FrankL — Jerd. I, 92. 

48 bis. Butastur indicus, 6m.— 8. F. VI, 19. 
48 Ur. Butastur liventer, Tem.—8. F. Ill, 31. 

49. Archibuteo hemiptilopus, Bly.— Jerd. I, 94.— S. F. I, 315 ; IV, 369. 

50. Circus cyaneus, Lin.— Jerd. I, 95.— S. F. I, 160, 418. 

51. Circus macruras, S. 6. Om.— Jerd. I, 96.— S. F. I, 160, 418. 

52. Circus ciueraceus, Mont. — Jerd. I, 97. 

53. Circus melanoleucus, Farst.— Jerd. 1, 98.— S. F. Ill, S3 ; V, 1 1 ; VII, 250. 

54. Circus seruginosus, LAn. — ^Jerd. I, 99. 

56. Haliastur indus, SodA— Jerd. I, 101.— S. F. VII, 251. 

56. Milvus govinda, Sykes. — Jerd. I, 104. 

56 bis. Milvus melanotis. Tern. ^ Seld.—8. F. 1, 160 ; III, 229. 

56 ier. Milvus afBnis, Gauld.—8. F. I, 160. 

? 56 quat. Milvus migrans, Bodd.—S. F. VII, 344. 

57. Pemis ptilorhynchus, Tem. — Jerd. 1, 108. 



A ROUGH TBMTATIVI LIST OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 83 

[57 Jw.— 76 ter, 

57 his. Pemis braehypterus, Biy.—8. V. Ill, 86 ; V I, 24. 

57 ter. Machaerampbas alciniu, Wui. — S* F. Ill, 269. 

58. Baza lopfaotes, Cuo, — Jerd. I, 111. 

58 Us. Baza aamatrensia, Lafr.—S. F. Ill, 313. 

58 ter. Baza oeylonensis, Legffe.—B. F. lY, 247; YII, 161. 

59. Elanas caernletis, Desf. — Jerd. 1, 112. 

60. Strix jayaDica, dm.— Jerd. 1, 117.— S. F. 1, 163 ; III, 332 ; VII, 258. 
60 5m. Strix deroepstorffi^^Htiyne.— S. F. Ill, 390. 

61. Strix Candida, TYdL— Jerd. I, 118.— 8. V. Ill, 388 ; VII, 162. 
6i Phodilas badius, Borsf. — Jerd. 1, 119. 

62 bis. Pbodilns assimilia, Hume.--^. F. I, 429 ; Y, 137, 353. 

63. Symiam iadranee, Sykes.— Jerd. 1, 121.— S. F. I, 429 ; YI, 27. 

64. Symiam newareoae, Hadg$. — Jerd. I, 128. 

65. Syminm ocellatum, LesB, — Jerd. 1, 128. 

65 5ti. Symium selopato, HorBf.'^S. F. YI, 28. 

66. Symium nivicolum, Bodffs.^^erd. Ij 124. 

67. Asio otas, Xin.— Jerd. I, 125.— S. F. YII, 503. 

67 bis. Afflo boderi, Hume.— 8. F. YII, 316. 

68. Asio accipitrinua. Pall. — Jerd. I, 126. 

68 Us. Nyctea scandiaca, Lbi.—B. F. Ill, 827 ; YII, 346. 
68 ter. Babo ignavus, Farii.—9. F. YII; 846. 

?68(7]ia/. Babo turcomanaa, Ever$m.^8. F. I, 315 ; II, 831 ; YII, 348. 

69. Babo bengalensis, Frankl. — Jerd. 1, 128. 

70. Babo coromandos, ZaiA. — Jerd. 1, 180. 

71. Babo nipalensis, Bodgs.-^erd. I, 131. — S. F. I, 481. 
71 bis. Babo orienialis, Horsf.—S. F. YI, 31. 

72. Eetupa oeyloneiiBia, Cfm. — Jerd. 1, 133. — S. F. I, 431. 

73. Ketopa flavipea, ffodgs.— Jerd. I, 135.— S. F. Ill, 327, 416. 

73 Hi. Ketupa javanensia. Leas.— 8, F. lY, 300 ; YI, 33. [YII, 180. 
7i Scope pennatus, flcHii^*.-- Jerd. 1, 186 {grey phase).— S. F. Ill, 38; YI, 34 ; 

74 A. Scope etietonoiue, 8Aarpe.—8. F. YI, 34. 

'[74 B. Scops rnfipennis, Sharpe.—S. F. YI, 84; YII, 350. 

?4 C. Scops minutus, Legge. — 8. F. YII, 145. . 

74 bis. Scops snnia, Hodge. — Jerd. 1, 187 (rufoue phase). 

7^ ter. Scops spilocephalns, Bly.-S. F. YII, 352. 

l^ ter A. Scops gymnopoduej G. R. Or.— 8. F. YII, 853. 

^^ quai. Scops nicobaricas, Hutne. — S. F. lY, 288. 

<4 jtttfi/. Scops modestos, WaU.— S. F. II, 492 ; lY, 284. 

<4 «ar. Seaps malayanus^ £/ajr.— S. F. YII, 355. 

?^ *ep/. Soops brneii, HufM.—8. F. I, 8 ; Y, 245 ; YII, 506. 

74 oet. Scops balH, Hume.— 8. F. I, 407 ; I Y, 284. 

74 im. Scops sagittotus, Caee.—8. F. Y, 247 ; YI, 35. 

75. Scops lettia, floc^*.— Jerd. I, 139.— 8. F. YII, 357. 

75 bis. Scops plumipes, ffume.- S. F. YII, 357, 358. [YII, 175, 359, 506. 
75fer. Scops bakkamana, ForsL-ierd. I, (^39 griseus).—8. F. I, 432 ; Y, 135 ; 
75 qaoL Soops malabaricus, Jerd. — ^Jerd. I, 139, {malaioricus). — 8. F. II, 454 ; 

75 quUt. Scops lempiji, Horef.—8. F. YI., 85. [YII, 84,36L 

76. Carine brama, Tern, — Jerd. I, 141. 

76 bis. Carine glaum, 8ao.—8. F. YII, 862. 

76 ier. Carine bactriana, Hue<.— S. F. Y, 850 ; YII, 868. 



S4 A ROUGH TBMTATIVR LIST OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 

76 qual.— 101 bis.^ 

76 qnat. Carine pnlchra, Bume. — S. F. T, 469. 

76 quint. Hetero^lanx blewitti, Hume.—S. F. I, 468 ; V, 412. 

77 Qlaucidium radiatum, Tick.—JerA. I, 143.— S. F. IV, 378 ; VI, 86. 

78 Glancidiam malabaricnm, Bit/. —Jerd. 1,144.— S. F. IV, 872. 
ISbia. Glancidiam castaneonotum, Bly. — S. F. VII, 864. 

78 ter. Glaucidium castaneopterum, Horaf. — S. F. VI, 36. 

79 Glaucidium cuculoides, Vig.Serd. I, 145.— S. F. Ill, 39 ; VI, 37. 

79 bis. Glaucidium whUleyi, Bit/.— 8. F. VI, 38. 

80 Glaucidium brodii, Burt.— Jerd. I, 146.— S. F. VI, 39. 

81 Ninox lugubris, Tick.— Jerd. I, 147, (in p.).—S. F. IV, 285. 

81 bis. Ninox scutulata, Xaffl.—Jerd. T, 147 (inp.).—&. F. IV, 285, 378. 
81 ter. Ninox burraanica, Hume.— 8. F. IV, 285-6; V, 16 ; VI, 40. 
81 guat. Ninox affinis, Tt/t.—S. F. II, 152 ; IV, 285, 286; VII, 864. 

81 quint. Ninox obscura, Hume. — S. F. I, 11 ; II» 158. 

82. Hirundo rustica, Lin.— Jerd. 1, 157.-8. F. VI, 41. 
? 82 bis. Hirundo gutturalis, Seop.—S. F. VI, 41. 

82 ter. Hirundo tytleri, Jerd.—S. F. Ill, 41 ; VI, 41. 

82 guat. Hirundo andamanensis^ 7^^.-8. F. I, 65 ; IV, 286. 
82 guint. Hirundo horrearumy Bart.—S. F. VI, 42. 

83. Hirundo javauica, Sparrm. — Jerd. I, 158.— S. F. VI, 43. 

84. Hirundo filifera, Steph.— Jerd. I, 159.— S. F. I, 164 ; VI, 43. 

85. Hirundo erythropygia, Syies.-Jerd. I, 160.— S. F. V, 255. 
85 bis. Hirundo nipalensis, Hodgs. — S. F. V, 262. 

85 ter. Hirundo intermedia, Hume. — S. F. V, 263. 
85 guat. Hirundo substriolnta, Hume. »S. F. V, 264. 
85 guint. Hirundo hyperythra. Lay. — S. F. V, 266. 

86. Hirundo fluvicola, Jerd. — Jerd. I, 161. 

87. Cotyle riparia, Lii.— Jerd. 1, 163.— S. F. I, 164 ; III, 452 ; IV, 607 ; VI, 44. 

88. Cotyle subsoeeata, Hodgs.— Jerd. I, 163.— S. F. I, 164. 

89. Cotyle sinensis, J. £. Gr.— Jerd. 1, 164.— S. F. Ill, 42 ; VI, 45. 

90. Ptyonoprogne ooncolor, Sykes. — Jerd. I, 165. 

91. Ptyonoprogpae rupestris, Seop. — Jerd. I, 166. — 8. F. I, 2. 
9\ bis. Ptyonoprogne obsoleta, Cab. — S. F. I, 1, 417. 

92. Chelidon urbioa, itii.— Jerd. I, 166.— 8. F. VI, 45. 

93. Chelidon cashmeriensis, Gould. — Jerd. I, 167. 

94. Delichon nipalensis, Hodgs. — Jerd. 1, 168. 

95. ChsBtura sylvatica, Tu?*.- Jerd. I, 170.— S. F. VII, 202. 

95 bis. Chffltnra leuoopygialis, Bly.-S. F. VI, 45 ; VII, 518. 

? 96. Chaetura indica, Hume.— Jerd. I, 172.— 8. F. I, 471 ; IV, 286 ; VI, 46, 

96 bis. ChsBtura gigantea, Ha»s.—8. F. I, 471 ; IV, 286 ; VI, 46. 

97. Chffitura nndipes, Hodgs.— Jerd. I, 178. 

98. Cypsellus melba, Lin. — Jerd. I, 175. 

99. Cypsellus apus, Ztn.— Jerd. 1, 177.— 8. F. I, 165. 

99 bis. Cypsellus acuticaudus, Blff.—8. F. II, 156. 
? 99 ter. Cypsellus pallidus, ShelL—S. F. VII, 865. 

? 99 guat. Cypsellus pekinensis, Swink—S. F. VII, 365. 

100. Cypsellus affinis, J. E. Gr.— Jerd. 1, 177.-8. F. 1, 166. 

100 bis. Cypsellus subfuroatns, Bly.—8. F. II, 524 ; VI, 47. 

101. Cypsellus leuconyx, J9/y.— Jerd. 1, 179.— 8. F. Ill, 44. 

101 bis. CypseUus pacifioaS| Lalth.-^^. F. Ill, 48 ; VI, 48< 



A ROUGH TXNTATITB LIST OF THK BIRDS OF INDIA. 85 

[1Q2— 131 

102. Cjrpsellns batassieosis, J. E. Qr.—Jevd. 1, 180.— S. F. VI^ 48. 

102 Hs. Cypsellus infumatns, 8elai.---8. F. Ill, 44 ; YI, 48. [VI, 50. 

103 Collocalia nnicolor, Jerd.—Jerd. I, 182.— S. F. I, 296 ; II, 493 ; IV, 375 ; 
103 Us. Collocalia linchi, Bors/.—S. F. 1, 55, 296 ; 11, 157 ; VI, 49. 

103 ter. Collocalia innominata, Hums.— 8. F. I, 294 ; II, 493 ; VI, 49. 

103 qttat. Collocalia spodiopygia, Peale.—S. F. I, 296; II, 158, 160,493 ; VI, 51. 

104. DeDdrochelidon ooronata. Tick, — Jerd. f, 185. 

104 ii#. Dendrochelidon comata, Tern. — S. F. VI, 51. 

104 ter. Dendrochelidon longipennis, Jtafin. — S. F. VI, 52. 

105. BatrachostomoB moniliger, Lar/.—Jerd. 1, 189.— S. F. II, 350; IV, 376; VI,65« 

105 bis. Batrachostomns pnnctatas, Hums. — S. F. II, 854 ; VI, 55. 

105 ter. Batrachostomus affinisy Bit/.— 8. F. II, 351 ; VI, 54. [VI, 58. 

106. Batrachoatomns hodgsoni, O. R. 6r.— Jerd. 190.— S. F. II, 848 ; IV^ 376 ; 
Mbis. Batrachostomus javensis, Horrf. — S. F. VII, 147. 

107. Capriionlgas indicns, Lath.— Jerd. 1, 192.— S. F. IV, 381 ; VI, 66, 57. 
107 his. Caprimalgns jotaka, Tsm. if 8eU.—8. F. VI, 56. 

?108. Caprimalgus kelaarti, £/y.— Jerd. I, 193.— S. F. IV, 881. 

109. Caprimnlgns alboDotatns, Tick.— Jerd. I, 194.— S. F. VI, 58 ; VII, 257ft. 

110. Caprimalgns macmrns, Barsf.— Jerd. I, 195.— S. F. VI, 58; VII, 257n. 

110 Us. Caprimnlgns andamanicns. Bums. — S. F. I, 470; II, 493. 

111. Caprimnlgns atripennis, Jerd. — Jerd. I, 196. 

111 Us. Caprimnlgns nnwini, Bume.—8. F. Ill, 407 ; IV, 501 ; VII, 175. 

112. Caprimalgns asiaticns, 2xi^/i.— Jerd. I, 197.— S. F. VII, 169. 
lis. Caprimalgns mahrattensis, Syhss. — Jerd. I, 197. 

114. Caprimalgns monticolns, FrankL — Jerd. I, 198. 
114 Us. Lyncomis eerviniceps, Gould. — S. F. VI, 60. 

114 ter. Lyncomis bourdilloni, Bums. — S. F. Ill, 302. 

115. Earpactes fasciatns, Forst.— Jerd. I, 201.— S. F. VII, 507. 

115 Us. Harpactes dnvanceli, Tern.— 8. F. VI, 63. 

116. Harpactes erythrocephalns, Gould.— Jerd. I, 202.— S. F. Ill, 47 ; VI, 66, 498. 

116 Us. Harpactes oreskios. Tern.— 8. F. Ill, 47 ; VI, 66. 

117. Merops viridis, Lin.— Jerd. I, 205.— S. F. I, 167 ; III, 49 ; IV, 304 ; VI, 67. 

118. Merops philippinns, Ztn.— Jerd. I, 207.— S. F. II, 162. 

119. Merops swinhoii. Bums.— Jerd. I, 208,-8. F. II, 163; VI, 68; VII, 455. 
HO. Merops persicus, PaM.— Jerd. I, 209.— S. F. I, 167 ; II, 466 ; III, 826, 456. 

121. Merops apiaster, Ztn.— Jerd. I, 210.— S. F. VII, 118. 

122. Nyctiornis athertoni, Jard. ^ Selb.— Jerd. I, 211.— S. F. VI, 68. 
122 Us. Nyctiornis amictns, Tem.—8. F. VI, 69. 

123. Coracias indica, ita.— Jerd. I, 214.— S. F. VII, 259. 

124. Coracias affinis, MeClell.— Jerd. I, 217. 

125. Coracias garrnla, i^tn.— Jerd. I, 218.— S. F. I, 168; IV, 133 ; V, 502. 

126. Earystomns orientalis, Lwi.— Jerd. I, 219.— S. F. II, 164; VI, 72. 

127. Pelargopsis gnrial. Pears. — Jerd. I, 222. 

127 Us. Pelargopsis hxirmKoicA, Sharps.^ 8. F. I, 57 ; II, 165; VI, 73. 
127 ter. Pelargopsis intermedia, Hume. — S. F. II, 166, 489. 

128. Pelargopsis amanroptera, Pears. — Jerd I, 224. 

129. Halcyon smymensis, Lin. — Jerd. I, 224. — S. F. VI, 74. 
129 Us. Halcyon satnratior, Hume.— 8. F. II, 168, 531. 

130. Halcyon pileata, Bodd.— Jerd. I, 226.— S. P. II, 168 ; IV, 306 ; VI, 74. 
Ul. Halcyon coromanda, Lath.^Jerd. 1,227.— S. P. II, 169, 494 ; VI, 75. 



86 



A ROUGH TBHTATITB LT8T OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 



131 bU.— 161 bis.'] 

31 bis. Halcyon concrete, Tern.— 8. F. VI, 76. [VI, 78 ; VII, 1 68. 
32. Halcyon chloris, Bodd.—Jerd. I, 828.— S. F. I, 451 ; 11,170; IV, 806 ; 

32 bis. Halcyon occipitalis, Bfy.—B. F. I, 58, 451 ; II, 171. 
32 ter. Carcmentes pulchellus, Horsf.—H. ¥. I, 474 ; II, 484 ; VI, 79. 
83. Ceyx tridactylos, Pa«.— Jerd. I, 229.— S. F. VI, 80. 
34. Alcedo bengalensis, 6m.— Jerd. I, 230.— S. F. I, 168, 169. 
84 bis. Alcedo ispida, Lin. — S. F. 1, 168. 

85. Alcedo gprandis, Bly. — Jerd. I, 281. 

36 bis. Alcedo nigricaus, Bly. — S. F. VI, 81. 
86 ter. Alcedo meninting, Borsf.—S. F. I, 59 ; II, 494 ; IV, 888 ; VI, 88, 84. 

135 quat. Alcedo beavani, Wald.S. F. II, 174, 494 ; IV, 287,383; VI, 84. 

86. Ceryle rudis, Lin.— Jerd. I, 232. 

87. Ceryle guttata, T^.— Jerd. I, 284.— S. F. V, 19 ; VI, 85n. 

37 bis. CJalyptomena viridis, Raffl.S. F. VI, 86. 
38. Psariaomus dalhonsiae. Jam.— Jerd. I, 236.— S. F. Ill, 52; VI, 88. 
89. Serilophus mbropygins, Bodgs.^^Jerd, I, 238. 
39 bis. Serilophus lunatus, Gould.— S. F. Ill, 58 ; VI, 89. 
39 ter. Enrylsemus javanicus, Horsf. — S. F. VI, 89. 
89 ter A. Eurylsemns ocbromelas, Raffl.-^B. F. VI, 91. 
89 gu(U. Cymborhynchus affinis, Bfy.—8. F. Ill, 386. 
39 quint. Cymborhyncbus macrorhyncbns, Om. — S. F. VI, 92. 
39 sex. Corydon sumatranus, Raffl. — S. F. VI, 97. 

40. Dichoceros cavatus, Shaw.— Jerd. I, 242.— S. F. Ill, 414 ; IV, 384 ; VI, 98. 

41. Bydrocissa coronata, Bodd. — Jerd« I, 245. — S. F. II, 888. 
41 bis. Bydrocissa eonvexa, Tem.—S. F. VII, 366. 

42. Hydrocissa albirostris, Shaw.— Jerd. 1, 247.- S. F. VI, 100, 102n. ; VII, 204. 
48. Hydrocissa affinis, JTutt.— Jerd. I, 247.— S. F. VI, 102, 108 ; VII, 204. 

44. Ooyceros birostris, Seop. — Jerd. I, 248. — S. F. Ill, 381. 

44 bis. Anorrhinus tickelli, Bly.—8. F. VI, 103 ; VII, 499. 
144 ter. Anorrhinus austeni, Jerd.— 8. F. IV, 493 ; V, 60, 117; VII, 167, 499. 

45. Tockus griseus, io^A.- Jerd. I, 250.— S. F. IV, 387. 

45 bis. Tockus gingalensis, Shaw.— 8. F. VII, 366. 
45 ter. Berenicornis comatus, Raffl,. — S. F. VI, 106. 

45 quat. Anorrhinus galeritus. Tern. — S. F. VI, 109. 

46. Aceros nipalensis, Hodgs. — Jerd. I, 250. 

46 bis. Rhyticeros undulatus, Shaw. — S. F. VI, 111. 
46 ter. Rhyticeros snbruficollis, ^^.— S. F. VI. 112. 
46 quat. Rhyticeros narcondami, Hume. — S. F. I, 411. 

46 quint. Rhinoplax vigil, Forst.—8. F. VI, 115. 

47. Palseornis eupatria, Lin. — Jerd. I, 256, in p. — S. F. 11, 10. 

47 bis. PalsBomis magnirostris, J?a«.— S. F. 1, 60; II, 10, 176. [VI, 117; VII, 458 
47 ter. PalsBornis nipalensis, Bodgs. — Jerd. I, 256, in p. — S. F. I, 385 ; II, 10 
47 quat. PalsBomis indoburmanicus, ^tim«.—- Jerd. I, 256, fn|7.— -S. F. VI, 117 

48. PalsBornis torquatus, Bodd.— Jerd. I, 257.— S. F. II, 18. fVII, 468 

49. Pateornis purpureus, P. L. S. Mall.— Jerd. 1, 259, tn p.— 8. F. II, 15 ; VII,261 

49 5m. PalflBornis cyanocephalns, jWn.— Jerd. I, 259, tn 0.**-S. F. II, 16 ; V, 21. 

50. Palseornis schisticeps, Hodgs. — Jerd. 1, 261. — S. F. II, 17. 

50 bis. PalsBornis finschi, Bume.—S. F. II, 509 ; VI, 119. 

51. Palsdornis oolumboides, Vig. — Jerd. I, 261.~S. F. II, 2 1. 

51 bis. Faleornis calthropie, Xay.-^S. F. II, 18; VII, 367. 



A ROUGH TENTATIVK LIST OF THS BIRDS OF INDIA. 87 

[151 ter.-llbbi^. 

151 ter. Pateornis caniceps, Blf.—S. F. I, 61 ; II, 178. fV, 21 ; VII, 163, 

152. Palaeornis fasciatus, P. L, S. MotL—Jerd. I, 262.— S. P. II, 20 ; III, 264 ; 

152 bis. Palseoniis nicobaricns, Gould.— S. F. I, 60 ; II, 181. 
] 52 ter. Palaornis tjtleri, Hume.— 8. F. II, 23, 184, 454. 

153. Loriculus vernalis, Spcurrm. — Jerd. I, 265. — S. P. II, 185. 

153 bi9. Loricnlns indicus, 6m.— 8. F. II, 186 ;yil, 368. 
153 ter. Psittinoa incertas, Shaw. --8. F. VI, 120. 

154. Picas himalajensis, Jard, ^ Selb. — Jerd. I, 269. 

155. Picus majoroides, Hodgs. — Jerd. I^ 270. 

155 hiB, Picas luanderinas, Gould, var. God.-AwL — S. F. V, 53. 

156. Picas catbpharias, Sodga.^^erd. I, 271. 

157. Picas macii, Vieill. — Jerd. 1, 272. 

157 bu. Picas aadamaneasis. Bit/. — S. F. 1, 62 ; II, 187. 
157 ter. Picas analis, Hora/.-^S. F. Ill, 57. 
157 quat. Picas atratas, Bfy.—S. F. VI, 1*3, 500. 
? 1ST quint. Picas westermanni, Bly. — S. F. Ill, 411. 

158. Picas sindianas, GowW.— Jerd. I, 273.— S. F. I, 170. 

159. Picas branaeifrons, Fig. — Jerd. I, 273. 

160. Picas mahrattensis, ZatA.— Jerd. 1,274.— S. F. Ill, 58. 

161. Hjpopicas bjperythms. Fig. — Jerd. I, 276. 

162. Yangipicas rabricatas, Bfy.—Jerd. I, 276.— S. F. Ill, 60. 

163. Yangipicas pygmaeus, Ffjr.— Jerd. I, 277. —S. F. Ill, 60. 

163 bis. Yunoripicas caaicapillas, Bly.—S. P. Ill, 59 ; VI, 125, 500. 

164. Yangipicas nanas, Fty.— Jerd. I, 278.— 8. F. Ill, 60. 

164 bis. Yangipicas gymnopthalmas, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 60; IV, 389. 

165. Hemicercas cordatus, /«ri.— Jerd. I, 280.— S. P. Ill, 61 ; IV, 389; V, 25. 

165 frtf. Hemicercas canente, Less.— 8. F. Ill, 61; IV, 889; V, 25; VI, 127, 
165 to A. Hemicercas sordidas, Eyi.—S. F. VI, 128. [500. 
165 ter. Miglyptes tristis, Hors/.—8. F. VI, 131. 

165 fuaL Miglyptes jogularis, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 63. 

165 quint. Miglyptes tukki, Less.—S. F. VI, 132. 

166. Chrysocolaptes saltaneus, Hodgs.— Jerd. I, 281.— S. F. Ill, 64; VI, 183. 

166 bis. Chrysocolaptes delesserti, MalA.—S. F. Ill, 64; VI, 133. 
166 ter. Chrysocolaptes stricklandi. Lay. — S. F. VII, 368. 

167. Chrysocolaptes festivus, Bodd.— Jerd. I, 282.— S. F. I, 378; VII, 206. 

168. Maelleripicas pakeralentus. Tern.— Jerd. I, 284.— S. F. Ill, 66 ; VI, 138. 

168 bis. JDryoeopus martius, Lin.—S. F. I, 171 ; VII, 369. 

169. Thriponax hodgsoni, Jerd.— Jerd. I, 284.— S. P. Ill, 67 ; IV, 890. 

169 bis. Thriponax hodgii, Bly.—S. F. I, 63; II, 189 ; III, 67. 
169 ter. Thriponax crawfardi, J. E. Gr.—S. F. Ill, 66 ; VI, 134. 
169 quai. Thriponax javensis, Eors/.—S. F. Ill, 67; VI, 135. 

170. Oecinns sqaamatas, Vig. — Jerd. I, 286. 

171. Gecinas striolatas, %.— Jerd. I, 287.— S. F. Ill, 68. 

171 bis. Gecinus vittatas, FieiU.—S. F. Ill, 69; IV, 310 ; VI, 136. 
171 ter. Gecinas nigrigenis, Hume.—S. F. II, 444, 471fi.; VI, 136. 

172. Gecinas occipitalis, Vig. — Jerd. I, 287. 

173. Chrysophlegma flavinnchas, Gould.— Jerd. I, 289.— S. F. VI, 137. 

174. Chrysophlegma chlorolophas, VieiU.— Jerd. I, 289.— S. F. VI, 138. 

175. Chrysophlegma chlorigaster, Jerd. — Jerd. 1, 290.— S. F. VII, 517. 
175 bis. Callolophos mentalis. Tern.— 8. F. VI, 188. 



88 A BOUGH TBNTATIVS LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA; 

175 ter.-206] 

175 ter. Callolophns puniceuSy Hors/.—S. F. YI, 139. 

175 juat. Callolophns malacoeasis, Lalk — S. F. Ill, S24n. ; VI, 140. 

176. Blythipicus pyrrhotis, ffod^s.—Jerd. I, 291.— S. F. VI, 142 ; VII, 520. 

176 bis. Blythipicus porphvromelas, Boie.—B. F. VI, 143 ; VII, 520. 

177. Gecinulns grantia, McCML—Jerd. I, 292. 

177 bis. Gecinulus viridis, Bltf.—S. F. Ill, 71 ; VI, 144. [VI, 145. 

178. Micropternus phfleoceps, 5/y.— Jerd. 1, 294.— S. F. Ill, 72 ; V, 478, 481 ; 

178 bis. Micropternus brachynrus, VieilL—8. F. V, 473, 481 ; VI, 145. 

179. Micropternus gularis, Jerd.—Jerd. I, 294.— 8. F. V, 477, et seq. ; VII, 470. 

180. Braoliypternus aurantins, Lin. — Jerd. I, 295. — S. F. I, 171. 

181. Brachypternus puncticollis, Ifa/A.— Jerd. I, 296.— S. F. IV, 242. 

182. Brachypternus dilutus, Bly.— Jerd. 1, 297.— S. F. I, 171. 
182 bis. Brachypternus ceylonus, Forst—S. F. VII, 369. 

183. Tiga shorii, %.— Jerd. I, 298.— S. F. V, 497. 

184. Tiga javanensis, Ljung.— Jerd. I, 299.— S. F. Ill, 328 ; IV, 390 ; VI, 146. 

185. Tiga rubropygialis, JUalh.— Jerd. I, 299.— S. F. Ill, 328 ; IV, 890 ; VI, 146. 
185 bis. Ganropicoides rafflesi, Fig.—S. F. VI, 146. 

186. Vivia innominata, Burt.— Jerd. I, 300.— S. F. V, 851. 

187. Sasia ochracea, Bodgs.— Jerd. I, 801.— S. F. Ill, 75 ; VI, 148. 

188. Yunx torquilla, Lin. — Jeifl. I, 303, 

189. Tunx ifidicaj Oould.— Jerd. I, 304.— S. F. VII, 459. 

190. Indicator zanthonotus, £/y.— Jerd. 1,306.-8. F. I, 313, 426. 

190 bis. Calorhamphus hayi, J. B. Or.—S. F. VI, 149. 

191. Megal»ma marshallornm, Sunnh.— Jerd. I, 808.— S. F. VI, 150. 

191 bis. Megalsema virens, Bodd.—S. F. II, 472 ; VI, 150. 

192. Megalssma hodgsoni, fip.— Jerd. I, 309.— S. F. Ill, 75. 

193. Megalaema caniceps, Franil. — Jerd. I, 310. 

193 bis. Megakema inornata, fFald.—S. F. Ill, 401, 459. 
193 ter. Megalsema zeylanica, Om.—S. F. VII, 369. 

194. Megatema viridis, Bodd.— Jerd. I, 311.-8. F. I, 419 ; IV, 391. 

195. Megalaema asiatica, Ijath. — Jerd. I, 313. — 8. F. Ill, 77. 

195 bis. MegalsBma davisoni, Hume. — S. F. V, 108. 

196 ter. Megalaema incognita, Eume.—S. F. II, 442, 486 ; VI, 151, 501. 

196. Megalaema franklini, Bly. — Jerd. I, 314. 

196 bis. Megalaema ramsayi, Wald.—S. F. Ill, 402 ; VI, 152. 

196 Ur. Megalaema flavifrons, 6W— S. F. VII, 370. 

196 quat. Megalaema mystaoophanus. Tern. — 8. F. VI, 162. PIIi 77. 

197. Xantholaema haemacephala, P. L. S. Mull. — Jerd. I, 315. — 8. F. I, 453 

198. Xantholaema malabariea, Bly.— Jerd. I, 317.— S. F. IV, 892. 
198 bis. Xantholaema rubricapilla, (jm. — 8. F. VII, 871. 

198 ter. Megalaema cyanotis, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 77 ; VI, 155. 

199. Cuculus canorus, Zin.— Jerd. I, 322.-8. F. IV, 288. 

200. Cuculus striatus, /Trap.— Jerd. I, 323.— 8. F. II, 190. 

201. Cuculus poliocephalns, L€Uh. — Jerd. I, 324. 

202. Cuculus sonnerati, LaM.— Jerd. I, 325.-8. F. VI, 156 ; VII, 20?. 

203. Cuculus micropterus, Gould.— Jerd. I, 326.— 8. F. Ill, 79. 

204. Cuculus affinisy Hay.— Jerd. I, 328.-8. F. Ill, 79. 

205. Hierococcyx varius, Vahl. — Jerd. I, 329. 

205 bis. Hierococcyx nanus, Hume. — 8. F. V, 490 ; VI, 502. 

206. Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgs.— Jerd. I, 330.— 8. F. V, 96, 347 ; VI, 157. 



A BOUGH TIKTATITE LIBT OF THB BIED8 OW IVOIA. 89 

[207-233 

207. Hieroooccyx sparyeroides. Vig.^^erd. I, 831.---B. F. Ill, 80 ; VI, 157. 

207 bis. Hterococeyx niaoides, Bfy.—Q. P. VII, 871. 

808. Cacomantis paaserinus, Vahl. — Jerd. I^ 338. 

S09. Caoomantia threnodes. Cad.— Jerd. I, 385.— S. F. VI, I5R. 

210. SarDicuIna lognbris, Horrf.—Jerd. I, 336.-8. F. VI, 169. 

211. Chryaococcyz maculatas, &m.— Jerd. I, 3S8.— S. F. VI, 161, 502-6. 

211 bii. Chrjrsoeoceyx xanthorhynohna, Hor$f.—S. F. II, 191 ; III, 81 ; VI, 503-6. 
211 ter. Chryaocoecyx malayanns, Raffl. — S. F. VI, 508. 
211 quaL Chryaoooccyx limborgi, Wald.-^8. F. VII, 319. 

212. Coccystea jaoobinns, Bodd, — Jerd. I, 339. 

213. Coocyates coromandaa, Lin. — Jerd. I, 341. — 8. F. Ill, 82. 
214 Endynamia faonorata, Lim. — Jerd. I, 342. 

214 bU. Eudynamia malayana. Cab. ^ ^m.— 8. F. II, 192 ; III, 82 ; VI, 162. 

215. Rhopodytea triatis, L^m.— Jerd. I, 345.— 8. F. VI, 162. 

215 6u. Rhopodytea diardi, Lsu.—S. F. VI, 163. 

215 ter. Bhopodyiea aamatranua, Bajgi. — S. F. VI, 164. 

216. Rhopodytea Tiridiroatris, Jerd.— Jerd. I, 346.-8. F. VI, 163. 

216 Us. Phoanioophaea pyrrbocephalus, Farit.—S. F. I, 346 ; VII, 372. 
216 ter. Rhamphococcyx ery thrognathav, JTor^t.— -8. F. VI, 165, 506. 
216 quat. Bhinortha chlorophaea, BaM.~&. F. VI, 166. 

216 ^tnt. Zancloatomaa javanicus, JSora/.-^. F. VI, 167. 

217. CeDtroooccyx mfipennia, ///. — Jerd. 1, 348. — 8. P. I, 4£8. 

217 bis, Centrococeyx andamaDensis, 2^f.— >8. F. I, 64 ; II, 194. 
217 ter. Gentroooccyx chlororhynohns, ^/y^A.— 8. F. VII, 873. 

217 quai. Centrococeyx iniermedias, Hume. — 8. F. I, 464 ; VI, 169. 

2)7 ifidnt. Centroooocyx maximas, Rume.^^. F. I, 464 : VI, 169. [VI, 171. 

218. Centrococeyx ben^aleuBia, 6m.— Jerd. I, 350. — o. F. Ill, 84 ; V, 386 ; 

219. Taccocua leachenaulti, Z«m.— Jerd. I, 852.-8. F. V, 218. 

220. Taccocna airkee, J. E. Gr.—JevA., I, 853.— 8. F. V^ 219. 

221. Taccocaa infuacata, Bly. — Jerd. I, 853. 

?222. Taecociia affinis, %.— Jerd. I, 354.— 8. F. V, 219; VII, 208ii. 

223. Arachnothera magna, Hodge.— Jerd. I, 360.— 8. F* III, 85 ; VI, 178. 

228 (if. Arachnothera aurata, J/y.— 8. F. Ill, 85. [VII, 35. 

224. Arachnothera long^roatra, /^oM.— Jerd. I, 861.— 8. F. Ill, 85 ; Yl, 174 ; 
224 itf. Arachnothera modeata, ^.—8. F. Ill, 85 ; VI, 176. 

224 ter. Arachnothera chrysogenya, T&m.—%. F. Ill, 85 ; VI, 177. 

225. ^thopyga aeheriaB, 2fe*.— Jerd. I, 862.— 8. F. II, 396 ; V, 71, 122. 

225 bis. iBthopyga nicobarica, flum^.— 8. F. I, 412 ; II, 80, 85 ; V, 71. 
225 ter. ^thopyga cara, Hume.—B. F. II, 473n. ; V, 71 ; VI, 179. 

226. iEthopyga vigorsi, SyitrM.— Jerd. I, 863.-8. F. IV, 255 ; V, 71, 123. 

227. iEthopyga goaldiae, Ti^.— Jerd. I, 364.-8. F. V, 71. 
227 6tt. ^thopyga dabryi, T^r.— S- F. V, 71 ; VI, 180. 

228. JSthopyga ignicaoda, Hodas.— Jerd. I, 865.— S. F. V. 71. 

229. iBthopyga nipalenaia, Hodge.— Jerd. I, 866.-8. F. V, 71. 

230. Jlthopyga horafieldi. Big.— Jerd. I, 867.-8. F. V, 71. 

231. JJthopyga aaturata, Hodge.— Jerd. I, 867.— 8. F. V, 71. [VI, 182, 
231 6t«. ^thopyga aanguinipectna, Wold.— 9. F. Ill, 408; V, 51, 71, 71ii. ; 
231 ter. Chaicoatetha insignia, Jard.—8. V. Ill, 319ft. ; VI, 183. 

232. Cinnyria zeylonica, Liii.-^eid. I, 368.— 8. F. V, 270, 898- 

233. Cinnyria minima, Sykes.^Jerd. I, 869.— S. F. IV, 256, 392; V, 398. 

12 



90 A ROUGH TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIBDS OF INDIA. 

233 bis.— 257 ftw.] 

233 bU. Cinnyris braziliana, Cm.— S. F. V, 276 ; VI, 184. 

233 ter, Antbreptes malaccensisy Scop. — S. F. YI, 186. 

233 qiMi. Antbreptes simplex, S. MiUL—S. F. Ill, 3£0n. ; VI, 188. 

283 quint Antbreptes hypogrammica, S. M€tt.—S. F. VI, 178. 

233 sea. Cbalcoparia singalensis, 6m.— S. F. Ill, 86 ; V, 278 ; VI, 189. 

234. Cinnyris asiatica. Lath.— Jerd. I, 370.— S. F. VI, 190. 

234 bis. Cinnyris pectoralis, Horsf. (nee. 2>m.)— S. F. I, 64 ; II, 196 ; V, 70. 
234 ter. Cinnyris flammaxillaris, Bly.—S. F. IV, 318 ; V, 70 j VI, 192. 

234 quai. Cinnyris andamanica, Hume. — S. F. I, 404 ; V, 70. 

235. Cinnyris lotenia, Lin. — Jerd. I, 872. 

236. DicaBum cruentatum, i^tn.— Jerd. I, 373.— S. F. VI, 192. 

236 bis. Dicseum trigonostigma, Scop. — S. F. VI, 194. 

237. DicflBum chrysorrbaeum, Ttfai.— Jerd. I, 374.— S. F. VI, 195. 

237 bis. Dicaeum virescens, Hume. — S. F. I, 482. 

237 ter. Dic»um olivaceum, Wald.—S. F. Ill, 403 ; IV, 498 ; VI, 195. 

238. DicsBum erytbrorbyncbus. Lath.— Jerd. I, 874.— S. F. VI, 196. 
289. Dicseum concolor, Jerd. — Jerd. I, 375. 

240. Piprisoma agile, 2VcJt.— Jerd. I, 376.— S. F. Ill, 299. 
240 Am. Prionochilus pipra, Less.—S. F. VII, 372. 

240 ter. Prionocbilus vincens, Sclai. — S. F. IV, 493. 

240 qiutt. Prionocbilus percussus. Tern. — S. F. VI, 196. 

240 quint. Prionocbilus maculatus. Tern. — S. F. VI, 199. 

240 sea. Prionocbilus modestus, Hume.— 8. F. Ill, 298 ; VI, 200. 

240 sept. Prionochilus thoracicus, Tem.—S. F. VI, 198. 

241. Myzantbeignipectus, Hodgs. — Jerd. I, 377. 

242. Pacbyglossa melanoxantha, Hodgs.— Jerd. I, 378.— S. F. Ill, 299 ; V. 348. 

243. Certbia bimalayana, Fi^.— Jerd. I, 880.— S. F. V, 73. 

243 his. Certbia bodgsoni, Brooks.— S. F. Ill, 233n. ; V, 73. 

244. Certbia nipalensis, Hodgs. apud Bly. — Jerd. I, 881.— S. F. V, 77. 

244 bis. Certbia stoliczksB, Brooks.--^. F. V,'77. 

245. Certbia discolor, jB/y.— Jerd. I, 381.— S. F. V, 74. [462 ; IV, 232. 

246. Salpomis spilonota, Frankl.— Jerd. I, 382.— S. F. I, 376 ; II, 335, 397 ; III, 

247. Ticbodroma muraria, iin.— Jerd. I, 388.— S. F. V, 122. 

248. Sitta bimalayensis, Jard. ^ Selb. — Jerd. I, 385. 
248 bis. Sitta casbmerensis. Brooks. — S. F. Ill, 2&3n. 
248 ter. Sitta nagaensis, G.'Aust.—8. F. Ill, 391. 
248 quat. Sitta magna, W.-Rams.—S. F. V, ^43. 

? 248 quint. Sitta neumayeri, Mich.—S. F. V, 350 ; VII, 373. 

249. Sitta leucopsis, Gould.— Jerd. I, 385.— S. F. Ill, 234. 

250. Sitta castaneiventris, Frankl. — Jerd. I, 386. 

250 bis. Sitta neglecta. Wold.— 8. F. Ill, 87; VI, 201. 

251. Sitta cinnamomeiventris, Bly. — Jerd. I, 387. 

252. Sitta formosa, Big.— Jerd. I, 387. [VII, 459. 

253. Dendropbila frontalis, Horsf.— Jerd. I, 388.— S. P. Ill, 89, 436; VI, 201 ; 

254. Upupa epops, Zm.— Jerd. I, 390.— S. P. I, 174; III, 90. 
254 bis. Upupa longirostris, Jerd.— 8. P. Ill, 89 ; VI, 202. 

255. Upupa ceylonensis, Reich.— Jerd. I, 392.— S. P. Ill, 90; VII, 517. 

256. Lanius labtora, Sykes. — Jerd. I, 400. 

257. Lanius erytbronotns, F^.— Jerd. I, 402.— S. F. I, 174 ; VII, 374. 
257 bis. lianius caniceps, Bly.^S. F. IV, 243 ; VII, 374. 



A BOUQH TKNTATIVX LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 91 

[258-280 

258. Lanias tephronotua, Viff.—Jer&. I, 408.— S. P. VII, 874. 

259. Lanias nigriceps, Frankl.—Jerd. I, 404.— S. F. VII, 268. 
? 259 bit. Lanias auriculatas, P. L. S. MulL—S. F. VII, 117. 

260. Lanias vittatas, VaUne, — Jerd. I, 405. 
260 Us. Lanias oollorio, IAn.—S. F. Ill, 463. 

260 ter. Lanias ooUaroides, Leaa.-S. F. Ill, 90; VI^SOS. 

260 guat. Lanias magnirostris. Less. — S. F. VI, 203. 

261. Lanias cristatus, Zin.— Jerd. I, 406.— S. F. VII, 269, 270. 

261 A. Lanius tupereUioBuSy Lath.—S. F. VII, 270. 

261 6u. Lanios lacionensis, Lin.—S. F. I, 434 ; II, 199 ; IV, 398. 

262. Lanias isabellinas, Bemp. ^ Ehr.— Jerd. I, 407.— S. F. I, 174 ; II, 331. 

263. Tephrodornis pelvica, Bodgs.— Jerd. I, 409.— S. F. Ill, 92 ; VI, 205. 

264. Tephrodornis sylvicola, Jerd.— Jerd. I, 409.— S. F. VI, 508. 

265. Tephrodornis pondicerianas, Om. — Jerd. I, 410. — S. F. I, 435. 

265 bis. Tephrodamia affinis^ Bly.—S. F. I, 434. 

266. Moscitrea grisola, Bfy.—Jerd. I, 411.— S. F. II, 201 ; V, 101. 

266 bis. Mascitrea cyanea, Uume.S. F. V, 101 ; VI, 207 ; VII, 318. 

267. Hemipas picatas, ^Jt^.— Jerd. I, 412.— S. F. I, 435 ; III, 93 ; VI, 207. 
? 267 A. Hemipas capitalis, McClelL—S. F. I, 435 ; III, 93 ; VI, 208. 

267 bis. ffemipus obseurus, Borsf.—8. F. VI, 209. 

268. VolvociTora sjkesi, StrickL-^erd, I, 414. 

268 bis. VolFocivora avensis, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 93 ; V, 205. 
268 to-. Volvoewora culminataj Hay. — S. F. V, 495. 

268 quat. Volvocivora neglecta, Bume.-^S. F. V, 203. 

268 quini. Volvocivora vidaa, BartL—S. F. V, 206; VI, 508. 

269. Volvocivora melasobista, Bodgs. — Jerd. I, 415. — S. F. V, 205. 

269 bis. Volvocivora intermedia, Bume.—S. F. V, 205 ; VI, 210. 
269 bis A. Vohodvara melanuraj BariL^S. F. V, 206. 

269 ter. Lalage terat, Bodd.—S. F. I, 66 ; II, 202. 

269 quaL Hypocolias ampelinas, Bp.—S. F. Ill, 358 ; V, 349. 

270. arancalas macii, Less.— Jerd. I, 417.— S. F. II, 204,400 ; VI, 210. 

270 bis. Graucalus layardi, Bly.—8. F. II, 204, 400. 

270 ter. Graucalas dobsoni, Ball.—S. F. I, 66 ; II, 206. 

271. Pericroootas speciosas. Lath.— Jerd. I, 419.— S. F. II, 208 ; V, 175, 192, 414. 

271 bU. Pericroootas andamanensis, Ti/t.—S. F. II, 208 ; V, 175, 195. 

271 ier. Pericroootas elegans, MeCUU.—S. F. Ill, 95 ; V, 175, 194. [V, 175, 197. 

272. Pericroootas flammeas, J^br*^.— Jerd. I, 420.— S. F. Ill, 95 ; IV, 207, 394 ; 

273. Pcricrocotus brevirostris, Vig Jerd. I, 421.— S. F. V, 174, 187. 

273 bis. Pericroootas igneas, Bltf.—S. F. V, 171, 175, 190. 

? 273 ter. Pericroootas neglectas, Bwne.—S. F. V, 171, 175, 189. 

273 quat. Pericrocotus flammifer, Hume.—S. F. Ill, 820n. ; V, 175, 195 ; VI, 211. 

274. Pericrocotas Solaris, Bly.— Jerd. I, 422.— S. F. V, 174, 186. 

275. Pericrocotas rosens, VieUl.— Jerd. I, 422.— S. F. IV, 317 ; V, 174, 184. 

276. Pericroootas peregrinus, Zwi.^Jerd. I, 428.— S. F. I, 177 ; V, 174, 179. 

277. Pericrocotas erythropygias, Jerd.— Jerd. I, 424.— S. F. V, 174, 177. 
277 Kf. Pericrocotas albifrons, Jerd.—S. F. Ill, 96 ; V, 174, 178. 

277 ter. Pericrocotas immodestns. Bums.— 8. F. V, 174, 177. 

278. Bnchanga atra, Herm.— Jerd. I, 427.— S. F. IV, 278 ; VI, 213 ; VII, 272. 

279. Dicroras annectans, Bodgs. — Jerd. I, 430. [213. 

280. Bnchanga longicaadata, /Tay.— Jerd. I, 430.— S. F. Ill, 397 ; IV, 320 ; VI,. 



92 A ROUOH TKNTATIYB LIST OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 

280 bk.-^lO'] 

? 280 bis. Buchanga pyrrhops, Bodffi."^. F. Ill, 98 ; IV, 810; VI, 314. 
280 ter. Buchanga lenoophaea, Vieill. — S. F. VI, 214, et 9eq. 

280 quai. Bachanga leuooAenya, flTa/rf.— S. F. II, 210 ; VI, 316. 

281. Bachanga ceralescens, lAn, — Jerd. I, 432. 

281 Ua. Buchanga leuoopygialis, Bly.—^. F. VII, 374. 

281 ter. Buchanga inmUms^ Sharpe.^S. F. VII, 374. 

282. Ohaptia 8enea,Ftuft/;.— Jerd. I, 4SS.— S. F. VI, 218. 

282 6m. Chapda malayensis, Hay.—B. F. VI, 218. 

283. Bhringa remifer, Tern Jerd. I, 484.— S. F. VI, 2'18. 

288 bit. Dissemnroides dionirifonms, Bums. — S. F. I, 408 ; II, 211. 

283 ter. Dissemaroidea andamanenais, Tyt.—8. F. I, 66, 408 ; II, 211. 
283 quat. Dissemaroides lophorinos, rieill—S. F. VII, 375. 

284. Dissemurus grandia, OWd.-^erd. I, 485.— S. F. II, 212 ; VI, 218, 221, 509. 

285. DiaaemuriiB paradiaeus, £tii.— Jeid. 1, 437.«-S. F. II, 212 ; IV, 395 ; VI, 219. 

286. Ghibia hottentotta, Ziti.— Jerd. I, 439.— S. P. VI, 222. 

287. Artamos fhaoos, Fi<n//.— Jerd. I, 441.— S. F. V, 383. 
287 bis. Artaraaa lencorhynchos, Lin. — S. F. 11, 314. 

288. Mnscipeta paradisi, Ltn.*-^Jerd. I, 445.— S. F. Ill, 102; VII, 274. 

289. Muscipeta aiBnis, Zhy.— Jerd. I, 448.— S. F. Ill, 102 ; VI, 223. 

289 bis. Philentoma pyrrhopteruin, Tem.—B. F. VI, 223. 

289 ter. Philentoma velatum, TVm.— S. F. VI, 224, 509. 

290. Hypothymis azurea, ffo(U.-Jerd. I, 450.— S. F. II, 217 ; III, lOS. 

290 bis. Hypothymia tytleri, Beao.—& F. I, 68 ; II, 217. 

291. Leacocerca albicollis, VieUl.-^Jerd. I, 451. 

292. Leacocerca anreola, FtMU.— Jerd. I, 452.— S. F. Ill, 104. 

293. Leacocerca leaoogaater, Cuv.— Jerd. I, 453.— S. F. Ill, 457. 
293 bis. Leacooerea javanica, ^ithi.— S. F. I, 455 ; VI, 236. 

294. Chelidorhynx hypoxantha, 2?/y.*-Jerd. I, 455. 

295. C/ulicicapa ceylonensis, Sws. — Jerd. I, 455. 

296. Hemichelidon aibiricos, &m.— Jerd. I, 458. [SSS ; IV, 273 ; V, 470. 

297. Alseonax latiroatria, i2a^— Jerd. I, 459.— S. P. II, 219 ; III, 104, 234, 276, 

298. Alseonax terricolar, Hodgs.—Sevd. 1, 460.— S. F. II, 219 ; III^ 104, 234, 276, 

299. Akeonax ferrngineas, Hodgs.-^Jerd. I, 460. [366 ; IV, 273 ; V, 470. 
299 bis. Butalis grigola, laii.— S. F. Ill, 467 ; V, 220, 495. 

? 299 ter. Bntalis mattai, Lay.- 8. P. Ill, 867 ; VII, 513. 

300. Ochromela nigrorafa, Jerd.^^erd. I, 462. 

301. Sioporala melanopa, Vig. — Jerd. I, 46S. 

302. Stoporala albioaadata, Jerd.-^erd. I, 464. 
302 bis. Stoporala sordida, Watd.—S. F. Ill, 401. 

808. Cyornis anicolor, BZjr.— Jerd. I, 465.— S. F. V, 489n. ; VII, 516. 
304. Cyomia rabeculoides, 7^.— Jerd. I, 466.-8. P. VI, 227. 
805. ()famisjerdoni, Bfy.—Jerd. I, 466.— S. F. Ill, 468. 

306. CyorniB tickelli, B/y.-^erd. I, 467.— 8. F. Ill, 468. 

307. Gyornia rafioaadaa, ^<.— Jerd. I, 468.— 8. F. IV, 396 ; V, 339. 

807 bis. Cyornis mandellii, Hwne.^a. F. II, 510 ; IV, S96 ;VU, 456, 614. 
307 ter. Cyornis olivaceos, JBtmi*.- 8. F. V, 338 ; VI, 229. 

308. Cyornis magnirostria, B/y.— Jerd. I, 469. 

309. Cyornis pallipes, Jmi.— Jerd. I, 469.— 8. F. IV, 897. 
309 6m. Cyornis vividas, 8winh.—8. P. VI, 229. 

810. Muscicapola auperciliatis, J^rdL*— Jerd. I, 470.— S. F. V^ 415. 



A BOUGH TINTATIVK U8T OF THK BIRDS OT INDIA. 93 

[311-844 ter, 

311. Mnscicapnia astigma^ HadgB. — Jerd. Z, 47 L 

311 (if. Mascicapula ciliariB^ Hodgu. apod JBfy.-*— 8« F. Ill, 411. 

812. Mascicapola sapphira, Tiak. — Jerd. I, 471. 

313. NiUdttla bodgsoni, Moore. — Jerd. I, 472. 

314. Niltava sundara, Hodga. — Jerd. I^ 473. 

315. Niltava macgrigoria. Bur/.— Jerd. I, 475.— S. F. II, 475 ; VI, 231. 

316. Niltava grandis, %.— Jerd. I, 476.— S. F. VI, 232. 
817. Anthipes moniliger, Hodgi.^^Jetd. I, 477. 

317 bis. Anthipes sabmoniliger, //ui?i«.— S. F. V, 105. 
?318. Siphia tricolor, Eodga.— Jerd. I, 478.-8. F. V, 471. 
?318 bis. Siphia minuta, Hume.—S. F. VII, 376. 

319. Siphia strophiata, Hodgs. — Jerd. I, 479. 

320. Siphia leucomelaQura, Bodgs.— Jerd. I, 479.— S^ F. Ill, 235. 

321. Siphia super^iliaris. Bit/.— Jerd. I, 480. [137 ; VI, 238, 510. 

322. Siphia ery thaca, Big. ^ Jerd.— Jerd. I, 480.— 8. F. II, 458 ; III, 392 } V^ 
823. Erjthrostema albiciUa« PaU.— Jerd. I, 481.— S. F. Ill, 105 ; V, 471 ; VI^ 
823 bis. Erythrosterna parva, BechaL-^Jtrd. I, 481.— S. F. V, 47 L [238« 
323 ier. Erytbrostema byperythra, Cab.—S. P. VII, 376. 

? 324. Erytbrosterna pusilla, 5/y.— Jerd. 1, 482.— S. P. III^ 286 ; V, 471. 
?325. Erytbrosterna aoomaas. Big.— Jerd. I, 483.— &. F. V, 471. 

326. Erythrostema macnlata, 2tci.— Jerd. I, 483.— S. F. Ill, 236n., Z77. 

327. Tesia eastaneocoronata, J3ii9<— Jerd. I, 487. 
828. Tesia eyaniventris, Hodga. — Jerd. I, 487. 
329. Pnoepyg^ squamata^ G^uUl-^erd. I, 488. 

830. Pnoepyga pusilla, Bodge.— Jerd. I, 489.— &. F. VI, 284. 

331. Pnoepyga oaudata. Big. — Jerd. I, 490. 

332. Pnoepyga longicaudata, Moore.^^erd. T, 490. 

332 bis. Pnoepyga eboeolatiiia, Q.-Aust. 8^ FTdfU.— 8. F. IV, 218. 
332^. Tnrdinulns roberti, G.-Aust.^ Wald.^^. F. IV, 218; VI, 234. 

333. Troglodytes hipalensis, Hodgs.— Jerd. If 491.— S. P. IV, 402. 

333 bis. Troglodytes neglectas, jBrooii .— S. F. IV, 492w 

334. Troglodytes pnnctatns, %.— Jerd. I, 492.— S. F. II, 525 ; V, 238. 
835. Rimator malacoptilns, Big. — JerdL ly 493. 

336. Bracbypteryx nipalensis, Bodgs. — JenL I, 494* — S. F. VI, 236. 

337. Bracbypteryx byperythra, Jerd. ^ BZy.— Jerd. I, 495.— Su P. V, 499. 

338. Bracbypteryx cmralis. Big. — Jerd. I, 495. 

388 bis. Bracbypteryx palliseri, Blg.—S. F. VII, 377, 

838 ter. Bracbypteryx stellatas, OouZd.— S. P. VII, 377.. 

339. Callene rufiventris, £/y.— Jerd. I, 490. 

839 bis. Callene albiventris, Faii^>.—S. P. V, 4aBfi..; VII^ 8S, 36. 
339 ter. CaUene iodgsoni, Moore. — S. F. Ill, 411. 

340. Callene frontalis, Big.— Jerd. I, 496. 

341. Hodgsonins phoBnicuroides, Bodjge.-^eitd. 1, 497. 

342. Myiophoneus horsfieldi, Fig.-Jerd. I, 4S».— 8. F. Ill, 469; VII, 150, 467. 

343. Myiophoneus temmincki^ Fi^«— Jerd. I, 500.— 9. F. II, 331. 

343 bis. Myiopboneus eugenii, Bume.~8. F. I, 47&; V, llSfi.;. VI, 236. 

343 ter. Arrenga bfighiy Eotd^.—S. F. VII, 378. 

344. Hydromis nipalenfiis, fTod^A.— Jerd. I, 502«— ^ F. I,. 477. 

344 Us. Hydromis oatesi, Bume.-^. F. I, 477 ; VI, 237* 
344 ter. Pitta cyanea, %.— S. F. Ill, 107 ^ VI,. 288. 



94 A ROUGH TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

344 quat.—Vl2 ter.'] 

344 quat. Pitta csBrnlea, Rajgi.—S. F. Ill, 321fi.; YI, 238, 510. 

345. Pitto brachyura, Lin.— Jerd. I, 503.— 8. P. Ill, 298; V, 416. 

345 bis. Pitta molucoensiB, P. L. S. MiaL—8. P. Ill, 106; VI, 240. 

845 ter. Pitta megarhynoha, Schl.—S. P. VI, 242. 
? 34,bquat. Pitta coccinea, Ei/i.—a. F. VI, 611. 

346. Pitta cuculata, HartL— Jerd. I, 504.— S. P. Ill, 109 ; VI, 243. 

846 bis. Pitta gnrneyi, Hume.— 8. P. Ill, 296 ; VI, 244. 
846 ter. Anthocincla phayrii, Ely.— 8. P. Ill, 109 ; VI, 246.. 

347. Cinclns afliaticns, 8ws. — Jerd. I, 506. 

348. CiDclus cashmeriensis, Gould. — Jerd. I, 507. 

349. Cinclas sordidas, Gould. — Jerd. I, 507. 
S49 bis. CindaB pallasi, Tem.—ti. P. VII, 878. 
850. 2k>othera monticola, Ft^. — Jerd. I, 509. 

350 bis. Zoothera marginata, Bfy.—S. F. VI, 246. 

351. CyanocinduB cyanua, Ltii.— Jerd. I, 511.— S. P. Ill, 112; VI, 247. 

351 his. CyanocincluB BolitariiiB, P. L. 8. Mull.— 8. P. Ill, 112 ; VI, 248. 
851 ter. Monticola saxatilis, Ztfi.— S. P. VII, 379. 

851 quat. Petroeincla castaneicollis, Less. — Jerd. 1, 514. 

352. Petrophila erythrogastra, Vig. — Jerd. I, 514. 

353. Petrophila cinclorhyncha, Fi^.— Jerd. I, 515.— S. P. IV, 398. 

354. Geocichia cyanotiB, Jard. ^ Selb.— Jerd. I, 517.— S. P. IV, 898. 
? 354 bis. Oeocicbia layardi, Wald.—a. P. Ill, 401. 

355. Gbocichla citrina, La^&.— Jerd. I. 517.— S. P. VI, 250. 

356 bis. Geocichia albogularis, Ely. —8. P. I, 69 ; II, 221,496; IV, 289. 

355 ter. Geocichia innotata, Bfy.—S. P. I, 69 ; VI, 250. 

856 qtiat. Geocichia tricolor, Hume. — S. F. Ill, 409. 

856. Geocichia unicolor. Tick. — Jerd. I, 619. 

357. TurduluB wardi, Jerd. -^ Jerd. I, 520.— S. P. IV, 244 ; V, 202. 

? 858. Geocichia diBsimiliB, Bfy. — Jerd. I, 621. 

359. Memla nigropilea, Lajr. — Jerd. I, 523. 

? 359 bis. Memla valgaris, Leaei.—8. P. VII, 880. 

860. Morula simillima, Jerd.-^erd. I, 624. 

360 bis. Memla kinniBi, Kel—S. P. VII, 36. 

361. Memla boulboul, Xo/A.— Jerd. I, 525. 

362. Memla albocincta, Boyle. — Jerd. I, 526. 

863. Mertda castanea, Gould. — Jerd. I, 526. 

864. Turdas nificolliB, PaU.— Jerd. I, 528. 

365. Tardus atrogularis, Ttfm.— Jerd. 1, 529. 

366. TurduB dubiuB, Beehst.— Jerd. I, 530. 
? 367. Turdus pilaris, Ltn.— Jerd. I, 530. 
868. Turdas viscivoms, Lin. — Jerd. I, 681. 
369. TurduB iliacus, Zrtn.- Jerd. I, 532. 

869 bis. Turdus obscuras, ^^—8. P. I, 69 ; VI, 251. 

869 ter. Turdus pallidus, Gm.—B. P. VI, 253. 

369 quat. Turdus sibericus. Pall— 8. P. VI, 255, 513. 

870. Oreocinda mollissima, Bly. — Jerd. I, 633. 

371. Oreocincla dauma, Lo^A.— Jerd. I, 583.— S. F. Ill, 115 ; VI, 256. 

872. Oreocinda nilgheriensis, Bly.— Jerd. I, 534. — S. F» IV, 899. 

372 bis. Oreocinda inframarginataj Bly. — S. P. I, 70. 

372 Ur. Oreodncla spiloptera, Bly.— 8. P. VII, 382. . 



A BOUGH TINTATIYB LIST OT THX BIRDS OF IKBIA. 95 

[372 quat.—ZW ter. 

372 quat. Oreocinda imbricata, Lay.— S. F. VII, 383. 

? ^12 quint Oreocinda gregoriana, Nev. — S. F. I, 487 ; IV, 244. 

373. Paradoxornis flayirostrisy 6rOttU.— Jerd. II, 4. — S. F. II, 457. 

373 bi3. Paradoxornis austeni, Gould.— &. F. Ill, 892. 

374. Paradoxornis gularis, Horsf. — Jerd. II, 5. 

375. Paradoxornis ruficeps, Bfy. — Jerd. II, 5. — S. P. VI, 257. 

376. Heteromorpha unieolor, ffadgs, — Jerd. II, 6. 

377. Chlenasicus ruficeps, Bfy Jerd. II, 7.— S. F. V, 499. 

378. Snthora nipalensis, HodgB, — Jerd. II, 8. 

379. Snthora poliotis, Bly. — Jerd. II, 9. 

380. Snthora fulvifrons, Hodgs, — Jerd. II, 9. 

380 hit. Snthora munipurensis, O.^AuU.—^. F. IV, 216, 489 ; V^ 138 ; VI, 258. 

381. Gonostoma semodinm, Bodgi, — Jerd. II, 10. 

382. Grammatoptila striata, Vig, — Jerd. II, 11. 

383. Thamnocataphus picatus. Tick, — Jerd. II, 13. 

383 6m. Heterorhynchns hnmii, ifand.— 8. F. I, 415 ; IV, 217 ; V, 288. 

383 ter. Heterorhynchns roberd, O.-AuBi. ^ WalcL—S. F. IV, 217 ; V, 288. 

384. Oampsorhynchns rnfulns, Blf/. — Jerd. II, 14. 

384 hU. Oampsorhynchns torquatns, Hume. — S. F. 11, 446 ; VI, 258. 

385. Pyctoris sinensis Gm. — Jerd. II, 15. 

? 385 fcu. Pyctoris nasalis, Legge. — S. F. VIII, 73. 

386. Pyctoris longirostris, Hodgs.— Jerd. II, 16.— S. P. Ill, 897 ; VII, 153. 
S86 bia. Pyctoris altirostris, Jerd.—S. F. Ill, 115 ; IV, 504 ; V, 116, 249. 

? 386 ter. Pyctoris griseigularis, nume.—S. F. IV, 504; V, 116, 250. 

887. Trichaetoma abbotti, Bly.— Jerd. II, 17.— 8. F. VI, 259. 

387 bia. Trichastoma minns, Hume.— 8. F. II, 535 ; III, 403 ; V, 59 ; VI, 259, 614. 

387 ter. Trichastoma mbiginosum, Wald. — 8. F. Ill, 404. 

387 qiuU. Trichaetoma leueoprociumy Tweed. — S. F. VII, 318. 

388. Alcippe nipalensis, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 18. 

888 bia. Alcippe phayrii, Bly.— 8. F. Ill, 116 ; V, 56, 60 ; VI, 260. 
? 388 ter. Alcippe fusca, O.-Auet.-^. F. V, 54 ; VI, 261. 

389. Alcippe poiocephala, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 18. 

390. Aldppe atriceps, Jerd.—3exd. II, 19.— 8. F. IV, 485. 
390 bia. Aldppe bourdilloni, Hume.— 8. F. IV, 485 ; VII, 36. 
390 ter. Aldppe nigrifrons, Bly.—S. F. IV, 485 ; VII, 388. 
390 quat. Turdinns crispifrons, Bly.—S. F. V, 87 ; VI, 262. 

390 qvini. Turdinns brevicaudatus, Bly.— 8. F. VI, 262 ; VII, 462. 

390 aex. Tnrdinns guttatns, Tick.— 8. F. V, 251 ; VI, 264. 

390 aepu Tnrdinns garoensis, Q.-Auat.—^. F. Ill, 393 ; VI, 278, 514. 

391. Stachyris nigriceps, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 21.— 8. F. Ill, 117 ; VI, 264. 

392. Stachyris pyrrhops, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 21. 

393. Stachyris ruficeps, Bly.— derd. II, 22.-8. F. VI, 266. 

393 bia. 8tachyris rnfifrons, Hume.— 8. F. I, 479 ; VI, 265. 

394. Stachyris chrysea, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 22. 

394 bia. 8tachyris assimilis, Wald.—S. P. V, 56 ; VI, 265. 

395. Mixomis mbricapiUus, Tic*.— Jerd. II, 23.-8. F. Ill, 118 ; VI, 266. 

395 bia. Mixomis gnlaris, Hora/.—S. F. VI, 266. 

S96. Timalia bengalensis, O.-Auai.— Jerd. II, 24.-8. F. Ill, 118 ; VI, 267. 

396 bia. Cyanoderma erythropternm, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 322». ; VI, 269. 
396 ter. Malacopterum magnum, £y^— 8. F. VI, 270. 



96 A BOnOH TKNTATIVB U8T OF THS BIRDS OF IMUIA. 

396 quat.-^U] 

896 quai. Malacopternm ferru;i;ino8nm^ Bly. — S. F. VI, 278. 
896 quint. Malacopternm mafi^airoatris, Moore. — S. F. VI, 274. 
896 sex. Drymoeataphns iiij2fricapitatuB, Eyt. — S. F. VI, 275. 
897. Dnmetia hyperythra, Frankl. — Jerd. II, 26. 

398. Dnmetia albojjnlaris, Bty.— Jerd. II, 26.— S. F. Ill, 471 ; IV, 899. 

399. Pelloraeum rnficeps. Sir*.— Jerd. II, 27.— S. F. I, 298 ; VI, 277, 
899 bis. Fellorneum nipalensis, Hodgs. — S. F. I, 298n. 

399 ier. Pellorneum tickeUi, Bly.-S. F. I, 299n. ; IV, 406 ; VI, 277, 514. 

899 ter A. Pellornenm ignotnm, Hume.—S. F. V, 334 ; VII, 148. 

399 quat. Pellornenm palnstre, Jerd,^%. P. I, 4. 

899 quint. Pellornenm fuscocapillnm, S/y.— S. F. I, 299n. [VI, 278. 

399 sex. Pellomeum snboohracenm, SurtnA.— S. F. I, 298 ; III, 120 ; IV, 406 ; 

399 sept. Pellomeum pectoralis, O.^Aust.—S. F. V, 840. 

400. Fomatorhinns ruficollis, Hodgs.^-Jerd, II, 29. 

401. Pomatorhinng ferrnginosns, #(y.— Jerd. II, 29.— S. F. VI, 279. 
401 4m. Pomatorhinns phayrii, B/y.— 8. F. VI, 279, 

401 ter. Poraatorbinns ochraceioepa, PFaU.— S. F. Ill, 282 ; VI, 281. [5U. 

401 quat. Pomatorhinus albignlaris, J3Z^.— S. F. Ill, 404 ; V, 136 ; VI, 280, 281, 
401 quint. Pomatorbinna stenorhjnohns, G.^Aust. — S. F. V, 343. 

402. Pomatorhinus schisticeps, Hodgs, — Jerd. II, 29. — S. F. Ill, 121. 

403. Pomatorhinns lenco^aster, 6o«M.— Jerd. II, 30.— S. F. VI, S&82, 284. 
408 bis. Pomatorhinns olivaceus, 5/y.— S. F. V, 137; VI, 283. 

403 ter, Pomatorhinus nuchalis, Fa/^f.— S. F. VI, 284. 

404. Pomatorhinns horsfieldi, Sgies. — Jerd. II, 31, 

404 bis. Pomatorhinns melannrns, Big.— 8. F. I, 437 ; VII, 333. 
404 ^«r. Pomatorhinns obscnrns, Hume. — S. F. I, 7 ; III, 471. 

404 quat. Pomatorhinns macclellandi, Jerd, — S. F. Ill, 412. 

405. Pomatorhinns erythrogenys, Vig, — Jerd. II, 31. 

405 bis. Orthorhinus hypolencns, Big. — S. F. V, 31. 
? 405 ier. Orthorhinns inglisi, Hume.^S. P. V, 83. 

405 quat. Orthorhinns tickelli, ffume.—S. F. V, 32 ; VI, 285. 

406. Xiphoramphns snperciliaris, jBZy.-<-Jerd. II, 33, 

407. Garrnlax lencolophns, Hardw. — Jerd, II, 35. 

407 bis. Garrnlax belangeri, Less.—^. F. Ill, 122; VI, 286. 

408. Oarrnlax csBmlatns, Bodgs.^^J erd, II, 36. 

408 A. Oarrnlax snbc«rnlatu8, Bume.—S. F. VII, 140. 
408 bis. Oarrnlax strepitans, Tick.—S. F. VI, 288. 
408 ter. Garrnlax chinensis, Seop.S. F. VI, 289. 

408 quat. Garrnlax nnohalis, O.-Aust.—S. F. V, 58. 

409. Garrnlax delesserti, Jerd.— Jerd. II, 37.— S. F. IV, 399. 

409 bis. Garrnlax cinereifrons, Blg.S. F. VII, 384. 
409 ter. Garrnlax gnlaris, McCUU.—&, F. Ill, 412. 
409 quat. Garrnlax galbanns, G.'Aust.—8. F. Ill, 394. 

409 quint. Garrnlax sannio, SunnA.—S. F. Ill, 393 ; IV, 502, 

410. Gurrnlax mficollis, Jard. ^ Selb. — Jerd. II, 38. 

411. Garrnlax albogalaris, 6o«M.— Jerd. II, SB. 

412. Garrnlax pectoralis, (?o«W.— Jerd. II, 89.— S. F. Ill, 122 ; VI, 291. 

413. Garrnlax moniliger, Hodgs.— Jerd. II, 40.— S. F. Ill, 123 ; VI, 291. 
413 Us. Garrnlax memlinns. Big.— 8. F. Ill, 394. 

414. Garrnlax ocellatns, Vig. — Jerd* II, 41. 



A BOUGH TBNTATIVK LI8T OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 97 

[415-443 bis. 

415. Trochalopteram erytbrocephalam, Vig. — Jerd. IT, 43. 
419 bis. Trochalopteram ruficapillom, Bfy.—B. F. VII, 385. 
415 ter. Trochalopteram melanostigma, Bfy.^*S. F. VI, 29 U 

416. Trochalopterom chrysopteram, Gould. — Jerd. II, 43. 

417. Trochalopteram subanicolor, Hodgs. — Jerd. 11, 44. 

417 biB. Trochalopteram aasteni, Jer<2.— «S. F. Ill, 414. 

418. Trochalopteram variegatam, Vig. — Jerd. II, 45. — S. F. VII, 457. 

418 hU. Trochalopteram simile, /ftime.— S. F. Ill, 407 ; VII, 457. 
418 ter. Trochalopteram ci&eraoeam, G.-Atut. — S. F. Ill, 395. 

419. Trochalopteram afBoe, Hodgs.— Jerd. II, 45. 

420. Trochalopteram sqaamatam, Gould. — Jerd. II, 46. 

421. Trochalopteram rafigalare, Gould.— Jerd. II, 47.— S. F. VII, 155. 

422. Trochalopteram phoeaiceam, Gott/d.— Jerd. II, 48» 

423. Trochalopteram caohionaas, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 48. 

423 biB. Trochalopteram fairbaoki, Bkmf.S. F. Ill, 413 ; V, 404 ; VII, 36. 

424. Trochalopteram ierdoni, Bbf.— Jerd. II, 49.— S. F. V, 404. 

425. Trochalopteram fiaeatam, Vig. — Jerd. II, 50. 

425 his. Trochalopteram virgatam, G.-Aust—S. F. Ill, 395. 

426. Trochalopteram imbricatam, Hodgs. — Jerd. IF, 51. 

427. Actiaodara egertoui, Gould.— Jerd. II, 52.— S. F. VII, 153. 
427 bis. Actiaodara waldeni, G.'Aust.—S. F. Ill, 396. 

427 ter. Actioodara ramsayi, Wald. — S. F. Ill, 404. 

427 quat. Actinodara oglii, G.-Ausi.- B. ¥. V, 341 . 

428. Actinodara nipalensis, Hodgs.— Jerd. II, 53.— S. F. IV, 219. 

428 iM. Actinodara daflaenBis, G.'Au$t.—B F. IV, 219. 

429. Haladaa capistratns, Vig. — Jerd. II, 54. 

429 bis. Malacias gracilis, McCUU.—B. F. Ill, 413. 
429 ter. Malacias polcbellas, G.^Aust.—Q. F. Ill, 281. 
429 qwa. Malacias melanolencas, Tick.—S. F. VI, 293. 

430. Sibia picaoides, Hodgs.-Jerd. II, 56.— S. F. VI, 294. 

431. Acanthoptila nipalensis, Hodgs.—Jerd. II, 57.— S. F. VII, 459. 

431 bis. Malacocercas fMotia, Hodge.— S. F. VII, 459. 

432. Malacocercas terricolor, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 59. 

432 Ul Malacocercas striatas, Sws.—S. F. VII, 385. 

433. Malacocercas griseas, Zo^A.— Jerd. II, 60.— S. F. IV, 456. 

434. Malacocercas malabaricas, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 62. 

435. Malacocercas somerrillii, Sgkes. — Jerd. II, 63. 

436. Argya malcolmi, Sgkes. — Jerd. II, 64. 

437. Layardia sabrafa, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 66. 

437 bis. Layardia rafescens. Big.— 8. F. VII, 386. 

438. Chatarrhaea candata, Dum. — Jerd. II, 67. 

? 43» bis. Chatarrhsea hattoni, Bly.-S. F. V, 337. 
?438 ter. Ghatarrhsa eclipes, Hume.—S. F. V, 837. 

439. Chatarrhaa earUi, BZy.— Jerd. II, 68.— S. F. I, 180, 420 ; III, 124. 
439 bis. GhatarrhaBa gnUns, Blg.—S. F. Ill, 124. 

440. Megalaras palostris, Horsf.— Jerd. II, 70.— S. F. VI, 295. 

441. Chstomis striatas, Jerd.— Jerd. II, 72.— S. F. V, 209. 

442. Schcenicola platyanu, Jerd.— Jerd. II, 73.— S. F. VII, 37. 

443. Laticilla bumesi, Biy.— Jerd. II, 74.— S. F. I, 180. 
443 bU. Laticilla cinerascens, JTald.^ S. F. Ill, 280. 

13 



98 h BOUGH TBMTATIYS LIST OF THE BIBD8 OF INDIA. 

441-462 bi8.^ 

444. Hypsipetes psaroides, Vig.-^Jevd. 11, 77.— S. F. YI, 895. 

445. Hypsipetes nilgheriensis, Jerd.—Jevd. II, 78.— S. F. IV, 400. 

446. Hypsipetes ganesa, 8ykes.^ Jevd. II, 78.— S. F. IV, 400 ; VI, 295. 

446 bis. Hypsipetes concolor, Bly.—S. ¥. V, 109 ; VI, 295. 

447. Hypsipetes macclellandij Bars/.— Jerd. II, 79.— S. F. VI, 298. 

447 bis. Hypsipetes tickelli, £(y.— S. F. VI, 296, 298. 
447 ter. Hypsipetes malaocensis, J?fy.-— S. F. VI, 298. 

447 quat. Hypsipetes nioobariensis. Bars/, if Moore.— B. F. I, 70 ; II, 223 ; VI, 298. 

448. Hemixus flavala, Hodfs.—Jerd. II, 80.— S. F. V, 111. 

448 bis. Hemixus hildebrandi, Hume.^8. F. II, 608 ; V, 111. 

448 ter, Hemixus davisoui, Hume. — S. F. V, 111. 

449. Alcuros striatas, Bfy Jerd. II, 81.— S. F. VI, 299. 

449 bis, Trachycomus ochrocepbalns, Om. — S. F. I, 455 ; VI, 300. 

450. Criniger ictericus, Striekl.^^eri. 11, 82, 

451. Oriniger flaveolus, Oould.—Jetd. II, 83.— S. F. I, 478. 
451 bis. Criniger griseieeps, ffume.—S. F. I, 478 ; VI, 800. 
451 ter. Criniger gutturalis, 8. MiUL—S. F. VI, SOI, 515. 
451 quat. Criniger pbaooepbalns, i7<2rti.*-«S. F. VI, 302. 
451 quint. Criniger tristis, Bly.—S. F. VI, SOS. 

451 sex. Tricholestes criniger, ffajf, — S. F. VI, 304. 

452. Ixus Inteolus, Less. — Jerd. II, 84. 

452 bis. Ixus flavescens, Bly.—8. F. VI, 306. 
452 ter. Ixus finlaysoni, SirickL^S. F. VI, 307. 

452 quat. Ixus dayisoni, Eume.—S. F. Ill, 301, 403 ; IV, 498. 

452 quint Ixus blanfordi, Jerd.—S. F. Ill, 125. 

452 sew. Otocorapsa analis, Borsf.-S. F. I^ 457 ; II, 333 ; VI, 308. 

452 sept. Ixus plumosus, Bfy.—S. F. Ill, 328n.; VI, 309. 

452 act. Ixus brunneus, Bly.—8. F. Ill, 322ii. ; VI, 310, 312. 

452 nov. Ixus pusillus, Salvad.—8. F. VI, 312. 

452 dee. lole viridescens, £/y.— S. F. VI, 815, 515. 

453. Ixus xantbolsBmus, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 85. 

453 bis. Spizixus canifrons, j8/y.— S. F. VII, 386. 

454. Kelaartia pencillata, Bly. — Jerd. II, 86. 

455. Rubigula gularis, 6ou/</.— Jerd. II, 87. 

455 bis. Rubigula melanictera, 6m.— 8. F. VII, 387. 

456. Rubigula flaviventris, Kc*.— Jerd. II, 88.— S. F. VI, 317. 

457. Brachypodius poiocephalus, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 89. 

457 bis. Brachypodius melanocephalns, Gm.— S. F. IV, 824 ; VI, 318. 
457 ter. Brachypodius fusooflavescens, Hume. — S. F. 1, 71, 297. 
?457 quat. Brachypodius cinereiventris, Bit/. — S. F. VI, 319. 
457 quint. Ixidia cyaniventris, Bl^.—S. F. VI, 320. 

458. Otocompsa leucogenys, J. E. Gr. — Jerd. II, 90. 

459. Otocompsa leucotis, Gould. — Jerd. II, 91. — S. F. I, 181. 

460. Otocompfla emeria, Ztn.— Jerd. II, 92.— S. F. II, 225 ; VI, 821. 
460 bis. Otocompsa fuscicaudata, G^nU.— S. F. I, 309. 

460 ter. Otocompsa moutieoU, jUcCUU.—8. F. I, 309 ; III, 126. 

461. Molpastes pygseus, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 93. 

? 461 Us. Molpastes intermedios, Hay.^8. F. Ill, 127. 

462. Molpastes hsamorrhous, <?m.— Jerd. II, 94.— S. F. Ill, 127. 
462 bis. Molpastes nigropileus, BI9.—8. F. Ill, I26n. ; VI^ 321. 



A KOUGH TKNTATIVB LIST OF THE BIRDS OF IKDIA. 99 

[462 ^er.— 492 bis. 

482 ter. Molpastes atricapillus, VieiU.—S. F. VI, 822. 

463. Pbyllorms jerdoni, ^i^.— Jerd. II, 97. 

463 6m. Phyllornia chlorocephalue, JTaW.— 8. P. Ill, 127; VI, 323. 
463 ier. Phyllornis javensia, 5br#/.— S. F. VI, 324. 
463 mat. Phyllornis cyanopogon. Tern, — 8. P. VI, 325. 

464. Phyllornis malabaricnB, dm.— Jerd. II, 98. 

465. Phyllornis anrifrons. Tern.— Jerd. II, 99.— S. P. Ill, 129 ; VI, 826. 

466. Phyllornis hard wickii, Jard. ^ 5^/6.— Jerd. II, 100. [420 et sea. 

467. lora zegloniea, Cm.— Jeid. II, 101.— S. P. I, 438; II, 469; III, 129; V, 

468. lora tiphia, itJi.— Jerd. II, 103.— 8. P. I, 488; II, 459 ; III, 129 ; V, 428. 
468 bit. lora nigrolutea, Mareh.—^. P. IV, 410; V, 134, 441 ; VII, 454. 

468 ter. lora viridissima, Tem.—^. P. V, 427 ; VI, 827. 
468 quat. lora lafresnayii, HarU^S. V. V, 423; VI, 516. 

469. Irena puella, La^A.— Jerd. II, 105.— S. P. Ill, 180. 

470. Oriolns kundoo, Sykee.^-'Jerd. II, 107. 

470 bis. Oriolns galbula, Lm.— 8. P. I, 182 ; VII, 887. 

471. Oriolns indicns, Jerd.— Jerd. II, 109.— S. P. II, 477; III, 132 ; VI, 829. 

471 bis. Oriolns andamanensis, Tyt— S. P. I, 72 ; II, 226 ; III, 132. 
471 ter. Oriolns tennirostris, Bh/.—S. P. Ill, 131 ; VI, 329. 

471 quat. Oriolns macrnrus, Bly.—S. P. I, 71 ; II, £28 ; III, 182. [133 ; VI, 330. 

472. Oriolns melanocephalns, Ltn.— Jerd. II, 110.— S. P. I, 439; II, 230; III, 

473. Oriolns ceiflonensis, Bp. — Jerd. II, 111. — S. P. I, 439. 
473 bis. Oriolns xanthonotus, Hatsf.—S. P. VI, 330. 

474. Oriolns trailli, Fiy.— Jerd. II, 112. 

475. Copgychns sanlaris, Lin.— Jerd. II, 114.— S. F- II, 230 ; VI, 882. 

475 bis. Copsychns mnsicns, Raffl.—S. F. I, 458 ; VI, 332. 

476. Cercotrichas maorura, G»^— Jerd. II, 116.— S. F. VI, 388. 

476 bis. Cercotrichas albiventris, Bfy.—S. P. I, 73 ; II, 282. 

477. Myiomela lencnra, Bodgs.— Jerd. II, 118.— 8. P. VI, 834. 

478. Orandala ccBlicolor, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 119. 

479. Thamnobia fnlicaia, JUn.— Jerd. II, 12L— S.P. I, 182. 

480. Thamnobia cambaiensis, Z^aM.— Jerd. II, 122.— S. P. I, 182. 

481. Pratincola eaprata, £«n.— Jerd. II, 123. 

482. Pratincola bicolor, Sykes.— Jerd. II, 124. [VI, 334. 

483. Pratincola indicns, jB/y.— Jerd. II, 124.— 8. P. Ill, 239ii., 429 ; V, 181, 241 ; 

484. Pratincola lencnrus, 5fy.— Jerd. II, 126.— 8. P. I, 188. [VII, 454, 519. 

485. Pratincola insignis, Hodgs.— Serd. II, 127.— S. P. Ill, 880 ; V, 132, 496 ; 
485 bis. Pratincola macrorhynchns, S«oZ.— S. P. IV, 40n. ; V, 132, 289, 244 ; VII, 65. 

486. Pratincola ferrous, Bodgs. — Jerd. II, 127. 

487. Oreicola jerdoni, Bfy. — Jerd. II, 128. 

488. 8axicola opistbolencus, Strieil. — Jerd. II, 180. 

489. Saxicola pieatns, ^Zy.— Jerd. II, 181.— 8. P. I, 3, 184. 

489 bis. Soxicola alboniger, ifumtf.— S. F. I, 2, 185. 

490. 8axicola morio. Hemp. ^ Ehr.—Jerd. II, 181.-8. P. I, 8, 184. 

490 bis. Saxicola monaohns, jRupp. — S. P. I, 186. 

490 ter. Saxicola lencomelas, PaU.—S. F. I, 185 ; Vll, 118. 

491. Saxicola isabellinns, Bapp.— Jerd. II, 132.— 8. P. 1, 187. 

491 bis. Saxicola kingi, Hume.— 3. P. 1, 187 ; VII, 57. 

492. Saxicola deserti. Hupp.- Jerd. II, 182.-8. F. 1, 188. 

492 bis. Saxioola bendersoni, Htme.^S. F. II, 526 ; VII, 388. 



100 A ROUGH TKNTATIYB LIST OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA^ 

492 /^n— 524] 

492 ter. Aedon familiaris, JU^dir.—S. F. Ill, 476. 

498. Cercomela melanura, iJtop.— Jerd. II, 133. --S. F. I, 188. 

494. Cercomela fusca, Bly. — Jerd. II, 184. 

495. BuiicUla phanieuroj Lin. — Jerd. II, 136. 

496. Ruiicilla phcmicuroideBj Moore.— Jerd. II, 136.— S. F. I, 189 ; II, 380; Y, 36. 

497. Ruticilla rufiventriB, Vieill.^Jeri. II, 187.— S. F. 1, 189 ; II, 380 ; V, 36. 
497 bis. Ruticilla erythroprocta^ Gould.— S. F. I, 189 ; II, 330; Y, 86. 

497 ter. Ruticilla mesoleuca, Bemp. if Ehr. — 8. P. YII, 114. 

498. Baticilla hodgsoni, J/oore.— Jerd. II, 188.— S. F. YII, 114, et aeq. 

498 bia. Ruticilla erythronota, Everm.—S. F. YII, 389. 

499. Ruticilla erythrogastra, Guld.—Jeri. II, 139. 

500. Ruticilla anrorea, Pall. — Jerd. II, 139. 

501. Ruticilla «chi8tioepe, Hodge.- Jerd. II, 140.— S. F. lY, 497. 

502. RuticUla nigroffularis, Bodge, in Moore. — Jerd. II, 140. — S. F. lY, 497. 

503. Ruticilla froutalis, Vig. — Jerd. II, 141. 

504. Ruticilla cseruleocephala, Tt^.— Jerd. II, 141.— S. F. YII, 391. 

505. Rbyacornis fuliginosus, Fig. — Jerd. II, 142. 

506. ChimarrorniB leucocephaluB, Fig. — Jerd. II, 143. 

507. LaryiTora BuperciliariB, J^d. — Jerd. II, 145.-~S. F. Ill, 240. 
507 bia. Larvivora cyane, PalL—S. F. YI, 335. 

508. Nemura cyanura, PalL — Jerd. II, 146. 

509. Nemura hyperythra. Big. — Jerd. II, 147. 

510. TarBiger superciliaris, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 148. 

511. Tarsiger chryseus, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 149. 

512. Calliope camtscbatkeuBiB, Gm.— Jerd. II, 150.— S. F. YI, 337 ; YII, 478. 

513. Calliope pectoralis, Gould. — Jerd. II, 150. 

514. Cjanecula Buecica, Lin. — Jerd. II, 152. — S. F. YII, 391. 
514 bie. Cyanecula wolfii, Brehm.—S. F. YII, 891. 

514 Ur. Daulias golzii. Cab.— 8. F. lY, 500. [369. 

515. Acrocephalus stentorius, Bemp. Sf Ekr. — Jerd. II, 154. — S. F. II, 330; III, 
bib bie. Acrocephalus orien talis, Tern. ^ Schl.—8. F. Ill, 387 ; YI, 338. 

516. Acrocephalus dumetornm, Bly, — Jerd. II, 155. — S. F. YII, 183. 

517. Acrocephalus agricolus, t/i^ni?. — Jerd. II, 156. — S. F. Ill, 339. 
517 bie. Acrocephalus macrorhynchus, Bume. — fL F. Ill, 405. 

517 Ur. Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Stoinh.^'S. F. YI, 838. 

518. Arundinax aedon, PaH.— Jerd. II, 157.— S. F. II, 234; YI, 339. 

518 bie. Lusciniola melanopogon. Tern. — S. F. I, 190. 
•518 ter. Bradyptetus cettii, i/arm.— S. F.I, 192; II, 520. 

519. Schoenicola affiniB, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 158.— S. F. Ill, 286 ; YII, 38. 

519 bie. ScboBuicola brunneipectus, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 284 ; YII, 88, 394. 

? 519 ter. Schoenicola cyanocarpuB, Bume.—S. F. Ill, 409 ; YII, 38, 461. 

519 quat. Schoenicola major. Brooks.— 8. F. Ill, 242n. ; YII, 38. 

520. LocuBtella hendersoni, Caee.— Jerd. II, 159.— S. F. YI, 340, 342. 

520 bie. LocuBtella lanceolata, Tem.—S. F. I, 409 ; YI, 339. 

521. LocuBtella certhiola, FalL—Jerd. II, 160.— S. F. YI, 340. 

522. Tribura luteoventris. Bodge.— Jerd. II, 161.— S. F. Ill, 885. 
522 bie. Tribura erythrogenys, Hume.—S. F. Ill, 410. 

522 ter. Urospbena squamiceps, 6winh. — S. F. YI, 843. 

523. Horornis fulviventris, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 162.— S. F. lY, 497. 
534. Schoenicola flayiventris, Bodge.— Jerd. II, 162.— S. F. YII, 38. 



A BOUGH TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 101 

[525—549 quint. 

625. Phylloscopus faliginiventris^ Hodga. — Jerd. II, 162. 

526. Schoenicola fortipes, Hodff9.—Jeri. II, 162.— S. F. YII, 88. 

527. Horeites bniimeifrons, Hodga. — Jerd. II, 163. 
527 bia. Horeites pallidns, Brooka.—^. F. Ill, 241n. 

527 ter. Horeites brannescens^ Hume.—S. F. Ill, 410; IV, 497. 
527 quai. Horeites pallidipes, Blanf.-^S. F. Y, 57 ; VI, 344. 

528. Horeitea policariaj Hodga, — Jerd. II, 168. 

529. Horeites niajor, Hodga. — Jerd. II, 164. 

530. Orthotomus sutorius, For aU— 3 erdi. II, 16.5.— S. P. Ill, 135 ; VII. 507. 
530 bia. Ortbotomus atrigalaris, 7>m.— S. F. II, 507 ; III, 325 ; VI, 345. 
530 ter, Ortbotomus ruficeps, Leaa, — S. F. VI, 346. 

531. Ortbotomus coronatus, Jerd. ^ J5/y.— Jerd. II, 168.— S. F. VI, 346. 

532. Priuia flaviyentris, Deleaa.—ierA. II, 169.— S. F. VI, 847. 
?538. Priuia adamsi, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 170. 

534. Prinia socialis, Syfe*.— Jerd. II, 170.— 8. F. Ill, 479 ; IV, 497. 

? 535. Prinia stewarti, -B/w.— Jerd. II, 171.— S. F. Ill, 480 ; IV, 497 ; VII, 820. 

7 535 bia. Prinia poliocephala, A. Andera.—^. F. VII, 319. 

686. Prinia gracilis, i?Vafi«.— Jerd. II, 172.— 8. F. Ill, 136 ; VII, 217ii. 

? 536 bia. Prinia rufesoens, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 186. 

? 536 ter. Prinia rufula, O.'Auat.—St. F. Ill, 397 ; VI, 848. 

7 536 quQt. Prinia bumilis, Huma.—^. F. VII, 394. 

5S7. Prinia cinereocapilla, ^To^^.— Jerd. II, 172.— S. F. Ill, 242 ; VII, 320. 

7 538. Prinia hodgsoni, iTZy.— Jerd. II, 178.— S. F. Ill, 186, 208 ; VII, 217ii. 

538 bia. Prinia beavani, TTaW.— 8. F. Ill, 136 ; VI, 349. [V, 90 ; VI, 349. 
639 Cisticola cursitans, FranW.— Jerd. II, 174.— S. F. I, 489 ; III, 137, 397 ; 

539 Ua. CUticola munipurenaU, O.-AuaL—S. F. Ill, 397 ; V, 90. 

539 ter. Cisticola melanocephalus, Andera.—S. F. Ill, 898; V, 93, 350. 

540. Cisticola erythrocepbalus, Jerd,— Jerd. II, 175.— 8. F, V, 94, 851, 406. 

541. Cisticola tytleri, BIy.— Jerd. II, 176.— S. F. V, 93, 850. 
541 bia. Ciatieola komalurua, Bly.—S. F. V, 98, 850. 

542. Graminicola bengalensis, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 177. [407 ; VII, 468. 

543. DryrooBca inomata, Sj^kea.— Jerd. 11, 178.— 8. F, III, 295, 483; IV, 229, 
543 bia. Drymoeca fusca, Hodga.— S. F. VII, 395. 

543 Ur. Drymoeca blanfordi, fFald.—S. F. V, 57. 

544. DrymcBca longtcaudata^ TicL— Jerd. II, 180.— S. P. IV, 407 ; VII, 468. 

544 bia. DrymoBca rafescens, Hume.—S. F. 1, 437 ; II, 453 ; III, 408 ; VII, 218. 
544 ter. Drymoeca jerdoni, Bly.—S. F. 1,437; 11,453. 

544 qtAttt. Drymoeca extensicauda, Swinh. — 8. F. Ill, 340. 

545. Drvmoeca sylvatica, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 181. 

? 545 bia. DrymcBca insignis, Hume.—S. R I, 10 ; VII, 218. 

545 ter. Drymoeca valida, Blg.—S. F. VII, 395. 

546. Drymoeca neglecta, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 182. 

547. Suya crinigera, Hodga.— Jerd. 11, 183.-8. F. II, 507 ; VII, 2 et aeq. 
547 6m. Suya superciliaris, Andera. — S. F. VI, 350 ; VII, 4. 

548. Suyajvdiginoaay Hodga.— Jerd. II, 183.— S. F. VII, 2. 
W9. Suya atrigularis, Moore.— Jerd. II, 184.-8. P. VII, 3. 
549 bia. Suya khasiana, G.-Auat.—S. F. V, 59 ; VII, 4. 

549 ter. Suya gangetiea, Jerd.— 8. F. V, 138; VII, 6. 
549 quat. Suya ery thropleura, Wald.—S. P. V, 58 ; VII, 6. 
549 quint. Blaufordius striatulns, Hume.-^S. F. I, 300. 



102 A ROUGH TEirr^TIVfl LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

650-576 bis.;\ 

550. Burnesia gracilis, iwA^.— Jeri II, 185.— S. F. V, 496. 
650 bU. Scotocerca inqaieta, Rupp.—*S. F. 1, 200 ; 11^ 329. 

551. Franklinla buchanani, Blt/.^^erd. II, 186. 

552. Neornis flavolivaceus, Bodgs* — Jerd. II, 188. 

? 552 bU. Neornis assimilis, Hod^$.—S. F. VI, 351. 

? 552 ter. Neornis albiventris, 0,-Ausi. — S. F. V, 55. 

558. Hypolais rama, Syfe«.— Jerd. II, 189.— S. F. VII, 183, 396. 

553 bia. Hypolais caligata, Licht.—^. F. VII, 1 83, 396. 

553 Ur. Hypolais pallida, Hemp, if Ehr.—S. F. VII, 898, 504. 

? 553 quai. Hypolais languida, Bemp. 8f Ehr.-^S. F. VII, 398. 

654. Phylloscopus tristis, 5/y.— Jerd. II, 190.— S. F. I, 195. 

564 ^M. Phylloscopus neglectus, Bume. — S. F. I, 195. 

555. FbylloBCopuB fuscatus, Bly, — Jerd. II, 191. 

556. Phylloscopus magnirostris, tly.— Jerd. II, 191.— S. F. Ill, 243. 
556 bU. Phylloscopus borealis, Blas.—S. F. VI, 352. 

566 ter. Phylloscopus schwarzi, Radde.—^. F. II, 505 ; V, 134 ; VI, 858. 

566 quat. Phylloscopus tenellipes, Swinh.—^. F. IV, 276 ; VI, 517 nee 364 err. 

557. PhylloBeopus trociilus, Lin.— Jerd. II, 192.— S. F. I, 101. 

558. Phylloscopus lugubris, Bly. — Jerd. II, 192. 

? 568 bis. Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus, Swink^S. F. VI, 356 ; VII, 454, 508. 
558 ter. Fhylloscopua seebohmi^ Bume.—S. F. V, 335 ; VI, 356. 

569. Phylloscopus nitidus, Bly. — Jerd. II, 193. 

560. Phylloscopus viridanus, Bly.— Jerd. II, 193.— S. F. Ill, 244 «. ; VII, 508. 
560 bie. Phylloscopus tytleri, Brooki.—S. F. Ill, 248ii., 279. 
661. Phylloscopus aflSnis, 2w*.— Jerd. II, 194. 

562. Phylloscopus indicus, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 194. 

563. Beguloides occipitalis, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 196. 

563 bis Reguloides corouatus, Tern. ^ SeM.—S. F. VI, 356. 

564. Reguloides trochiloides, Sund. — Jerd. II, 196. 

564 bis. Beguloides flavo-olivaceus, Bume.—S. F. V, 330, 504 ; VI, 358. 

564 ter. ReguUAdes falvoventer^ G.-Aust.-^. F. Ill, 398. 

565. Beguloides superciliosus, 6m.--Jerd. II, 197.— S. F. VII, 128, 236, 476. 

565 bis. Beguloides hnmii. Brooks.—^. F. VII, 131, 236, 475. 

566. Beo^uloides proregulus, PcUL — Jerd. II, 197. 

566 bis. Beguloides subviridis. Brooks.—^. F. IV, 494; VII, 477. 

566 ter. Beguloides chloronotus, Bodgs.—S. F. 1, 494 ; IV, 605 ; VII, 399. 

567. Beguloides viridipennis, %.— Jerd. II, 198.— S. F. V, 330 ; VII, 453. 

568. Beguloides erochrous, JSodgs. — Jerd. II, 199. 

669. Cryptolopha burkii, i^Mr^.— Jerd. II, 199.— S. F. Ill, 140. 

569 bis. Cryptolopha tephrocephala, Anders.— &. F. Ill, 140; VI, 158. 

570. Abroniis cantator, Tic*.— Jerd. II, 200. 

571. Abromis schisticeps, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 201. 

572. Abrornis zanthoschistus, Bodgs.— Jerd. II, 202.— S. F. Ill, 245. 
572 bis. Abromis jerdoni, Brooks. — 8. F. Ill, 246n. 

572 ter. Abromis flavogularis, G.-Aust.—S. P. VII, 147. 

673. Abrornis albosuperciliaris, 6/y.— Jerd. II, 202.— S. F. Ill, 245. 

574. Abromis superciliaris, Tidt- Jerd. II, 208.— 8. F.III, 141; VI, 359. 

576. Abrornis poliogenys, Bly. — Jerd. II, 203. 

676. Abrornis affinis, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 204. 

? 676 bis. Abrornis chryseus, r«W.— S. F. V, 55 ; VI, 359. 



A BOUGH TKNTATIVK U8T OF TBS BIRDS OF INDIA. 103 

[577—605 quat 

577. Abrornis albognlaris, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 204. 

? 577 his. Abrornis griseifrons, 0. R. Gr.—S. P. VII, 399. 

578. Abrornis castaoeiceps, Hodgt. — Jerd. II, 205. 

579. Tickellia hodgsoni^ Moore.— Jerd. 11^ 206. 

580. Begalus cristatus, Koch.— Jerd. II, 206.— S. F. Ill, 246. 

581. Sylvia jerdoni, Bfy—Jerd. II, 208.— 8. P. I, 197 ; II, 330. [VII, 59. 

582. Sylvia affinis, Bit/.— Jerd. II, 209.— 8. P. I, 197 ; II, 832; III, 272, 487 ; 
582 bis. Sylvia minnscnla, Hume. — S. F. 1, 198 ; VII, 58, et seq. 

582 ter. Svlvia althaea, Utme.—S. P. 1, 198 ; VII, 60. 

582 quat. Sylvia rufa, Bodd.—B. P. Ill, 488. 

583. Sylvia curruea, Lin.— Jerd. II, 209.— S. P. VII, 59. 

583 M/. Sylvia nana, Hemp. 4 Ehr.—S. P. I, 199; II, 330. 

584. Henicuras macnlatus, Ti^.— Jerd. II, 212.— S. P. VII, 400. 

584 bii. Henicurus guttatas, 6ould.—8. P. VII, 399. 

584 ter. Henicurus leschenaulti, VieilL—S. P. V, 249 ; VI, 860. 
584 qtuU. Henicnnis frontalis, Bly.—8. P. V, 248 ; VI, 360. 

585. Henicarns immaculatos, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 218. 

586. Henicuras schistacens, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 214. — S. P. VI, 361. 

587. Henicurus scouleri, Fi^.— Jerd. II, 214.— S. F. Ill, 246 ; VII, 457. 

588. Henicurus nigrifrone, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 215.— S. P. VII, 457. 

588 bis. Henicurus ruficapillus, Tem.—S. P. VI, 861. 

589. Motacilla maderaspatensis, &m.— Jerd. II, 217.— S. P. I, 26. [VII, 189, 619. 

589 bU. Motacilla hodgsoni, G. R. Gr.—S. F. I, 26 ; II, 456 ; III, 246, 278 ; 

590. Motacillalencop8i8,6<niZ£?.— Jerd. 11, 218.— S.P.I, 26; 11,457; VI,362n.; VII, 

591. Motacilla per8onata,(?ouM.—Jerd.II,218.—S.P.I,29-30; III, 250. [139, 519. 
591 bit. Motacilla dukhunensis, Ss^tee.—B. F. I, 29-30 ; VII, 137. 

591 ter. Motacilla alba, Lin.—S. F. I, 29 ; VII, 186. 

591 quai. Motacilla ocularis, Swinh.—a. F. VI, 518. 

59i Calobates melanope, PaU.— Jerd. II, 220.— S. F. II, 237. 

592 He. Budytee rayi, Bp.—S. P. VII, 400. 

593. Badytes cinereocapilla, 5am.— Jerd. II, 222.— S. P. VI, 363. 

593 bie. Budytes melanocephala, Lichi.—S. F. VI, 363. 

593 ter. Budytes flava, Lin.— S. F. II, 238 ; VI, 368 ; VII, 188. 

594. Budytes calcaraU, JSTod^*.- Jerd. II, 225.— S. P. VII, 401. 

594 bU. Budytes citreola, PalL—8. P. VII, 401. 

595. Limonidromus indicus, 6m.— Jerd. II, 226.— S. F« VI, 364. 

596. Anthus maculatus, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 228.— S. P. Ill, 250 ; IV, 278. 

597. Anthus trivialis, itn.— Jerd. II, 229.— S. P. IV, 278. 

598. Anthus montanus, Jerd Jerd. II, 230.— S. F. VII, 461. 

599. Corydalla richardi, VieUl.— Jerd. II, 231.— S. F. I, 858; II, 289. 

600. Corydalla rufula, VieiU.— Jerd. II, 232.— S. F. I, 358; VI, 366. 
600 bU. Corydalla malayensis, Eyt.—S. F. VI, 366. 

601. Corydalla striolata, Bly.— Jerd. II, 233.— S. F. I, 258; VI, 366. 

602. Agrodroma campestris, Xtn.— Jerd. II, 234.— S. P. I, 202. 

603. Agrodroma similis, J^rrf.— Jerd. II, 285.— S. P. I, 208. 

604. Agrodroma sordida, RCpp.— Jerd. II, 236.— S. F. I, 203. 

605. Anthus rosaceus, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 237.— S. P. II, 241 ; III, 252. 
605 bie. Anthus cervinus, Fall.—S. P. II, 239 ; VI, 367. 

605 ter. Anthus spinoletta, Zin.—S. F. I, 204 ; V, 845; VII, 521. 
605 quat. Anthus blakistoni, Swinh.-^8. P. V, 845. 



104 A ROUGH TENTATIVK LIST OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA. 

605 quint— e^ bia.'] 

605 quint. Anthu8 pratmns^ Lin.— 9. F. YII, 402, 465. 

606. Heterura sylvana, Hodga.—^wA. II, 239.— S. P. Ill, 252. 

607. Cochoa purpurea, Hodg8.—3QTA. II, 243.— S. F. VI, 867. 

608. Cochoa viridis, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 243. 

609. Pteruthius erytbropterus, Vig. — Jerd. II, 245. 

610. Pteruthius rufi venter, £Zjr.— Jerd. II, 245. 

610 bi». Pteruthius asralatus, Ttcife.— S. F. VI, 868. 

611. AUotrius melanotis, Hodgs.— Jerd. II, 246, male.—S. F. VII, 456. 

611 bis. AUotrius intermedius, Hume. — S. F. V, 112. 

611 ter. AUotrius zanthochloris, Bodgs.- Jerd. II, Zi6y female.— S. F. VII, 456. 

612. Cutia nipalensis, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 247. 

613. Lioptila annectons, 5/y.— Jerd. II, 248.— S. P. V, 110. 
613 bie. Lioptila saturata, IFa«.— 8. P. V, 110; VI, 870. 
6)4. Liothrix lutea, Seop. — Jerd. II, 250. 

615. Mesia argentauris, Hodgs.— Jerd, II, 251.— S. P. VI, 370. 

616. Siva strigula, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 252. 

616 bie. Siva castaneicauda, Hume.—S. F. V, 100 ; VI, 371. 

617. Siva cyanuroptera,,i?oi;^<.— Jerd. II, 253.— S. P. VI, 871. 

617 bie. Siva sordida, Bume.—S. F. V, 104. 

618. Minla ignotincta, Hodge, — Jerd. II, 254. 

618 bie. Minla rufogularis, Atand.—S. P. I, 416 ; III, 281 ; IV, 91. 

619. Minla castaneiceps, Hodge Jerd. II, 255.— S.F. VI, 372. 

620. Minla cinerea, JBly. — Jerd. II, 255. 

621. Proparus chryseus, Hodge, — Jerd. II, 256. 

622. Proparus vinipectus, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 257. 

622 bie. Proparus dubius, Hume.—S. P. II, 447; VI, 372, 519. 
622 ter. Proparus mandellii, O.-Auet—S. P. IV, 490 ; VI, 873, 519. 
628. Ixulus flavicoUis, Hodge.— Jerd. II, 258. 

624. Ixulus occipitalis, Bly. — Jerd. II, 259. 

624 bie. Staphidea castaneiceps, Moore. — S. F. VII, 403. 

624 ter. Staphidea plumbeiceps, G.-Auet.—S. F. VII, 143. 

625. Staphidea striata, 5/^.— Jerd. II, 260.— S. P. V, 107; VI, 374. 

625 bie. Staphidea humilis, Hume.—S. F. V, 106. 

625 ter. Staphidea rufigenis, Hume.—S. F. V, 108 ; VII, 144. 

626. Yuhina gularis. Bodge.— Jerd. II, 261. 

627. Yuhina occipitalis, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 261. 

628. Yuhina nigrimentum, Hodge.-^ Jerd. II, 262. 

629. Myzomis pyrrhurus, Hodge^ — Jerd. II, 263. 

630. Herpornis xantholeucus, Hodge. — Jerd. II, 264. — S. F. VI, 874. 

631. Zosterops palpebrosa. Tern.— Jerd. II, 265.-8. F. II, 242 ; IV, 291. 
631 A. Zosterops lateralis, Tem.—S. P. VI, 519 ; VII, 452. 

681 B. Zoiterope eimplex^ Sunnh,—S. P. VII, 408. 

681 bie. Zosterops ceylonensis, Boldew. — S. F. VII, 404. 

631 ter. Zosterops nicobariensis, Bly.—S. P. II, 242 ; IV, 291. 

631 guat. Zosterops siamensis, JSlg. — S. F. VI, 875. 

631 quint. Zosterops austeni, Wald. — S. P. V, 56. 

632. Sylviparus modestus, Burt. — Jerd. II, 267. 

633. Cephalopyrrhus flammiceps, Burt.— Jerd. II, 267. — ^S. F. VII, 220. 

634. ^githaliscus erythrocephalus. Fig. — Jerd. II, 270. 
634 bie. iEgistbaliscus leucogenys, Moore. — S. P. VII, 404. 



▲ BOUGH TBNTATIVB LIST OF THB BIBDS OF INDIA. 105 

[635-671 bii^ 

635. ^^thaliscus ionschistas, Hodgs, — Jerd. II, 271. 

636. .^^thalisciis niveog^Iaris, Gould. — Jerd. II, 272. 

637. Lophophanes dichrous^ Bodgs. — Jerd. II, 273. 

638. Lopbophanes melanolophus, Vig. — Jerd. II, 273. 

639. Lophophanes rnbidiTentris^ Bly. — Jerd. II, 274. 

640. Lophophanes mfonnchalis, j5A^.— Jerd. II, 274.— S. F. Ill, 253. 

641. Lophophanes beavani, Blj/. — Jerd. 11, 275. 

642. Lophophanes asmodius, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 276. 

643. Pams atkinsoni, Jerd. — Jerd. 11^ 276. 

644. Parns monticolnB^ Vig. — Jerd. II, 277. 

644 4m. ParuB gnffithi, Bly.-^ S. F. VII, 405. 

645. Pams nipalensis, «%«.— Jerd. II, 278.-8. F. VI, 876n. ; VII, 280n. 

645 his. Parus commiztus, SunnA. — S. F. VI, 376. 

646. Parus nnchalis, Jmi.— Jerd. II, 279.— S. F. I, 885 ; III, 492. 

647. Machlolophus zantfaogenys, Fig. — Jerd. II, 279. 

648. Machlolophus aplonotus, ^Zy.— Jerd. II, 280.— S. F. Ill, 492 ; VII, 405f». 

649. Machlolophus spilonotus, Bly.—SwA. II, 281.— 8. F. VI, 877. 
649 Hi. JUelaniparus semilarvatusy Salvad. — S. F. VII, 458. 

650. Melanochlora sultanea, Hodgs.—Jerd. II, 282.— 8. F. Ill, 143; VI, 378. 

651. Accentor immaculatus, Hodga. — Jerd. II, 286. 

652. Accentor nipalensis, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 286. 

653. Accentor altaicns^ Brandt. — Jerd. II, 287. 

654. Accentor strophiatus, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 287. 

654 Mf. Accentor jerdoni, Brooks, '^'S. F. IV, 491. 

655. Accentor atrogularis, Brandt. — Jerd. II, 288. 

655 6m. Accentor montanellus, Pa«.— S. F. VII, 405. 

656. Accentor rubeculoides, Moore, — Jerd. II, 288. 

657. Corvfis corax, Lin.— Jerd. II, 298.— 8. F. VI, 63. 

657 bis. Corvus lawrencii, Hume.—S. F. I, 205, 385 ; VII, 63, 120. 

658. Cofvus tibetanus, Eodgs.^-Jeri. II, 294. 

659. Corvus corone, Lin, — Jerd. II, 295. 

659 bis. Corvus comix, Lin.—S. F. VII, 406, 517. [258, 493 ; V, 461. 

660. Corvus macrorbynchus, FFb^r;.— Jerd. II, 295.— S. F. I, 74; 11^ 248; II L 

660 bis, Corvus umbrinus, Bedenb.—8. F. VII, 120. 

661. Corvui intermedins, Adams.— Jerd. II, 297.— S. F. V, 461. 

662. Corvus enca, Horsf.— Jerd. II, 297. 

663. Corvus splendens, VieUL— Jerd. II, 298.-8. F. I, 206; III, 148. 
663 bis, Corvus insolens, Hume.—S. F. II, 480 ; III, 144. 

664. Corvus frugilegus, Lin, — Jerd. II, 802. 
665.' Corvus monedula, Lin. — Jerd. II| 302. 

666. Nucifraga hernispila. Fig. — Jerd. II, 304. 

667. Nucifraga multipunctata, Go?iW.— Jerd. II, 304,-8. P. V, 122. 

668. Pica bottanensis, Deless.— Jerd. II, 305.— S. F. V, 281. 
668 bis. Pica rustica. Seep.— Jerd. II, 306.— S. F. VII, 4u7. 

668 ter. Platylophus ardesiacus, Cab.—S. F. VI, 380. 

669. Ghirrulus bispecularis. Fig. — Jerd. II, 307. 

669 bis. Garrulus leucotis, Hume.—S. F. II, 448 ; VI, 384. 

670. Oarrulus lanceolatus, Vig. — Jerd. II, 308. 

671. Urocissa occipitalis. Big, — Jerd. II, 809. 

671 bis, Urocissa magnirostrisy Blg,~S. P. Ill, 144; VI, 385. 

14 



106 A ROUGH TBNTATIVK UST Off THE BIBD8 OF INDIA. 

672-696] 

672. Urodssa flavirostris, Bly, — Jerd. II, 310. 

678. Cissa chiDenBis, Bodd.—5erA. II, 312.— S. F. Ill, 145 ; V, 352 ; VI, 385. 

673 bi8. Cissa ornata, Wagl—^. P. VII, 408. 

674. Dendrocitta nifa, bcop.—Ser^. II, 314.— S. F. Ill, 146 ; YI, 886. 

675. Dendrocitta pallida^ Bly. — Jerd. II, 315. 

676. Dendrocitta himalayensis, Bly.—ievdi. II, 816.— fi. F. VI, 886. 
? 676 h%8. Dendrocitta assimilis, Hume.—^. F. V, 117 ; VII, 519. 

677. Dendrocitta frontalis, MeClelL— Jerd. II, 817. 

678. Dendrocitta leucogastra, Gould.— Jerd. II, 817.— S. F. IV, 402. 
678 bis. Dendrocitta bayleyi, Tfft.—S. F. I, 75 ; II, 248. 

678 ter. Crypsirhina cuculata, Jerd. — S. F. Ill, 147. 

678 guat. Crypsirhina varians, L<Uh.—a. F. Ill, 146 ; VI, S86. 

678 quint. Flatysmurns leucoptems, Tern. — S. F. VI, 887. 

679. Graculus eremita, Lin.— Jerd. II, 819.— S. F. IV, 278; VII, 140,522. 

679 bis. Podoces humilis, Hume.—S. F. II, 454 ; IV, 161 ; VII, 409. 

680. Pyrrhocorax alpinus, Koch. — Jerd. II, 819. 

681. Stumus vulgaris, ii«.— Jerd. II, 321.-^S. F. I, 206- 
681 bis. Sturnus minor, Eume.—S. P. I, 207 ; V, 328. 

682. Stamus nitens, Hume.--' Jerd. II, 822.— S. F. Ill, 409 ; V, 288. 
688. Sturnopastor contra, Lin. — Jerd. II, 323. 

683 bis. Stnmopastor superciliaris, Bly.S. P. Ill, 149 ; IV, 831 ; VI, 887. 

684. Acridotberes tristis, Lin. — Jerd. II, 325. 

? 684 bis. Acridotheres melanosternns, Leffffe.-^S. P. VIII, 72. 

685. Acridotheres ginginianus. Lath. — Jerd. II, 326. • 

686. Acridotheres fnscus, PFa^rJ.— Jerd. II, 327.— S. P. VI, 888 ; VII, 221fi. 
? 686 bis. Acridotberes mahrattensis, SyJces.—S. P. VI, 388. 

686 ter. Acridotberes albocinctns, G.-Ausi. 8f Wald.—S. P. IV, 217. 
? 686 quat. Acridotberes siamensis, Swinh. — S. F. VI, 388. 

687. Stumia pagodarnm, Om. — Jerd. II, 329. [et seq. 

688. Sturnia malabarica, 6?m.— Jerd. 11,330.— S. F. IV, 332, 833. 402 ; VI, 389, 
? 688 bis. Stumia nemoricola, Jerd.— 8. P. II, 480». ; III, 151 ; IV, 333 ; VI, 390. 
? 688 ter. Stumia sinensis, Gm.—8. P. VII, 514. 

689 Stumia blphi, Jerd.— Jerd. II, 831. -S. P. VI, 391. 
689 bis. Stumia burmanica, Jerd. — S. F. Ill, 149. 
689 ter. Sturnia andamanensis, Tp. — S. F. I, 75 ; II, 248. 
689 quat. Sturnia erytbropygia, Bly.—8. F. I, 76 ; II, 247. 
689 quinJt. Sturnia senex, Iem.—8. F. VII, 409. 

689 sex. Stumia stumina. Pall.— 8. P. II, 249 ; VI, 893. 

690 Pastor roseus, iiit.— Jerd. II, 333.— S. P. I, 208 ; III, 208. 
690 bis. Calomis cbalybaeus, fforsf.—Q. P. VI, 394. 

690 ter. Oalornis tytleri, Hume.— 8. F. I, 480 ; VI, 396. 

691. Saroglossa spiloptera, Vig.-Jerd. II, 336.— S. F. IV, 834; VI, 394. 

692. Eulabes religiosa, Xm.— ^erd. II, 337. 

693. Eulabes javanensis, Os6,— Jerd. II, 339.— S. P. 1, 77 ; II, 254 ; V, 86 ; VI, 396. 
693 bis. Eulabes ptilogenys, Bly.—8. P. VII, 410. 

693 ter. Ampeliceps coronatus, Bly.—S. P. IV, 335 ; VI, 398. 

694. Ploceus pbilippinus, im.— Jerd. II, 343.— S. F. VI, 899. 

694 6m. Ploceus baya, Ely.— 8. P. VI, 398. 

694 ler. Ploceus megarbyncbus, Hume.—S. F. Ill, 406 ; Vf, 400. 

695. Ploceus manyar, Horsf.— Jerd. II, 348.— S. P. I, 208 ; VI, 899, «. 



▲ BOUQH TSRTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDU. ]f07 

E696-727 

696. Plocens bengalensis, Lin Jerd. 11^ 349.— S. F. Yi, 399. 

696 bis. Ploceella jayanensis, Les0.—8. F. Ill, 154 ; VI, 399n. 

697. Axnadioa malacoa, Z^n.— Jerd. II, 352. 

698. Amadina rubronifpra, ^o^«.-^erd. II, 353,— S. F. VI, 401, n. 

699. Amadina punctulata, Lin, — Jerd. II, 354. 

699 bit. Amadina subondolata, O.-AusL—S. F. Ill, 398. 

699 ter. Amadina saperatriata, Hume.—S. F. II, 481 ». ; VI, 402. 
? 699 quat. Amadina inglisi, Bume.—S. F. V, 39. 

700. Amadina pectoralis, Jerd.— Jerd. II, 355. -& F. Ill, 263 ; IV, 403. 

700 bis. Amadina kelaarti, ^i^.— S. F. VII, 410. 

701. Amadina striata, Lin. — Jerd. II, 356. 

701 bis. Amadina leuoogastra, Bfy.—8. F. VI, 402. 

701 ter. Amadina fumiffata, PTaW.— S. F. II, 257, 497 ; IV, 291. 
701 quat. Amadina semistriata, Hume.—S. F. II, 257 ; IV, 291. 

702. Amadina acuticanda, Hodgs.-^erd. II, 356^ 

703. Amadina malabarica, lAn. — Jerd. II, 357. 
703 bis. Amadina oryzioora^ Z^n.*— S. F. VI, 403w 

703 ter. Erjthrnra prasina, Sparrm. — 8. F. VI, 405. 

704. Estrelda amandava, lAn. — Jerd. II, 359. 

704 bis. Estrelda flavidiventris, WaU.—S. F. IV, 484 ; VI, 406. 

705. Estrelda formosA, La^*.— Jerd. II, 361.— S. F. Ill, 496 ; VII, 222. 

706. Passer domesticua, Lin. — Jerd. II, 362. 

707. Passer hispaniolensis. Tern.— Jerd. II, 364.— S. F. I, 209. 

708. Passer cinnamomeus, Ooutd.-^erd. II, 865. 
708 bis. Passer flaveolns, Bltf.—8. F. Ill, 156. 

708 ter. Passer assimilisy Wald.—Q. F. Ill, 157 ; VI, 407. 

709. Passer pf/rrhonotus, Bfy.-^erd. II, 365.— S; F. I, 209. 

710. Passer montanus, Lin.— Jerd. 11^ 366.— S. F. VI, 407. 
710 bis. Passer pyrrhopteruSy Less.^^erd. II, 367. 

711. Ojmnoris flavicollis, Frankl. — Jerd. II, 368. 

712. Emberiza lenoocephala, S. 0. Gm. — Jerd. II, 370. 

713. Emberiza da, Ltii.-^erd. II, 371.— 8. F. Ill, 254. 

714. Bmberiaa stracheyi, Moore.— Jerd. II, 372.— S. F. Ill, 254. 

715. Emberiza hortvlana, Lin.—JerA. II, 372.— S. F. VII, 150. 

718. Emberiza buchanani, Bfy.-^Jetd. II, 378.-8. F. Ill, 497 ; VII, 150. 

717. Emberiza spodocepbala. Pall. — Jerd. II, 374. 

718. Emberiza stewarti, Bfy. — Jerd. II, 874. 

719. Emberiza facata, PaK.— Jerd. II, 375. 

720. Emberiza pnsilla, PaU.— Jerd. II, 876. 

720 bis. Emberiza striolata, lAeht.—B. F. Ill, 497 ; VII, 410. 
720 ter. Emberiza schcenielus, Lin. — S. F. VII, 412. 
? 720 oua^ Emberiza miliaria, Lin.—S. F. VII, 121. 

721. Euspiza melanocephala, Seop.— Jerd. II, 378.— S. F. Ill, 497. 

722. Euspiza luteola, Spawn.— Jerd. II, 378.— S. F. Ill, 498. 
722 bis. Euspiza rutila, Pa«.— 8. F. Ill, 157 ; VI, 408. 

723. Euspiza anreola, Pa«.— Jerd. II, 380.— 8. F. VI, 409. [517. 

724. Melophus melanicterus, Gm.— Jerd. II, 381.— 8. F. Ill, 498; VI, 409 ; VII, 

725. Pycnorampbus icterioides, Vig. — Jerd. II, 384. 

726. Pycnorampbus aiBnis, Bly. — Jerd. II, 385. 

727. Mycerobas melanoxanthus, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 386. 



108 A BOnOH TKHTATIYI UST OF THE BIBDS 07 INDIA. 

728—760] 

728. Pycnoramphas carnipes, Eodgs. — Jerd. II, 387. 

728 his. Coccothraustes vulgaris, Pall.—8^ F. VII, 413, 462. 

729. Pyrrhula erythrocephala, Fty.— Jerd. II, 889. 

730. Pyrrhula erythaca. Bit/.— Jerd. II, 389.— S. F. II, 455. 

731. Pyrrhula nipaleusis, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 890. 

732. Pyrrhula aurautiaca, Gould, — Jerd. II, 390. 

732 bis. Erythrospiza githaginea, Lieht.—S. F. I, 210 ; VII, 64, 454. 
? 732 ter. Erythrospiza sanguiuea, 0(mld.—8. P. VII, 414. 

733. Pyrrhoplectes epauletta, ffodgs. — Jerd. II, 392. 

734. Loxia himalayana, Bodgs. — Jerd. II, 393. 

735. HsQfnatospiza sipahi, Hodg$. — Jerd. II, 894. 

736. Propyrrhula subhimachala, Hodga, — Jerd. II, 896. 

787. Carpodaeus rnbicilluB, GiJdd.^JetA. II, 897. 

788. Carpodaeus erythrinus, PaZ/.— Jerd. II, 398. 

739. Propasser rhodopeplus, Vig. — Jerd. II, 400. — S. F. I, 15. 

740. Propasser thura, Bp Jerd. II, 400 and 408.— S. F. I, 15 ; VII, 459. 

741. Propasser rhodochlamys, Brandt. — Jerd. II, 401. 

742. Propasser rhodochrous, Vig. — Jerd. II, 402. 

743. Propasser puleherrimus, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 402. 

743 bis. Propasser ambiguus, Hume. — S. F. II, 826. 

744. Propasser frontalis^ 5/jr.— Jerd. II, 403.— S. P. VII, 459. 

744 Us. Propasser edwardsi, Verr.—8. F. I, 15, 418 ; VII, 415. 

745. Propasser murrat/iy Bfy.—Jerd. II, 404.— S. F. IV, 504. 

746. Procarduelis uipalensis, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 405. 

746 bis. Procarduelis rubesceus, Blanf.—S. F. I, 14, 818. 

747. Pyrrhospiza punicea, Hodgs. — Jerd. II, 406. 

748. Calacanthis burtoni, (7owW.— Jerd. II, 407.— S. F. Ill, 255. 

749. Garduelis cauiceps, Vig. — Jerd. II, 408. 

750. Hypacanthis spinoides, Vig. — Jerd. II, 409.— S. P. Ill, 255. 

750 bis. Chrysomitris tibetana, Hume. — S. F. VII, 416. 

751. Metoponia pusilla, Pa//.— Jerd. II, 410.— S. F. Ill, 255. 

751 bis. Linaria brevirostris, Gould. — S. F. VII, 417. 

? 751 ter. Linaria eannabina, lAn. — S. F. VII, 122, 184. 

? 752. Fringilla montifringilla, iin.— Jerd. II, 412.— S. P. VII, 465. [418. 

752 bis. Leucosticte h»matopygia, Gould.^ Jerd. II, 413. — S. F.'iV, 486 ; VII, 
752 ter. Montifringilla adamsi, ifoor^.— Jerd. II, 413.— S. F. IV, 486 ; VII, 419. 
762 quat. ^Montifringilla ruficoUis, Blanf.—S. F. IV, 486 ; VII, 420. 

752 quint. Montifringilla blanfordi, Hume. — S. F. IV, 487. 

752 sea. Montifringilla mandellii, Hume. — S. F. IV, 488. 

753. Fringillauda nemoricola, Hodgs, — Jerd. II, 414. — S. F. I, 41. 

753 bis. Fringillauda sordida, Stol.—8. F. I, 41. 

754. Mirafra assamica, McClelL— Jerd. II, 416.— S. F. VII, 294. 
? 754 bis. Mirafra immaculata, Hume.^-Q. F. I, 12. 

755. Mirafra affinis, Jerd. — Jerd. II, 417. 

765 bis. Mirafra microptera, Hume.— 8. ¥. I, 483 ; VI, 410. 

756. Mirafra erythroptera, Jerd, — Jerd. II, 418. 

757. Mirafra eautillans, Jerd^ — Jerd. II, 420. 

758. Ammomanes phoBnicura, Fran*/.— Jerd. II, 421.— S. F. Ill, 499, 

759. Ammomanes deserti, Licht. — Jerd. II, 422. — S. F. I, 211. 

760. Pyrrhulauda grisea, Seop.^^eri. II, 424.— S. F. I, 212 ; VII, 66. 



A BOUQH TBKTATIVS LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA; 109 

[760 6w.— 788 his. 

760 bis. Pyrrhulauda melanauchen, Cab.—S. F. I, 212 ; VII, 64. 

761. Calandrella braohydactyla, LeisL — J^rd. II, 426. 

761 ter, Melanocorjpha bimaculata, Men^r. — 8. F. VII, 4E1. 

761 quat, Melanocorjpha maxima, Gould, — S. F. I, 492. 

762. Alandula raytal, Bly.—Jeri. II, 428.— S. F. V, 327n. 

762 bis. Alandula pispoletta, Pall.— 8. F. VII, 529. 

762 ter. Alaudnla adamsi, Uume.—S. F. I, 213 ; V, 327n. [422. 

763. Otocoryg peocillata, Gould.— Jerd. II, 429.— S. F. 1,86, 417 ; II, 529; VII, 
768 bis. Otoeorys alpesiris, lAn.—S. F. VII, 422, 514. 

764. Otoeorys longirostris, Moore.—Jerd. II, 431.— S. F. II, 529; VII, 422. 

765. Spizalauda deva, Sykes.—JeYd. II, 432.— S. F. IV, I, 237. 
765 bis. Spizalauda malabarica. Scop. — S. F. IV, 1, 237. 

766. Alauda dulcivox, Eodgs.—Jerd. II, 433.— S. F. I, 39. 

767. Alauda gulgula, Frankl.—Jerd. II, 434.— S. F. I, 40. 
767 bis. Alauda HopuSy Eodgs.—S. F. I, 40. 

767 ter. Alauda triborhyneha^ Bodgs.—8. F. I, 41. 

? 768. Alauda australis, Brooks.— Jerd. II, 436.— S. F: I, 40, 486. 

769. Galerita cristata, Ltn.— Jerd. II, 436.— S. F. 1, 215 ; VII, 185. 

770. Certhilanda desertorum, StatU.—Jerd. II, 438.— S. F. I, 216. 

771. Treron nipalensis, -Hbrf^*.— Jord. Ill, 445.— S. F. Ill, 160 ; VI, 410,n. 

772. Grocopus phoBuicopterus, Lath.-^erd. Ill, 447.— S. F. II, 423. 

773. Crocopus chlorigaster, J?/y.— Jerd. Ill, 448.— S. F. II, 423. 

773 «t>. Crocopus viridifrons, Bly.—S. F. Ill, 161 ; VI, 410. 

774. Osmotreron bicincta, Jerd.—Jerd. Ill, 449.— S. F. Ill, 162; VI, 411, 414. 

774 bis. Osmotreron vernane, Lin.— 8. F. I, 461 ; III, 162 ; VI, 411, 414. [414. 

775. Osmotreron malabarica, Jerd.—JeTd. Ill, 450.-8. F. Ill, 162 ; IV, 261 ; VI, 

776. Osmotreron pbayrii, Bfy.—Jerd. Ill, 451.— S. F. Ill, 162 ; VI, 412, 414. 

776 bis. Osmotreron fulvicoUis, Waffl.—S. F. VI, 413, 414. 

777. Osmotreron pompadoura, 6m.— Jerd. Ill, 452.— 8. F. Ill, 162; VI, 414. 

777 Hs. Osmotreron chloroptera, Bly.—8. F. I, 78 ; II, 258 ; III, 162 ; VI, 414. 

778. Sphenocercus spbenurus, Vig. — Jerd. Ill, 453. — 8. F. Ill, 255. 

779. Sphenocercus apicaudus, Hodqs. — Jerd. Ill, 454. — S. F. VI, 415. 

780. Carpophaga aenea, Zin.— Jerd. Ill, 455.— 8. F. II, 260 ; VI, 416. 
780 bis. Carpophaga iusularis, Bly.—8. F. I, 79 ; II, 262. 

780 ter. Carpophaga pusilla, Bly.—8. F. II, 260 ; VII, 424. 

781. Carpophaga insignis, Hodgs. — Jerd. Ill, 457.— S. F. Ill, 328. 

781 his. Carpophaga cuprea, Jerd.— 8. F. Ill, .328 ; IV, 403. 

781 ter. Carpophaga griseicapilla, Wald.—8. F. Ill, 402 ; VI, 418. 

? 781 ler A. Carpophaga badia, Raffl.—S. F. VI, 417. 

781 quat. Carpophaga palumboides, Eume.—8. F. I, 302 ; II, 263, 498 ; III, 327. 

781 quint. Carpophaga bicolor, Seop.—S. P. I, 79 ; II, 264. 

782. Alsoeomus puniceus, Tick.— Jerd. Ill, 462.— S. F. VI, 418. 

783. Alsoeomus hodgsoni, Vig. — Jerd. Ill, 468. 

784. Palumbus casiotis, Bp. — Jerd. Ill, 464. 

785. Palumbua puIchricoUis, Hodgs. — Jerd. Ill, 465. 
'786. Palumbus elphinsionii, Sykes. — Jerd. Ill, 465. 
786 bis. Palumbus torringtoni, Kel.—8. P. VII, 424. 

787. Palnmbcena eversmanni, Bp. — Jerd. Ill, 467. — 8. F. I, 217. 

788. Columba intermedia, SMcM.— Jerd. Ill, 469.— S. F. I, 217 ; VI, 419 
788 bis. Columba livia, Bp.—8. F. I, 218; VII, 296. 



110 ▲ BOUGH TENTATIVE LIST 07 THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

789—811 quint.'] 

789. Colnmba rupestris, PaU.—JeTd. Ill, 470. 

790. Oolumba leuconota, %.— Jerd. Ill, 471.— S. F. 111,256. 

791. Macropygia tusalia, Hodgs.—Jerd^ III, 473.— S. F VI, 419. 
791 Ms. Macropygia rufipennis, Bfy.^S. F. I, 80 ; II, 263. 

791 ter. Macropygia assifmlis, Bume.^^. F. II, 441. 

792. Turtur pulchratus, Bodgs.—Jevd. Ill, 476*— S. F. VI, 421. 

793. Turtur meena, Sykes.—Jerd. Ill, 476.— S. F. VI, 421. 

794. Turtur senegalensis, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 478.— S. F. VII, 463. 

795. Turtur suratensis, Om. — Jerd. Ill, 479. 

795 6w. Turtur tigrinus, Tern.— 8. F. I, 461 ; III, 164; IV, 424ii. 

796. Turtur risorius, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 481.— S. F. VII, 297. 

797. Turtur tranquebaricus, -&^rm.— Jerd. Ill, 482.— S. F. IV, 292. 
797 Hs. Turtur humilis, 25?m.— S. F. II, 269 ; III, 279 ; IV, 292. 

797 ter. Geopelia striata, Lin.— S. F. VI, 423. 

798. Chalcophaps indica, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 484.— S. F. II, 269 ; IV, 404; VI, 424. 

798 bis. CaloBnas nicobarica, Lin. — S. F. II, ^71. 

799. Pterocles arenarius, Pfl«.— Jerd. Ill, 496.— S. F. IV, 4 ; VII, ) 60. 

800. Pterocles fasciatus, 8eap.— Jerd. Ill, 498.— S. F. I, 891 ; VII, 160. 

800 bis. Pterocles lichtensteini, Tem.~S. F. I, 219 ; IV, 230; VII, 160. 

801. Pterocles alchata, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 500.— S. F. Ill, 268 ; VII, 160. [VII, 160. 

801 bis. Pterocles senegalus, Lin.— S. F. I, 221 ; II, 831 ; IV, 4, 508 ; V, 60, 222; 

801 ter. Pterocles coronatus, Li€hi.—8. F. I, 224; III, 267; VII, 159. 

802. Pterocles exustus, 2fem.— Jerd. Ill, 502.— 8. F. VII, 160. 

802 iiA Sycrbaptes tibetanus, Gould.— 8. F. VII, 425. 

803. Pavo orfstatils, Lin.— Jferd. Ill, 506. 

803 bis. Pavo muticus, Lin.— S. F. VI, 425, 520 ; VII, 455. 
803 ter. Argus giganteus. Tern.— 8. F. VI, 427. 

803 quat. Polyplectrum tibetanuui, Gm.~a. F. V, 40 ; VI, 482. 
803 quint. Polyplectrum bicalcaratum, Lin. — 8. P. VI, 434. 
803 sex. Polyplectrum germaini, Ell- 8. F. I, 85 ; V, 118; VII, 426. 
803 sept. CrossoptUum tibetanumj Hodge. — 8. P. VII, 426. 

803 oet. Megapodius nicobarieuais, Bly.—S. F. I, 82 ; II, 276, 499. 

804. Lophophorus iaipeyanus, Lath. — Jerd. Ill, 510. 

804 bis. Lophophorus sclateri, /errf.— S. F. II, 488. 

805. Ceriomis satyra, Lin. — Jerd. Ill, 516. 

806. Ceriornis melanocephalus, J. E. Gr. — Jerd. Ill, 517. 
806 bis. Ceriomis blythi, Jerd,— 8. F. VII, 472. 

807. Ithagenes cruentus, Hardw. — Jerd. Ill, 522. 

808. Pucrasia macrolopha, L^m.— Jerd. Ill, 524.— 8. F. V, 138 ; VII, 124. 
808 bis. Pucrasia castanea, Gould.— 8. P. V, 138 ; VII, 124, 428. 

808 ter. Pucrasia nipaleusis, Gould.— 8. F. VII, 428. 

809. Phasianus wallichi, Bardu>.— Jerd. Ill, 527. 

810. Euplocamus albocristatus. Fig.— Jerd. Ill, 532.— 8. P. V, 42 ; VII, 429. 
810 bis. Euplocamus leucomelanus, Lath. — 8. F. VII, 428. 

810 ter. Euplocamus horsfieldi, G. R. Or.— 8. F. V, 42 ; VII, 429. 

811. Euplocamus melanonotus, S/y.— Jerd. Ill, 534.— 8. F. V, 42 ; VII, 429. 

811 bis. Euplocamus cuvieri. Tern.— 8. F. Ill, 166n., 343. 
8lUcf. Euplocamus lineatus, Vig.—8. P. Ill, 165 ; VI, 436. 
811 quat, Euplocamus orawfurdi, J. E. Gr. — 8. F. VI, 437, 521. 

811 quint. Euplocamus vieilloti, 0. «. Gr.— 8. P. V, 119, 121 ; VI, 438. 



A BOUGB TBMTATIVB LIST OF THB BIBD8 OF INDIA. HI 

[812-840 

812. Gallus ferrugineus, Cm.— Jerd. Ill, 536.— S. P. Ill, 171 ; VI, 442. 
812 Ms. Oallus lafayettii, Lesa.—S. F. YII, 429. 

813. Oallus sonnerati, Tem.—Jerd. III^ 589.— S. F. IV, 5, 404. 

814. Galloperdix spadicena, 6m.— Jerd. Ill, 541.— S. F. IV, 5. 

815. Galloperdix lunulatas, Faleiic.— J erd. Ill, 543.— S. F. II, 427, 458, 532. 

815 bis. Galloperdix bicalcaratos, Pemn.—Q. F. VII, 430, 453. 

816. Tetraogallus hlmalayenais, O. R. Or. — Jerd III, 549. 

816 bis. Tetrapgallua tibetanas, Gould.— Jerd. Ill, 554.— B. F. VII, 480. 

817. Lerwa nivicola, Hodgs. — Jerd. Ill, 556. 

818. Francolinus vulgaris, S^pA.— Jerd. Ill, 558.-8. F. IV, 5. 

819. Francolinns pictus, Jard. ^ SeW.—Jerd. Ill, 561.--S. F. V, 211. 
mbis. Franoolinus chinensia, Osb.—S. F. Ill, 171. 

820. Caccabis chakar, J. E. Or.— Jerd. Ill, 564. 

821. Ammoperdix bonhami, G. R. Gr.— Jerd. Ill, 567.— S. F. I, 226. 

822. Ortygomis poudioerianas, Crm.^Jerd. Ill, 569. 

823. Ortygomis gularis. Tern.— Jerd. Ill, 572. 

823 bis. Perdix hodgsonisB, Hodg8.—8. F. VII, 482. 

824. Arborieola torqaeolus, Valenc.— Jerd. Ill, 577.— S. P. II, 449. 

824 bU. Arborieola atrogularis, Bly.—B. P. II, 449 ; V, 44. 

824 ter. Arborieola brunneopectus, TScA:.— S. P. II, 449 ; III, 174 ; VI, 443. 

824 9«a/. Arborieola chloropus. Tick.— 8. F. II, 449; III, 176; VI, 444. 

825. Arborieola rufogularis, Bly.—Jerd. Ill, 578.— S. F. II, 449; V, 114 ; VI, 

825 bis. Arborieola mandellii, Hume.—S. P. II, 449 ; III, 262, pi. 1. [444. 
825 ter. Arborieola intermedias, %.— S. F. II, 449; III, 344. 

825 fuat. Arborieola charltoni, EyL—8. F. II, 449 ; VI, 445. 
825 juini. Bambusicola fytehii, Anders.— 8. F. Ill, 399 ; V, 493. 

826. Perdieula asiatica, Xo^A.— Jerd. Ill, 581.— S. P. VII, 156. 

827. Perdicula argoondah, Sykes.— Jerd. Ill, 583.— S. P. VII, 156. 

827 bis. Ophrysia supereiliosa, /. E. 6r.—8. F. VII, 434. 

828. Microperdix erythrorhynchas, Sykes. — Jerd. Ill, 584. 

828 JM. Microperdix blewitti, Hume. — S. P. II, 512. 

829. Coturnix communis, Bonn. — Jerd. Ill, 586.— »S. P. IV, 7. 

830. Coturnix coromandelica, 6fii.«-Jerd. Ill, 588. 

831. Excalfaetoria chinensis, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 591.— S. F. Ill, 345; VI, 447. 
831 bis. Phoenicoperdix chloropus, Bly. — S. F. VI, 447. 

831 ter. RoUulus roulroul, Soop.—8. F. VI, 448. 

831 qufU. Galoperdix oculeus. Tern.— 8. P. VI, 449. 

882. Tamix taigoor, Sykes.— Jevd. Ill, 595.-8. P. VI, 451. 

833. Tumix plumbipes, iTod^*.— Jerd. Ill, 597.— S. P. VI, 450. 

834. Tumix joudera, Hodgs.—Jexd. Ill, 599.— S. F. VI, 453. 
834 bis. Tumix maculosa, Tem.—8. P. VI, 452. 

834 ter. Tumix albiventris, Hume.— 8. P. I, 310 ; II, 281. 

835. Tumix dussumieri. Tern. — Jerd. Ill, 600. 

836. Eupodotis edwardsi, /. E. Gr.— Jerd. Ill, 607. 
836 bis. Otis tarda, Lin.— 8. P. VII, 434. 

836 ter. Otis tetrax, Li«.--S. P. VII, 435. 

837. Houbara macqueeni, J. E. Or. if Hardw. — Jerd. Ill, 612. 
^3S. Sypheotis bengalensis, P. L. S. MiUl.-- Jerd. Ill, 616. 
«39. Sypheotides aurita, Latk.— Jerd. Ill, 619.— S. F. IV, 10. 

840. Ciirsoriua coromandelicus, Cm.— Jerd. Ill, 626.— S. P. IV, 10. 



112 A ROUGH TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIBD8 OF INDIA. 

840 6i^.— 880] 

840 bis. Cursorias gallicus, G^m.— Jerd. Ill, App. 874.— S. F. I, 228 ; IV, 11. 

841. Bhinoptilns bitorqaatus, Jerd. — Jerd. Ill, 628. 

842. Glareola orientalis, L€aeh.—JeTi. Ill, 631.— S. P. II, 28*, 465 ; VI, 454. 
842 bis. Glareola pratincola, Lin.— 8. P. II, 284 ; IV, 507 ; VII, 186. 

843. Glareola lactea, Tenu— Jerd. Ill, 632.— S. P. IM, 179. 

844. Squatarola helvetica, Lw.— Jerd. Ill, 685.— S. P. II, 388. 

845. Charadrins falvus, Gm.— Jerd. Ill, 636.— S. P. I, 228 ; II, 287 ; VII, 482. 
845 bis. Charadrius pluvialis, JWn.— S. P. V, 247 ; VII, 186, 486. 

845 ter. Eudromias veredus, Oould. — S. F. I, 83 ; VII, 438. 
845 qtuit. JEgialitis asiatieay Pall.—S. P. VII, 438. 

846. ^gialitis geofiroyi, fVagl—Jerd. Ill, 638.— S. P. I, 229 ; II, 288. 

847. ^gialitis mongola, Pall.— Jerd. Ill, 639.— S. P. I, 230 ; II, 289. 

848. ^gialitig cantiana, La^A.— Jerd. Ill, 640.— S. P. I, 230. 

848 6m. ^gialitis placida, 6. R. Or.— S. P. 1, 17, 495 ; VI, 455. [VII, 227ii., 300n. 

849. ^gialitis dubia. Scop.— Jerd. Ill, 640.— 8. F. I, 230 ; II, 289 ; III, 179, 372 ; 

850. ^gialitis minuta, PaW.— Jerd. Ill, 641.-8. P. VII, 227«., 300n. 
850 bis. ^ialitis nigrifrons, Cuv.—B. P. VII, 438. 

851. Vanellua vulgaris, Bechst.— Jerd. Ill, 643.— S. P. I, 231. 

852. Chettusia gregaria, PaZZ.— Jerd. Ill, 644.-8. F. I, 231 ; IV, 13. 

853. Chettusia villotsei, Audouin.— Jerd. Ill, 646.-8. P. I, 232; IV, 13. 

854. Chettusia cinerea. Bit/.— Jerd. Ill, 646.-8. P. Ill, 180 ; VI, 456. 

855. Lobivanellus indicus, Bodd.— Jerd. Ill, 648.-8. P. Ill, 14 ; VII, 67. 
, 855 bis. Lobivanellus atronuehalis, JBlt/.—B. F. Ill, 181 ; VI, 457,ii. 

856. Lobipluvia malabarica, ^odtf.— Jerd. Ill, 649.-8. P. IV, 14. 

857. Hoplopterus veutralis, Ctir.— Jerd. Ill, 650.— 8. F. Ill, 181 ; VI, 457. 

858. -SJsacus recurvirostris. Cur. — Jerd. Ill, 652. — S. F. V, 121. 
858 bis. Ms2LQn% magnirostris, Geof. in Vieill.—S. P. II, 290; V, 121. 

859. (Edicnemus seolopax, S. G. Gm.— Jerd. Ill, 654.-8. P. I, 282. 

860. 8trepsilas interpres, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 656.-8. F. I, 233 ; II, 292 ; IV, 464. 

861. Dromas ardeola, Poyife.— Jerd. Ill, 658.— S. P. II, 293; VII, 186. 

862. Haematopus ostralegus, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 659.— S. P. I, 234. 

863. Grus antigone, Xtn.— Jerd. Ill, 662.— S. F. I, 234 ; VI, 458. 

864. Grus leucogeranus, PaZi.— Jerd. Ill, 663.-8. P. I, 235; VII, 187. 

865. Grus communis, BecJisL— Jerd. Ill, 664.-8. F. I, 235 ; IV, 15. 

866. Anthropoides virgo, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 666.-8. P. IV, 15. [470, 483, 525. 

867. 8colopax rusticola, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 670.— S. F. V, 140, 504 ; VI, 458 ; VII, 

868. Gallinago nemoricola, Hodgs.-Jerd. Ill, 672.-8. F. VI, 459. 

869. Gallinago solitaria, Eodgs.— Jerd. Ill, 673. [V, 212, 214; VII, 525. 

870. Gallinago sthenura, Kuhl.—Jerd. Ill, 674.-8. F. 1, 423, 496 ; II, 294, 335 ; 

871. Gallinago gallinaria, Gm. — Jerd. Ill, 674. — (Same references €u for 870.) 

872. Gallinago gallinula, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 676.-8. P. I, 235 ; IV, 15; VI, 459. 

873. Rhynchsea bengalensis, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 677.-8. P. IV, 15 ; V, 223 ; VI, 459. 

874. Pseudoscolopax semipalmatus, Jerd.— Jerd. Ill, 679.-8. F. VII, 484. 

875. Limosa segocephala, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 681.— 8. F. I, 285 ; IV, 16 ; VI, 460. 
875 bis. Limosa lapponica, Lin. — S. P. 1, 285. 

876. Terekia cinerea, ^itW.— Jerd. Ill, 682.-8. F. I, 237 ; II, 296 ; VI, 460. 

877. Numenius lineatus, Ctir.— Jerd. Ill, 688.— 8. F. I, 237 ; II, 296. 

878. Numenius phseopus, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 684.-8. P. II, 297 ; IV, 16; VI, 460. 

879. Ibidorhyncha etruthersi^ Vig.—Jerd. Ill, 685.-8. F. Ill, 257. 

880. Machetes pugnax, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 687.— 8. P. IV, 17. 



A BOV€IH TIHTATIYI UST 07 THS BIRDS OF IKDIA. 113 

[881-914 bis. 

881. Trblffa eantiuSj LiB.—Jerd. Ill, 089.-^8. F. I, 241. 

881 bis. Tringa crasgirostris, Tern. ^ Sehl.—S. F.L 240; 11, 500 ; lY, 841, 464. 

882. Trbga snbarqiiafa, 6«/J.— Jerd. Ill, 689.— S. F. I, 242 ; II, 297 ; IV, 342 ; 

883. Trioga alpina, lAtL—Jerd. Ill, 690.— S. F. I, 242. [VII, 487. 

884. Tringa minuta, ZwZ.— Jerd. Ill, 690.— 8. F. 1, 242, 491 ; II, 298 ; VII, 487. 
884 iw. Tringa rufioollig, Poll— 8. F. I, 2543, 491 ; III, 182; VI, 461 ; VII, 487. 
884 ter. Tringa albescens, Tenu—B. F. II, 298 ; III, 265. 

885. Tringa temmincki, lei$L—Jeri. Ill, 691.— S. F. I, 244. 

886. Limicola platyrhyncha, Tem.—Jerd. Ill, 692.— S. F. I, 244 ; VI, 461. 
886 Mb. Limicola iibinea^ Dre88.—S. F. V, 844. 

887. Earynorhynohus pygmsBns, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 698.— S. F. IV, 343 ; VI, 462. 

888. Calidris arenaria, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 694.— S. F. I, 244 ; IV, 343, 465. 

889. Phalaropns fulicarius, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 695.— S. F. I, 245 ; VII, 487. 

890. Lobipes hyperboreus, Xtn.— Jerd. Ill, 696.— S. F. I, 246 ; II, 338 ; V, 290 ; 

891. Bbyacopbila glareola, Lin.- Jerd. Ill, 697.- B. F. VII, 488. [VII, 150, 488. 

892. Totanns oohropus, Lin, — Jerd. Ill, 698. 

893. Tringoides hypolencns, Ita.- Jerd. Ill, 699.— S. F. II, 299. 

894. Totanus glottis, Xtfi.— Jerd. Ill, 700.— S. F. I, 247 ; VI, 463. 

894 his. Psendototanns banghtoni, Armstr.-S. F. IV, 344 ; VI, 463 ; VII, 488. 

895. Totanns stagnatilis, Bschst.— Jerd. Ill, 701. 

896. Totanns fiiscns, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 702.— S. F. IV, 509. 

897. Totanns calidris, Z^n.— Jerd. Ill, 702.— S. F. 1, 248 ; II, 299. 

898. Himantopns candidns, foiin.- Jerd. Ill, 704.— S. F. I, 248; III, 188. 

899. Beenrvirostra avocetta, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 706.— S. F. I, 248; IV, 18. 

900. Parra indica, Tio^A.— Jerd. HI, 708.— 8. F. Ill, 183 ; IV, 19 ; VI, 464, 

901. Hydropbasianns obimrgns, 5eop.— Jerd. Ill, 709.— 8. F. I, 249 ; III, 185 ; 

IV, 20 ; VI, 464 ; VII, 489. [20 ; VI, 464 ; VII, 22. 

908. Porpbyrio poliocepbalus, La^A.— Jerd. Ill, 713.— S. F. I, 249 ; III, 185 ; IV, 
90S. Fulica atra, iiii.— Jerd. IH, 715.— S. F. I, 249 ; VI, 465. 
908 bii. Podica personata, O. B. Or.—S. F. Ill, 185 ; VI, 465. 

904. Gallicrex oinerens, 6m.— Jerd. Ill, 716.— 8. F. II, 300; III, 187; VI, 466. 

905. Gallinula cbloropns, £Jn.— Jerd. Ill, 718.— 8. F. I, 250 ; VI, 466. 

906. GaUinula bumesij Bly.— Jerd. Ill, 719.— 8. F. I, 250. 

907. Erytbra pboenicura, Penn.— Jerd. Ill, 720.-8. F. II, 300. 

908. Porzana akool, ^ibtf«.— Jerd. Ill, 722.— S. F. IV, 21. 

909. Porzana mametta, Zi^acA.-Jerd. Ill, 722.-8. F. I, 251 ; VII, 489. [489. 

910. Porzana bailloni, Twia.— Jerd. Ill, 723.— S. F. 1, 261 ; II, 301 ; VI, 467 ; VII, 

910 his. Porsana parva, 8eop.—8. F. I, 251. 

? 910 i€r. Porzana cinerea, F^fU.— 8. F. VII, 440, 451. 
7910 ousl. Crez pratensis, A^cA^.— 8. F. VII, 440, 464. 

911. Porzana fusca, JUn.— Jerd. Ill, 724.-8. F. Ill, 188, /500. 

911 Us. Per7Ana bicolor, FaW:— 8. F. Ill, 283. [IV, 405 ; VII, 465. 

912. Ballina enryzonoides, Lafr.— Jerd. Ill, 725.— 8. F. I, 440; III, 188; 

912 bis. Ballina fasciata, Raffl.—8. F. Ill, 188 ; VI, 467. 
912 ter. Eallina canning!, Tt/t.—S. F. I, 86 ; II, 500. 

913. Hypotsenidia striata, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 726.— S. F. VI, 468. 
9)3 bis. Hypotsenidia obscnriora, Htme.—S, F. II, 302 ,- iV, 294. 
9IS Ur. Hfpoianidia abnormisy Hume.—S. F. Ill, 889 ; IV, 294. 

914. Rallns indicns, Biy.— Jerd. Ill, 726.— S. F. Ill, 416. 
914 bis. BaUus aquaUcus, Lin.— S; F. Ill, 41 & 

15 



114 ▲ ROUQH TENTATIVE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

915-962] 

915. Leptoptilus argalus, Za/*.— Jerd. Ill, 780.— 8. F. I, 252 ; IV, 21 ; VI, 468n. 

916. Leptoptilus javanicus, Honf. — Jerd. IIT, 732. 

917. Xenorhynchns asiaticus, LaM.— Jerd. Ill, 734.— S. F. Ill, 189. 

918. Ciconia nigra, iin.— Jerd. Ill, 785.— S. F. I, 252; IV, %l. 

919. Ciconia alba, jBecA**.— Jerd. Ill, 736.— S. F. IV, 22. 

920. Dissura episcopa, J5oAi— Jerd. Ill, 737.— S. F. Ill, 189; IV, 22; VI, 469. 

921. Ardea goliat, rem.— Jerd. Ill, 739.— 8. F. I, 105 ; VII, 490. 

922. Ardea fusca, fiily.— Jerd. Ill, 740.— S. F. VI, 471. 
922 to. Ardea sumatrnna, iZa^.- 8. F. VI, 469. 

928. Ardea cinerea, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 741.-8. F. I, 253. 

924. Ardea purpurea, Lin. — Jerd. Ill, 743. 

924 to. Herodias alba, Ltn.- 8. F. VI, 474, 480. 

925. Herodias torra, ^.-^Tam.— Jerd. Ill, 744.-8. F. VI, 472, 480. 

926. Herodias intermedia, HoM.—i^x^. Ill, 745.— 8. F. VI, 476, 480. 

927. Herodias garzetta, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 746.— S. F. VI, 476, 480. 

927 hxB. Herodias eulopbotes, St^nA.— S. F. VI, 478, 480. [465 ; VII, 453. 

928. Demiegretta gularis, jBow.— Jerd. Ill, 747.— 8. F. I, 254 ; II, 309 ; IV, 23, 

928 to. Demiegretta sacra, Gm.— 8. F. I, 87 ; II, 804. 

929. Bubulcus coromandns, Bodd. — Jerd, III, 749. 

980. Ardeola grayi, Sykes.— Jerd. Ill, 751.— 8. F. VI, 482. 
930 to. Ardeola prasinoscelis, Swinh. — S. R II, 483 ; VI, 481. 

931. Butorides javanica, Horsf.— Jerd. Ill, 752.— S. P. I, 256; II, 310 ; III, 191. 

932. Ardetta flavicollis. Lath.— Jerd. Ill, 753.— S. F. Ill, 191 ; VI, 488. 

933. Ardetta einnamomea, 6m.— Jerd. Ill, 755.— S. P. II, 811 ; VI, 483. 

934. Ardetta sinensis, 6m.— Jerd. Ill, 755.— 8. F. I, 808; II, 311. 

935. Ardetta minuta, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 766.— 8. F. I, 256. 

986. Botaurus stellaris, i^iii.— Jerd. Ill, 757.-8. F, I, 266 ; IV, 24 ; VII, 526. 
2^6 bis. Goisakius melanolopbus, Rafil.—S. F. II, 312 ; VII, 524. 

937. Nycticorax griseus, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 758.-8. F. IV, 415». 

938. Tantalus leucocepbalus, Forst.— Jerd. Ill, 761.-8. P. VII, 309, 507. 

939. Flatalea leucorodia, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 763.— 8. F. I, 256. 

940. Anastomns osoitans, Bodd.— Jerd. Ill, 765.-8. F. IV, 212. 

941. Ibis melanocephala, Lath. — Jerd. Ill, 768. 

942. Inocotis papillosus. Tern. — Jerd. Ill, 769. 

942 bis. Graptocephalus davisoni, Hume.-S. F. Ill, 300 ; VI, 485. 

943 Falciuellus igneus, 8. O. 6m.— Jerd. Ill, 770.— 8. P. I, 257. 

944. Phoenicopterus antiqnorum. Tern. — Jerd. Ill, 775. — 8. F. I, 2^7. 

944 to. Phcenicopterus minor, O. St-HiL—S. F. I, 31, 401 ; II, 839 ; IV, 25. 
944 ter. Cygnus olor, 6?*n.— 8. F. VII, 99, 101, 106. 

944 'Quat. Cygnus ferus^ leach.— S. F. VII, 106, 464. 

944 quint Cygnus bewickii, Farr.—S. F. VII, 107, 464. 

945. Anser cinerens, Mey.— Jerd. Ill, 779.-8. P. I, 258 : IV, 26, 197 ; VII, 491. 

945 bis. Anser segetum, 6m. — 8. F. VII, 441. 

946. Anser brachyrhynohus, JBaitf.— Jerd. Ill, 780. 

947. Anser albifrons. Scop.— Jerd. Ill, 780.— S. F. I, 259. 

948. Anser minutus, Naum. — Jerd. Ill, 781. 

949. Anser indicus. Lath.— Jerd. Ill, 782.-8. F. IV, 499 ; VII, 491. 

960. Sarcidiomis melanonotus, P«in.— Jerd. Ill, 785.— S. P. IV, 27 ; VI, 483. 

951. Nettopus coromandelianus, Gm.— Jerd. Ill, 786.— S. F. IV, 27 ; VII, 491. 

952. Dendrocygna jayanica, LTorf/.— Jerd. Ill, 789.— -8. F. VI, 486. 



A ftOUOH TBNTATIVB LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 115 

[953—984 bis. 

953. Dendrocjgna fulva, 6?m.— Jerd. Ill, 790.— S. F. VII, 463. 

954. Casarca rutila, Pa/i— Jerd. Ill, 791.— S. F. I, 260 ; IV, 198. 

955. Casarca scotalata, 8. ifi)//.— Jerd. Ill, 793.-8. F. VI, 489. 

956. Tadoma cornuta, 8. G. Om Jerd. Ill, 794.— S. F. I, 260 ; VII, 492. 

957. Spatula clypeata, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 796.— S.F. IV, 199. 

958. Anas boschaa, Lin.— Jerd. II t« 798.— S. F. I, 261 ; IV, 199. 

959. Anas poBcilorhyncha, ForBt—ierA. Ill, 799.-8. F.IV, 29 ; VII, 607. 

960. Rhodonessa caryophvllacea, LaM.— Jerd. Ill, 800.— S. F. VII, 492, 527. 

961. Chanlelaamas streperua, Lin. — Jerd. Ill, 802. [523. 
961 6ti. Chaalelasmas aD^ustirostris, Mdndtr.—S. F. I, 262 ; III, 273 ; VII, 493, 

962. Dafila acuta, Ztn.- Jerd. Ill, 803.— 8. F. I, 261 ; IV, 29, 200. 

963. Mareca penelope, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 804.— S. F. I, 261 ; IV, 30 ; VII, 494. 

964. Qaerqucdula erecca, lAn, — Jerd. Ill, 806. 

965. Querquedula circia, Z^n.— Jerd. Ill, 807.-8. F. IV, 201. 

966. Querquedula formoaa, Geor.— Jerd. Ill, 808.— 8. F. VII, 494. 
966 6«. Querquedula falcata, Gear.—Q. F. IV, 225 ; VII, 494. 

966 ter. Qnerquedula gibberifrona, S. Midi— 8. F. I, 88, 303; II, 316. 

967. Fuligula rufina, Pa«.— Jerd. Ill, 811.— S. F. IV, 201. 

968. Fuligula ferina^ Lin. — Jerd. Ill, 812. 

969. Fuligula nyroca, Gold.— Jerd. Ill, 813.— S. F. IV, 202; VII, 493. 

970. Fnligula mania, idii.- Jerd. Ill, 814. 

971. Fuligula criatata, Lin, — Jerd. Ill, 815. 

971 bit. Clangula glaucium, Ztfi.-8. F. IV, 226 ; VII, 441, 464. 

972. Mergna mergaoaer, Ztn— Jerd. III^ 817.— S. F. I, 422 ; 11,336, 439 ; IV, 

202, 496 ; V, 323 ; VII, 149. 
978. Mergellus albellua, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 818.— 8. F. I, 265; IV, 31, 202. 

974. Podicepa criatatua, Zin.— Jerd. HI, 821.— S. F. I, 142, 265 ; IV, 81, 203. 

974 bU. Podicepa nigricollia, Sund.—S. F. I, 142, 266. 

975. Podicepa minor, Om.— Jerd. HI, 822.-8. F. I, 268 ; IV, 208. 

975 «#. Prion ?— S. F. II, 817 ; V, 804. 

mter. Daptioii capenaia, Lin.— S. F. VII, 442, 463. [490; VII, 178. 

976. Oceanites oceanicua, Banh.— Jerd. Ill, 827.— S. F. Ill, 375 ; V, 291 ; VI, 

976 to. Puffinua peraicua, Hume.—S. F. I, 5 ; V, 292. 

976 ter. Puffinua —, Legge.—S. F. Ill, 874. 

977. Pelecanoidea urinatrix. Lath. — Jerd. Ill, 827. 

977 bii. Stercorariua pomarinua, Tern. — S. F. VI, 490. 

977 ter. Stercorariua aaiaticua, Hume.—S. F. I, 268 ; V, 294. 

978. Larue fuseus, Lin.— Jerd. Ill, 830.-8. F. IV, 502. 

978 Kd. Larua cachiiinana, PalL—S. F. I, 270; VII, 463. 
978 ter. Larua aflBnia, Reinh.—S. V. I, 273 ; VII, 463. 

979. Larua ichthyaetua, PaU.— Jerd. Ill, 831.-8. F. I, 276. [491. 

980. Larua brunneicephalua, Jerd.— Jerd. Ill, 882.-8. F. I, 278 ; IV, 203 ; VI, 

981. Larua ridibundua, iiw.— Jerd. Ill, 832.— 8. F. I, 278. 
981 ftti. Larue minu^uey Pall.—S. F. VII, 443. 

981 ter. Urua hemprichi, Bp.—S. F. I, 279 ; IV, 414 ; V, 296. 
981 gnat. Larua gelaatea, lAcht.—b. F. I, 274. 

982. Sterna caapia, Pa«.— Jerd. Ill, 835.— S. F. I, 280 ; III, 347. 

983. Sterna anglica, Mont.— Jerd. Ill, 836.-8. F. I, 281. [VII, 445. 

984. Hydrochelidon hybrida, Pa«.— Jerd. Ill, 837.— 8. F. Ill, 348; IV, 224 ; 
984 6w. Hydrochelidon leucoptera, Meis. ^ Sch.—8. F. VII, 445. 



116 ▲ BOUGH TKMTATiVIB LIST OF THK BIRDS Or IIIDIA. 

984 ter.^lOOS] 

984 ter. Hydrochelidon nigra, £»n.— 8. F. Vll, 445, 446. 

985. Sterna seena, Sj/hes. --Jerd. Ill, 888.— S. F. I, 281. 

985 bis. Sterna dongalli, MofU.—S. F. II, 317 ; III, 876 ; IV, 246». 

986. Sterna flaviatilis, Naum — Jerd. Ill, 839.— S. F. I, 282 ; IV, 472fi. 

986 bis Sterna longipennis, Nardm.—8. F. lY, 472. 

987. Sterna melanogastra, 7>m.— Jerd. Ill, 840.— 8. F. Ill, 848; YI, 492. 
9«7 bis. Sterna albigena, Licht.S. F. lY, 467 ; Y, 298, 323. 

988. Sterna minuta, Lin Jerd. Ill, 840.-8. F. Y, 325. 

988 bis. Sterna sinensis, 6m,— S. F. Ill, £82 ; Y, 325. 
988 ter. Sterna saundergi, Hume.—S. F. lY, 469 ; Y, 326. 
988 quat. Sterna gonldi, Hume.— 8. F. Y, 326 ; YII, 314. 

989. Sterna bergii, ZtcA/.- Jerd. Ill, 842.— S. F. I, 283 ; lY, 470 ; Y, 298. 

990. Sterna media, Horsf.—J^T^. Ill, 843.— S. F. I, 284 ; II, 318 ; lY, 474 ; 
990 bis. Sterna cantiaca, Qm.—8. F. I, 285. [Y, SOL 
? 990 ter. Gygis alba, 5pamn.— 8. F. YII, 447. 

991. Sterna snmatrana, /&i^.— Jerd. Ill, 844.— S. F. II, 319. 

992. Sterna anaetheta. Scop Jerd. Ill, 844.— 8. F. II, 320; lY, 474; Y, 301, n. 

992 bis. Sterna fuliginosa, 67m.— 8. F. I, 440 ; lY, 477. 

993. Anous stolidus, Ltn.— Jerd. Ill, 845.-8. F. II, 320 ; lY, 478. 

994. Anons tenuirostris, 2Vfm.— Jerd. Ill, 846.— S. F. lY, 480. 
994 bis. Anous leucocapillns, Gould.— 8. F. II, 322 ; lY, 480. 

995. Rhynchops albicollis, Sw.— Jerd. Ill, 847.— 8. F. YII, 99. 

996. Phaeton rubricaudus, Bodd.— Jerd. Ill, 849.— 8. F. II, 822. 
996 bis. Phaeton indicus, Hume.— 8. F. I, 286; IV, 481 ; Y, 302. 

997. Phaeton flavirostris, ^ran*.— Jerd. Ill, 850.-8. F. II, 323 ; Y, 498. 

998. Snla anstralis, S/q>A.— Jerd. Ill, 851.-8. F. lY, 483 ; Y, 8I8, 

999. Sula piscator, Xtn.— Jerd. Ill, 852.— 8. F. lY, 483 ; Y, 312. 

999 bis. Sula cyanops, Sund.—8. F. Y, 303, 807. 

1000. Fregata aqnilus, Zm.— Jerd. Ill, 853. 

1000 bis. Fregata minor, 6m.— 8. F. YII, 447. 

1001. Pelecanus onocroUduSy lAn. — Jerd. Ill, 854. — 8. F. I, 128. 

1001 bis. Pelecanus longirostris, Hume. — 8. F. Y, -191. 

1002. Pelecanus mitratus, Zicht.— Jerd. Ill, 856.— S. F. I, 128. 

1003. Pelecanus javanicus, Horsf.— Jerd. Ill, 857.-8. F. YI, 494. 

1004. Pelecanus philippensis, Om. — Jerd. Ill, 858. — :S. F. YI, 495. 
1004 bis. Pelecanus crispns, Bruch.—8. F. I, 288 ; YII, 448. 

1005. Phalacrocorax carbo, Lin. — Jerd. Ill, 861. 

1006. Phalacrocorax fuscicollis, Steph.— Jerd. Ill, 862.— 8. F. YII, 178. 

1007. Phalacrocorax pygmseus. Pall. — Jerd. Ill, 868. 

1008. Plotus melanogaster, Fenn. — Jerd. Ill, 865. 



{The above corrected up to 1st March 1879). 



[P.9.^AUbongh incredible paina hUTe been token in oorreetiBf; the proofs, I few that iomriTpoffru>hieiI 
errors may still reDuiia.j *^. * ^^ 



a bough tbhtativk list of thk birds ot india. il7 

Indbz to the Abbrbyiations of thb kambs of Authobitibs 

giybk in thb fobbgoino list. 



[ With the name$ and datea of some of the older auihors* more 
important worksj which moei epeeiallg concern us.] 



Adams ... Dr. A. Leitb Adams. 
Anders. ••• Dr. John Anderson. 
Anders., A. Andrew Anderson. 
Armitr. ••• Dr. James Armstrong. 
Audouin ... J. V. AndoniD. 
BaUl. ... ?• L. A. J. BaiUon. 
Ball ... Valentine Ball. 
Banks ••• Sir Joseph Banks. 
Bart. ... ? B. Sm. Barton. 
Beav. ... Captain B. C. Beavan. 

BechtU ... J. M. Bechstein. ••• Oemeinnfltiigv Natargr«ehiehia 

Doattchlandf, 1789-9o, Ut 
Sdn,s 1801-1800, %ud Xdn. Fig. 
NAturgeichichte der Stuben 
▼dg«l, 181S; OrnithologischM 
TaiolMnbiieli, 1808. 

B.Ham..: Fr. Ham. Buchanan- 
Hamilton. 
Blanf. ... W. T. Blanford. 
Bias. ... Dr. J. H. Blasios. 
Blf. ... Edward BIyth. 

Bodd. ... M. Boddaert ••• Table dM FUmehM ciilominfci 

d'Hiatoire Natiuella de M. 
d'Aobenton, 1788. 

Bcie ... H. Boie. ••• Briafe goMbr. aiia Oat-Ind. 

1888. 

Bonn. ... L'Abb^ Bonnaterre. ... Tya>ia Bncyeiop^ooa at M^tbod. 

gaa dat troia lUgnaa da U 
Natttia, 1788.9a 

Bose. ... L. A. O. Bosc. 

Bp. .•• Prince Charles Lncian Contpaetaa Genarum ATiam, 

Bonaparte. ^"®-*^- 

Brandt ... J. F. Brandt. 

Brehm ... Chr. L. Brehm. ... Baitraga aur V6galkvnda, 1880- 

S2; Lafarbneb dar Natuma- 
ebicbta allar Baropiiaeban Vdgal 
1898-84; Handbttob dar Nator- 
geaebicbta allar Vdgal Dant- 
jcblanda. 1881 j VogalSuig, 1866. 

Brooks ... William Edwin Brooks. 

BrUCh ... ? Bruch. ... VarionspapaniiitbaJaif, 1894-89 



• In this aod otbar easat in wbieb I bava preflxad a Dota of intarrosatioo. I bava 
bean unabla, at tba moment, to maka aara of tba initiala of tba aatbority quoted. 



118 A ROUGH TBMTATIVB LIST OF THB BIRDS OF INDIA, 



Burt. 
Cab. 
Cass. 
Cuv. 

Daud. 
Deless. 
De$f. 
Drap. 

Dress. 
Dum, 



... E. Barton. 

••• Dr. Jean Cabanis. 

••• JohnCassio. 

••• George L.C.F.D. Cuvier. 



t. • 



W. M. Daudin. 
... Adolphe Delessert. 
... R. L. Desfontaiaes. 
... ? Drapiez. 

... H. E. Dresser. 
... A. M. G. Dum^ril. 



••• 



Eha-. ... C. G. Ehrenberg. 



EU. 
Evsrsfjt. 



... Daniel Giraud Elliot 
••• Dr. Edouard Eversmann. 



Bft. 

Fairb. 

FUisch. 



... T. C. Eyton. 

... The Revd.S. B. Fairbaiik. 

... E. G. Fleisoher. 



Fcrst. . • • John Beinhold Forster. . . . 



Lo B^crne Ammal, 1817, 1ft Sdn. 
1820-30, Snd Edn.— QriffiUi'a 
Engliih Venion, 1834. 

Tnittf d'Ornithologie, 180a 



Hiftoire Natunlle dM Osieaux 
1829. 



Tniit^ EUmenteire d'Hiftoire, 
Naturelle, 1804, lit Bdo. 

(With Hemprioh) Symbol* Phj. 
•ioBB, sea loonat at Datorip* 
tiones ATittm, &e., 1828. 



Addenda ad Zoopraphiam Bono* 
Aaiaticam, 1835, 1841, 1842.— 
Papers on Birds and Mammala 
of ttoMia in the Bull, der Nator* 
foraeh. GeMelseh. Motoow, 
1848-38. 



Qaoted bj Nanmann, ai tha 
anthoritj for the speciflo name 
iMUMMfHit of the Leeeer Keitril. 

ZoologU Indioa, 1781, lat Bdi- 
tion, and inoorporattng 8 platea 
of Pennant's not published bj 
the iatter in the 1768 Bdn. ai 
well as the 12 that were thea 
published. 



FranU. ... James Franklin. 
G.'Aust... Major H. H. Godwin- 
Austin. 
Osof. ... ? Geoffrey. 



Gear. 
Gerv. 

Gm. 



• • . 



Gm. S. G. 

Gould ... 



J. G. Georgi. 
Paul Gervais. 

Jo. Frid. Gmelin. 

S. G. Gmelin. 
John Gould. 



••• 



••• 



«.• 



Gr. G. R. George Robert Gray. ... 



Quoted by Vieillot as the authority 
for the specific name of .JBfociw 
magnirottrit. 

Beise im Bussichen Beiche, 1773. 

(It is very doubtful whether he 
or Q. St. Hil. gare the specific 
name kUiieri.) 

BeWsed or ISth Edo. of Iannis 
Syst Nat , 1788. 

Raise dureh Bussland, 1770-74. 

A century of birds from the Hima- 
layan MounUina, 1888. The 
Birds of Europe. 1832-37. 
Birds of Australia. 1840.48. 
ftrdi of Asia, 1850-78. 

The Genera of Birds, 1844-40. 



A ROUGH TENTATIVE LIST OF THR BIRDS OF INDIA. 119 

Gr, J. E. John Edward Gray. ... lUiutrationt of Indian Zoology 

(wiih Genl. Hardwiok*,) 1880. 

Q. St. BUI Isidore Geofiroy St Hil- 

laire. 

Ould. ••• Ant. J. Giildenstadt ••• Vanotu paper* in tb« Kori 

Comentani and the Aeta, Aoa* 
demie Scientiaram Impaialie 
PatropolitanaB, 1770-86. 

Gum. ... J. H, Gurney. 

Hardw. ... General Hard wicke. ... (S** J. »• G»y.) 

BariL ... Dr. Gustav Hartlaub. 

B(u$. ... Van Hasselt. 

JTojr ... Lord Arthur Hay. ••• Afterwardi Lord Walden, and later 

Marqneee of Tweeddale. 

Bedenb. ... ? Hedenbor^. 
Bein. ... Ferdinand Heine. 

Bemp. ... F. G. Hemprich. ... (With Blmnberg) Sjmbol0 Phy. 

■ie», Mu leonee et DeeoriptionM 
AYinm, 1828. 

Eerm» ... J. Hermann. ... Obeeirationee ZoologioB Poetha- 

B0,18Oi. 

Bodffs. ... Brian H. Hodgson. 
Holdsw. ... E. W. H. Holdsworth. 

Bars/. ••• Dr. Thomas Horsfield. ... Birde of Java, Trane. Linnnan 

Soeietj, XIII, pp. 188-800, reail 
April 1820, publiahed 1821. 
Zoologtoal Beieaiehea in Java. 
1884. 

Bume ... Allan Hume. 

Butt. ... Captain Thomas Hutton. 

BL ... 0. Uliger. ... ••• Pfodronme Syitematie mamma* 

liom et ATiom, 1811. 

Jam. ... ? Robert Jameson. 

Jard. ... Sir William Jardine. 

Jerd. ... Dr. T. O. Jerdon. ... Birdi of India, 1882-84. 

KeL ... Dr. Kelaart. 

Koeh ... 0. L. Koch. ... Bjttmndn Baieriiohen ZoAlogie» 

1816. 

KlJU ... Heinrich Knhl. .•• Buffonii et Daubentonii Figur- 

annm Aviam ooloratanum no* 
mma Syitemattoa, 1880. 

Lafr. ... Baron Frederio de Laf- 

resnaye. 
Lath. ... John Latham. ... ^ ,J^f^ jy^^r ?L^^^ 

17Sl-b6; Supple. 1,1787; Ilr 
1802. Indes Ornithologiciis, 
1790 ; Supple, 1801. A General 
History <^Birda, 1821-84. 

Ley. ... Edgar Leopold Layard. 
Leaeh ... William Elford Leach. 
Leffge ... Captain W. Vincent 

Legge, R.A. 



120 A KOUGH TBNTATIVS LIST OF TBB BIRDS OF . INDIA. 



L$UL 

Les». 

Lichi. 



Lin. 



••• 



• •• 



J. P. A* Leisler. 
Rene Primivire Lesson. 

Heinrioh Lichtenstein. ••. 



Carl V, Linn6. 



••• 



Ljung ... Iven Ingemar Ljnng. ... 



Manuel d'Ornithobipe, 182a 
Traits d'OntitholoffM, ISSl. 

Baiten im Sodliehen Afrioa, 1811. 
Da* 2k)ologiMhe Mumobi dor 
UniTerriUlfc su Berlin, 1818. 
TeneichniM der Doubletften dee 
Zoologieohen Maeeunu idem, 
1898. 

SyatemA Kktune, 12th Edn. (from 
which, aoeordin^ to the^ Sritiah 
Asioeialion CcMe, all apeeiAe 
nomenolature atarta,) 1706. 

Bapera in the Kongli^ Srenaka 
Yetenakapa Akademiens 1ij% 
Handlingar, 1797-1818. 



••• 



••• 



J/cClelL... 

Malh. 

Mand. 

Marm, 

Harsh. 

Meu. ^ 
Sch, 
3d4nitr. 



Dr. J. MacClellaud. 

Alfred Malherbe. 

L. Mandelli. 

Alb. de la Marmora. 

Cap. G. F. L. Marshall, 

RE. 
Fr. Meissner and H. B. 

SchinZr 
Ed; M^n^tries. 



MoDographie dee Pieidfea, 1881. 



DieVogdder 



ins. 



Mey. ••• Bern. Mejer. 

Mich. ... C. Michahelles. 

MofU. ... George Montagu. 

Moore ... Frederic Moore. 

Mm., P. PL. L. St MuUer. 

L.8. 

MuU.ya.... S. Miiller. 

Naum. ... J. A. Naumann. 

Nev. ... HughNevil. 

Jfordm. ... Al. V. Nordjmann. 

OA. ... Peter Osbeck. 



Pflfl. ... P. 8. Pallas. 



Pay*. ... Gnst PaykuU. 
Peale ... R. Titian Peale. 



... 



Cat. raiionn^ dee objeta de Zoo* 
Jogie reotteiUea daa an Vorafe 
au Caucaaeet jua^'aox fron* 
titeea aotuellei da la Perae, 1882. 



• •• 



Ornithological Diotionaiy, 1802. 
Sftpplament^ 1818. 

Supplement to Lzm'i Syatemn 
Katurw, 1776. 

(With TBMinvox, c. «.) A P^pw 
on Sumatra; TgdMsh. t. Nat. 
Geach. IV, 1886. 

Katnrgeaohiohte der Ydgel Deut- 
achlanda, 1680^48, completed 
by hia aon J. F. Naumann. 



A VoyiM to China and the Xtot 
Indwa, 1771. (The original 
Bwediah, and later German 
Bditkma are pre-Ionnaan.) 



••• 



Beiae dureh Tenchiedene Fro* 
▼inaen dee Buwieben Beicbea; 
1791*78. ZM)graphia Bomo^ 
Aaiatica* lit toL, 1811, reet 1881. 



A BOUQH TENTATIVE LIST 07 THE BIRDS OF INDIA.. 121 

Pear9* ... Dr, J, T. Pearson. 

Penn. ... Thomaa Pennant. ... indmnZoobgj, 17(», iitEdn. 

Radde ••• Professor Onstav Badde. 

Raffi. ... Sir Thomas Stamford OtUlogae of Birds of Sutnatnt 
Rofflog. TfmDiaetioni of the LinneaQ 

Soeiotj, XIII., pp. 277—880 ; 
B«ftd Muth, 1821 ; published, 
1822. 

Rqfin. ... ? 0. S. Bafinesque* 

Schmaltz. 
Rack. ••• ? H. O. L. Reichenbach. 
Jteinh. ... Professor J. Beinbardt. 

Seinw. ... ? Beinwardt. ... Temminck often Adopted bis MS9 

names ; was this C. O. C. P 

Rofle ... Dr. J. F. Bovle. 

Bupp* ... Dr. Edward biippell. ... Atlas sa der Reise im NdrdlicbeA 
^ Africa; 1836-8; Neue Wirbel- 

tbiere su der Faiuia» yon 
Abyssinicai geh5rii(, 1886-40; 
HTstematische TToerstebt der 
Vogel Nord-Ost-Afrika's, 1846. 

Salvad. ... Goont Tommaso Salva- 
dor!. 
Sav. ... J. Ces. Savigny. 
Savi ... P. Savi. 
SchL ... Dr. Hermann Schlegel. 
Selai. ... Dr. Philip Lntley Sclater. 

JScopt ••• J. Ant. Scopoli. ... Delias Flor« et Fauius Insub- 

iic0, Ac., 1786-88. 

Selb. ... Prideanx John Selbj. 
Sharpe . . . Bobert Bo wdler Sharpe. 

Shaw ••• G. Shaw. ... General Zoologj, completed bjr 

Stephens, q. e., 1810-1816. 

Shett. ... Captain O. £. Shelley. 

Sparrm. ,,. Anders Sparrmann. ... Museum Oarbnnianom, 1786-88. 
Siard. ... Edward Stanley. ••• (Bishop of Norwich). 

Stepi. ••• James Francis Stephens. Continuation of Shaw's General 

'^ ^ Zoologj, 1816-1828. 

Stol. ... Dr. Ferdinand Stoliozka. 
Sirickl ... H. E. Strickland. 

Sund. ... CarlJ. Sundevall. ... Cwispectum Arlum Kdnarum, 

1866. Methodi Naturahs Avium 
disponendarum tentamen, 1872. 

Swinh. ... Bobert Swinhoe. 
Sw$. ... William Swainson. 

Sykes ... CoL W. H. SykeS. ... Calalyneof biidiof thaDokhun 

F« 25. 9-> 1882. 

16 



122 ▲ BOUGH TSKTATIYS LIST Or TAB BIBD8 OF INDIA. 

Tern. ••• C. J. Temminck. . ••• HiiioiM Nttwelle d« P!mob» el 

OaUinaoM, 1818.16. MabmI 
d'Ornitholofie, lit Bdn. 1816 ; 
indSdn. 1890-1886. NimTean 
BeouU d» Fkneh«f eoXoriim 
d*OiiM«z, 18S0.iA.— (witk 
Sehlegel and B. MuUer) 
YerhiiBdeUngen otot d« 
nataurlijke Qcieliiadaiiis der 
VederUndiaohe ovaneeielie 
Imttingeii, 1889.447-(with 
Sohlegei) Faoim Japoiucm,1860. 

Tick. ... Col. S. R. Tickell. 
Tumi. ... PTunstalK 

Tioeed. . . • Marque88 of Twieeddale. . XarUer Loid Walden and loid A. 

Hay. 

Tvt. ... Col. Bobert Tytler. 

Vahl ... Hart. VahL ••• Paper iaSkriTterafNaUaiiiikm*. 

Solakabet^ 1797. 

Valene. ••• ? A. YalencienDes. 
Verr» ••• Jales Yerreanx. 

Vieitt. ... L. F. VieiUot. ... AnalTie d'nna BOUTalla Oraiiho- 

logie ElteieBtair^l816 ; Gatoria 
del Oiaeaux da Cabinet d'His- 
toire NatoreUa du Jatdia d« 
fioi, 1880-86. 

Fig. ... N. A. Vigors. 

WagL ... Dr. Joannes Wagler. Sjetama Anmn. 18^. 

Wald. ... YisCOnnt Walden. ... XarUer Lend Arthur Hay plater 

MarQiMM of Twaeddala. 

Wall. ... Alfred Bnssel Wallace. 
fFett, ... Dr. O. F. Westermann. 
W.'-RamB. B. G. Wardlaw-Bamsaj. 

Yarr. ... W. YarrelL Ahiftorr or Britiih Birda, 18tt 



lit 



JmHi* 



123 

INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



Anon, BIjf. TriehMtoma, 887. 
•bnonnif, JffaiM. HjpotesnidiA, 918 ier, 
Abromia alBiiiB, Hod^t.^ 676. 
— n' — ftlbogaUrit, Modgt.. fST!. 
— i, — albofluperoilimriiy B/jf., 578. 
— ,^ — oantotor, lUk., 670. 
— ^y,— castaneioepe, Hod0$,^ 578. 
— '„- — obiyieai, JfiM,, 676 Wt. 
— -„ — iUTOgaUris, OyAugi., 678 Ur, 
— „ — griaeifrons, O. M. Or., 677 6if. 
— ^1, — jerdoni, JSrooki,, 672 bis, 
— „ — poliogenTs, J/jr., 676. 
— u — •ohwtioepi, SodffM,, 671. 
— I, — tiiperoilikris, ZVclr., 674. 
— „ — zanthotohistiu, Hodgt*, 672. 
AeiDthoptila nipalcntis, Boigt,, 481 
ioosntor •Itaiom, Bramdi,, 658. 
— -„-— BtrofolAris, Brandt., 666. 
— „ — imouM*ulAtaB| Hodgt., 661. 
— „ — ierdoni, Brooks,, 654 his, 
— „ — montAneUut, PalL, 666 bis, 
— „—' nipaleniiat JSodgs,, 662. 
— i, — mbeouloides. Moors,, 606. 
— n — stfophiatiM, Hodgs., 664. 
Aodpiter jnejaMhutUB, Emms.^ 24 bis, 
— ^1, — nitUBy Xi»., 84. 
— »« — Tirgatas, Bsiwm,, 86. 
MdpUrmiUy PaU, Asio, 68. 
Aoeros nipalezuis, ffodgs,, 146* 
aoornacfy 3lg, BrythrMtcnia, 825. 
Aflndoiheraf albooiuctm, &.-Amsi, it Wold,, 

^isr. 
Asidotherw fofcat, Wt^l, 686. 

ginginianua, Zaik,, 686. 

mahwittonib, ^Iwr., 686 bis, 

melanottemiiB» Lsggs., 684 Mf. 

■iamensif, Swink., 686 2«a#. 

Irittis, Xta., 684. 
Aerooephaliu apioolot, Jitrtf., 617. 
butrigioept. Swirnk., 617 Ur, 

dumetomm, Big,, 616. 

maororiiyncbiis, Hums., 617 5m. 

orwntalii, IVm. ^^ ifoA^., 615 5m. 

■tentorial, Ssmp, ^ Skr,, 616. 
Aetinodara dafla«n«ia, O^Ausi,, 428 5m. 

^if egertoni, Oould,, 427. 

nipalentii, Bodgs.,42B, 
oglii, 0,'Ausi,, 427 (fva^. 
ramisji, IToZcI., 427 <m*. 
Aetinodnni waldeni, G,'AusL, 427 5if. 
•cuta, Xia. DaflU, 962. 
■catioauda, Bodgs, Amadina, 702. 
■catictudat, Big, Ojpsellus, 99 5m. 
•duDfi, AflM. Alaudala, 762 tsr, 
■damsi, Itoofv. MimiifringiUa, 762 tsr. 
idanui, /«r<l. Prinia, 688. 
^doQ familiaria, MSmHr,, 492 tsr, 
•don, PoU. Anmdinax, 618. 
'figialitia ariatiea, PaU,, 846 ^ho^. 

„ — eantUna, Laik,, 848. 

- — „ — dubia, 8eop„ 849. 

n — geoffroyi, Wagl,, 846. 

— ,» — minota, Pott., 860. 





M 



» 






.Sgialitif mongola, Pott., 847. 
— „ — nigiuioxis, Cao,, 860 5m. 
— .,— plaeida, Q, R. Or., 848 5m. 
.figithaliBOOf eiTthrooephaliu, Vig., 634. 

>» iooichiitui, Bodgs*, 686. 

w ■■ ■ leuooganjs. Moors., 684 5if. 

,♦— niTeo^ulam, <7oiiM.|636. 

•gocephala, Zta. Limoaa, 876. 

•modium, Bodgs* Oonottoma, 881. 

vmodiof, Bodgs. Lophophanea, 642, 

nnea, lAn, Cwpophaga, 780. 

vnea, VisiU. Ghaptia, 282. 

ttralatof, Tick, Pteratliioa, 610 5m, 

•raginoBoa, Lin, Oirout, 64. 

iBaaoua magniroatria, Os^. in Visill., 868 5m. 

— „ — reeumroatria, Omo,, 868. 

••alon, Tnnst,, Faloo, 16. 

iBthopyga oara, Bums., 225 tsr, 

„— - dabrri, Vsrr,, 227 5m. 

goaldua, Vig,, 227. ' 
orafleldii Big., 280. 

- ignicanda, Bodgs,, 228. 

- nioobaiioa, Bums,, 226 5m. 

- nipalenaia, Bodgs., 229. 

- aanguinipeetoa, Watd.,23lbis, 

- aaturata, Bodgs,, 881. 

- aehem, Tick., 226. 

- Tigoni, Sgkos,, 226. 
affine, Bodgs, Troobaloptarum, 419. 
afflnia, Bodgs, Abroraia, 676. 
affinia, Big, Batraoboatomga, 105 tsr. 
affinia, MeClsU, Ooraoiaa, 124. 
aiBnia, Bag. CuouLua, 204. 

affinia. Big. O/roborbynohaa, 189 gnat. 
affinia, /. B, Or. CyfMMllaa, 100. 
ftffinia, Butt, Hjdrooiaaa^ 148. 
affinia, Bsink. Lama, 978 tsr. 
affinia, Qould. Mil?ua, 66 tor, 
affinia, Jsrd, Mirafra, 766. 
affinia. Bag, Hosoipeta, 889. 
affinia, Tgt, Ninos, 81 gnat, 
affinia, Tiek, Ph jlloaoopua, 661. 
affinia. Big, Pyonorampbua, 726. 
affinia, Bodgs, Sohomioola, 619. 
affinia, Big. SyWia, 682. 
affinia, Big, Tacooooua, 222. 
affinia, B^, Taphrodornia, 266 5i#. 
agUe, Tiek, PipriMinoa, 240. 
Bgrioolua, Jsrd, Ajcvocephalua, 617. 
Agrodroma campeatria, Lin,, 602. 
—• ,,— aimiliB, Jsrd,, 603. 

„ Bordida, Bupp,^ 604 

akool, Sgkss, Porsana, 908. 
Alauda anatralia. Brooks.^ 768. 
— „ — dnlciTOz, Bodgs,, 766. 
— „ — ffulgnla, Frankl,, 767. 
— „ — liopua, Bodgs., 767 bis, 
— „•— triborbyneha, Bodgs,, 767 tsr, 
Alaodula adamai, ITaaM., 762 tsr. 

„ — pispoletta, PaU., 762 5tf. 

„— rayUl, Big., 762. 

alba, Bsekst, Cioonia, 919. 
alba, Sparrm. Q7gif,990 <*r. 



124 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



Alba, Lin, Herodias, 924 hii. 
alba; Xta. Motaeilla, 691 Ur, 
albtfllus, Lin, Mergelluf, 978. 
albescens, Tem. Tringa, 884 Ur, 
albieaudata, J$rd. Stoporala, 802. 
albieilU, Ml, ErTthrosterne, 823. 
albioilla, Lin, Haliaflttu, 42 bit, 
albioollis, VisUl. Leuoooerca) 291. 
albiooUis, 8ws. Bhyncbops, 995. 
albifrons, Seop, Anser, 947. 
albifrons, Jetil, Periorocotni, 277 hit, 
albigena, Liokt. Sterna, 987 iif* 
albigularii, Bly, Pomatorhinas, 401 quat 
albirostDni, 'Shaw. Hydrociasa. 142. 
albiventris, Faitb, Callene, 889 bit, 
albiventria, Sly. OerootrichM, 476 bit. 
albiyentiis, G.'Auit, Neomis, 552 <#r. 
albiTentris, ffnme, Tarniz, 884 ter. 
albooinota, MoyU. Merala, 862. 
albooinotos; ^,'Auit. ^ Wold. Acridotheres, 

686 <0r. . 
albocristatUB, Yig, Xuploramni, 810. 
albogulariii, Hodg$, Abrornis, 677. 
albognlaris, Bly, Dametia, 898. 
albognlaris, OoM, Garrulax, 411. 
albofEuUris, Blf, Geooichla, 855 6t«. 
alboniger, ^/jf. Limnafitos, 84 Ur. 
alboniger, Sume, Saxioola, 489 bii. 
albonotatuf, Tick, Capiimulgus, 109. 
albosuperciliaris, 2?/y. Abrornis, 678. 
Aloedo beaTatii, Wald., 186 quai. 
-.-„ — bengalensis, Om,, 184i 
— „ — grandis, B/y., 186. 
— „— ispida, Lin., 184 big. 
.—- n— meninting, foTff., 185 #«r. 
— „ — nigriotot, Slw., 185 bi$. 
alchaU, Lin. Fterooles, 801. 
aloinas, Wut. Maohsiamphai, 67 ier. 
Aloippe atrioept, Jtrd., 890. 
— ,, — bonrdilloni, Hnme., 890 bis. 
— - fuaoB. O.'AnMi., 8^ ter. 

— nigrifrtms, £ljf., 890 ter, 
nipaleniu, Hodge,^ 888. 

— pbajrii, BUf,, 888 b%». 

— poiocephala, Jerd.^ 889. 
Alcurus striatus, Biy,, 449. 
AUotrius intermedius, ffmme.^ 611 bie. 
— „ — melauotis, Eodgt.^ 611. 

„ — xanthoohloris, Hodge. ^ 611 ter. 

alpevtris, Lin, Otoooris, 768 bit, 
alpina. Lin .Tringa, 888. 
alpinuB, Koeh, Fyrrhocorax, 680. 
Aueonax ferrugineus, Hodge,, 299. 
»— „ — latixoetris, ^q^., 297. 

„ — terrioolor, Hodge , 298. 

AlsooomuB hodgsoni, Vig,, 788. 

— ,, puniceus, Ttek., 782. 

altaicoB, Brandt, Aooentor, 658. 
altbna, Hnme. Sjlyia, 582 ter. 
altiroetriB, Jerd. Pyeforit, 886 bie. 
Amsdina aoutioouda, Hodge., 702. 

„~^— fumigaia. Wold,, 701 ter. 

»->„ — inglisi, Hnme., ^9 qnat. 
— ,, — kelaarti. ir«y., 700 bie. 
— ^, — leucogastra, Blg.^ 701 bie, 
— „ — malabarici^ Lin,, 708. 






Amadina malaoca, Lin,, 697. 
— ..„-. — oryzirora, Lin., 708 bit. 
....,,«..^ peotoralis, Jerd,, 700. 
-*—»•*- — pimotalata, Xta., 699. 
^-„- — rabronigra, Hodge., 698. 
— -„- — semistriata, Hnme., 701 qnat. 
— -»»• — striata, Lin., 701. 
*"— t*- — subundulata, G.'Anet., 699 bie, 
— "M- — supentriata, Hnme., 699 ter. 
amandava, fan. Kstrelda, 704. 
amauroptera, Peart, Pelargopsis, 128. 
ambigaas, Hnme. Propasser, 748 bie. 
atniotus. Tern, Nyotiomis, 122 lit. 
Animomanes deserti, Liekt., 759. 
— „-•— phoBnicura, tramil., 758. 
Ammoperdix Donhami, b. JB. Or., 821. 
Ampelioeps ooronatus, Big., 698 ter. 
ampelinus, Bp. Hjpooolius, 269 qnat, 
amurensis, Radde. Oerehneis, 19 bie, 
anaetheta, Seop. Sterna, 992. 
analis, Horef. Otooompsa, 462 MS. 
analis, Horitf, Picus, 157 ter. 

Anns boechas, lAn,, 958. 

— „— poBeilorbjQcha, Fortt,, 959. 

Anastonms oscitans, Bodd,, 940. 

andamanioa, Hwme. Ginnyris, 284 qnai. 

andamanensis, T^t, Centrooooeyx, 217 bie. 

andamanensis, 2W. Dissemaroides, 283 ter, 

andamanensis, At. Hirnndo, 82 qnai. 

andamanenesis, Tgt. Limnaetoa, 84 bie. 

andamatiensis, 7W. Oriolua, 471 bie. 

andamanensis, Tgt. Perioroootot, 871 bie, 

andamanensis, Big, Piens, 167 bie. 

andaD^anensis, Tgt, Stnmia, 689 ter. 

andamaniout, Hnme. Cnprimnlgiis, 110 bie, 

anglica, Mont. Sterna, 9i83. 

angostiroftris, MfnStr. Chaalelasmns, 961 bie, 

anneotans, Hodgt. Dicrarus, 279. 

anneetans, Big. Lioptila, 618. 

- Anorrhinus ansteni, Jerd., 144 ter, 

'«^-—„— ^ -galeritns, Tem., 146 qnat. 

— -w tickelU, Big,, 144 bie. 

Anonslenoocapilliis, Oonld,, 994 bie, 

— M— stolidus, Idn., 998. 

— „ — teniiirostris, Tern,, 994. 

Anser albifrons, 8eop„ 94f7, 

— ,, — braobyrhynobos, BailL,946i, 

— „ — oinereas, Meg., 945. 

— -»— indicus, Lath., 949. 

^„ — minutns, Naum,, 948. 

— «, — segetum, Om,, 946 bie. 

Anthipes moniliger, Hodge., 817* 

— — ., submoniliger, Hnme., 817 bie. 

Anthooincia pbayrii. Big., 846 ter. 

AntbreptesbypogrammioA, S. MM, 888 qnini. 

— — „«^— - malaccensis, 8oop., 288 ter. 

„ simjplex, 8. MM., 288 qnai. 

Anthropoides Tirgo, Lin,, 866. 

Anthns blaokistoni, Swink., 606 qnat, 

— ^ — cerTinus, PaU^Wibit, 

— r,f*— maenlatut, Hodgt., 696. 

—- „ — montanos, Jerd., 598. 

— „ — pratonsis , Lin,, 605 qmmt, 

— „— - rosaoeus, Hodge,, 606. 

— •„ — spinoletta, Lim., 606 #«r, 

— ~„ — triTialif, LAn,, 697. 



INDEX TO THl U8T OF THK BIBDS OF INDIA. 



125 



If 



n 



ni%yn6, Lim. Grna, 868* 

•ntiquomm, Ttm, FhcBniooptorat, 944. 

Bpiatter, Lim, Herops, 121. 

ApMsaduf, E9dg9, dphenooerooi, 779. 

aplonotui, Bhf. Ifaohlolophiu, 64B. 

apos, Zia. CTptellua, 99« 

aqoatleiia, Lim. BaUut, 914 ftt#. 

Aquik elu7M6tu0, Lim , 26. 

— „ — elftnga, P«tt., 28. 

— „ — fnlTetoent, Orajf^ 28 hit. 

— n*— Iu*tAt«, ZMff., 80. 

— N — mogilnik, A O, Gm.^ 27. 

— „ — nipiileiiau, Hoigt,^ 27 5»f. 

—I. — TindhiinA, Bramkl,^ 20. 

■qoiliii, Urn. Fregat% 1000. 

Anehnothera ftunla^ 1?^., 228 hia. 

» ohiTBogenjs, !>«., 224 <«r. 

w longiro0tr», Laih.^ 224. 

„ magnft, Sod^s,, 228. 

„ modesta, JE^L^ 224 5i#. 

irboricoU atrognUria, ^ly., 824 hit. 

— « branneopeotos, 2Vc*., 824 tir. 

oharltom Bvi,, 826 fuat. 
ehloropoa. Tick., 834 ^ol. 
intrrmediofl, ^/^., 826 ier. 
mandellii, Bmrne., 886 M«. 
mfogolarif, ^/jf., CK86. 
'— » torqaeoluB, ro/ratf., 824. 

ARhibnteo hemiptUopiia, £1^., 40. 

Aidta einmrea, Lim., 928. 

— „— fiuea» ^/jf., 922. 

-if—foliati r#fli. 981. 

^„— purpurea, Z<«., 924. 

— 1»— sumatrana, Sts/^., 922 fttf. 

ndBoli, Fojfk. Dromai, 861. 

Ardeolagrajii, ^yiw»., 980. 

—I, — prMinoMwlu, Swink., 930 his. 

•rdetiaen^ Cab. Platjlophoi, 668 Ur* 

Ardatta dnnamomea, Om., 988. 

--„ — flaTioollif, Za^A., 982. 

— „— ininiita, Zia., 986. 

— »,^- linensia, Om., 984. 

•nuria. Urn. Calidris, 888. 

armiriiis, FslL Pterooles, 799. 

vg«liis, Lath. LeptopHlus, 916. 

■rgoitaarii, Hodgt. Mesia, 616. 

tTKoondah, 8$h99. Perdionla, 827. 

Argot giganteuB, 2Vm., 808 ier. 

Aigya mdoolmi, Sykn., 486. 

Arrenga bliglii, ffoldtw., 848 itr. 

Aitamua fdaoui, VitiU., 287. 

— ^»,— lenooriiynohai^ Lim,, 287 ^if. 

Arundinaz edon, PoU., 618. 

uiatica, PoU. iBSgialttif , 846 pmi. 

iriatioa, Zaa. Cinnjria, 284. 

MiaUoa, Laih. MegalAina, 196. 

anatioa, Lath. Perdionla, 826. 

■aialieiii, Laih, Caprimiilgiia, 112. 

■oatioai, Sim. Cmoluf , 847. 

■aiatieiii, Btms. StaTooranoa, 977 Ur^ 

MMtieiu, L€Uk. ZenorhTnohua, 917. 

Alio aocipitiinis, FalL, 68. 

-„- biitleri,\H«M«., 67 hii, 

-i»- otui^ Lim., 67. 

tMamifla, MeCUU. Mirafra, 764 

MaiBuitf, Mum€. Dendioeitta, 676 hit. 



assimilis, Smmt. Maoropygia, 791 Ur, 
aasimilifl, Bodga. Neornu, 662 hit. 
aiaimilis, WaXd. Vsttm., 708 Ur. 
antmilia, Hume. Phodilot, 62 hit. 
animilia, WML. Staohjrii, 894 hit. 
aatigma, Hodgt. Moaeioapala, 811. 
Aatur badiuf, €hm., 28. 
— „ — palainbariuB, lAm^ 21. 
"~vf~~ polioptis, Smmt., 28 hit. 
— „— mfiiinoiiit, MoCltll., 22 hit. 
— „— aoloansia, Sortf., 28 ttr. 
— „ — trifirgatna. Tern., 22. 
athertoni, Jard. i* Seth. N7otiomis,'122. 
atkinsoni, Jtrd, Panu, 648. 
atra, Etrm. Bnohanga, 278. 
atra, Lim. Pulioa, 908. 
atratOB, Big. Piena, 167 quat. 
atrioapaiua, VitUL Molpaatea, 462 for. 
afcrioepa, Jtrd. Aloippe, 890. 
atrioepa, Sume. Faloo, 9 hit. 
atrigularia, SVm. Orthotomua, 680 6tf. 
atariiialaria, Moort. Suya, 649. 
atripennia, Jtrd. Gaprimalgaa, 111. 
aferogularia, Bramdt. Aooantor, 656. 
atrogolaria, Big. Arborioola, 824 hit. 
atrogularia, Tmm. Tnrdoa, 866. 
atronuohalia, Big. LobiTanellua, 866 hit. 
aarantiaea, GFoaitf, Pyrrhnla, 782. 
aurantiiia, Xta. Braohypteroaa, 180. 
anrata, Big. Araohnothera, 228 hit. 
auraola, Pall. Buapua, 728. 
aureola, VitiU. Leaooeeroa, 292. 
aurioolatuB, P. Z. 8. MM. Lanina, 269 hit. 
aarifrona, Tern. Phyllomia, 466. 
aurita. Lath. Srpheotidea, 889 
aurorea, PaU> Buticilla, 600. 
anateni, Jtrd. Anorrhinoa, 144 Ur. 
aoateni, Qotdd, Paradoxomia,878 hit. 
aoateni, Jtrd. Troohalopteram, 417 hit. 
aoateni, Wald. Zoaterope. 681 qmmi, 
auatralia, Brookt. Alaoda, 768. 
aoatralia, 8ttj^. Sula, 99a 
ayenaia, Big. Yolf ooirora, 268 hit. 
aTooetta, £i». BeonrriToatra, 899. 
azorea, jBodd. Hjpothymia, 290. 



fiABTLOvicvs, Ourm. Paloo, 12. 
baoha, Laud. Spilomia, 89 quimL 
baotriana. Suit. Oarine, 76 ttr. 
badia, J2<^. Carpophaga, 781 ttr A. 
badioa, 6m. Aatur, 28. 
badiua, Sorrf. Phodilua, 62. 
baiUoni, VitUl. Porsana, 910. 
bakkamnna, Forti. Soopa, 76 ttr. 
balli, Burnt, Soopa, 74 oet. 
Bambuaioola fytchii, Amdtrt., 826 quini. 
barbarua, Zta. Faloo,12 hit. 
barbatoa, Lim. Gypafitua, 7. 
bataaaienaia, /. B. Or. C^maellna, 102. 
Batraohoatomiia ai&nia, itg.^ 106 itr. 

hodgaoni, O. R. Or., 106. 

jaTenaia, Borrf., 106 hit. 

moniliger, Lag., 108. 

pnnotataa, Bmttt.^ 106 hit^ 



99 
•ft' 



baja, Big, Plooeua. 694 hit. 



126 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THB BIRDS OF IKDIA. 



bftyleyi, 7^t. DendrooitU, 678 bi$. 
Baza oaylonenm, Legg9*^ 68 <er. 
— f>- lophotM, Cii0., 68. 
— „- sumatrensit, X«/r., 68 hig, 
beayani, WM, Aloedo, 186 gnat* 
baaTani, Biff. Lophophanea, 641. 
beaTani, Wald, Prima, 638 hu, 
iMlangari, Leu. Qamilax» 407 hit, 
bengalensif, Om, Aloedo, 184. 
bengalensia, FramkU Bubo, 89. 
beDgalensii, Om. Genfcroooooyx, 218. 
bengalensis, J^rd. Orsminic^olai 648* 
bengalenaia, J^. Plooeos, 696. 
bengalensis, Om. Pfleudogjps, 6. 
bengaleniify Lin. BbynchiBa, 878. 
bengalensiBt P. X. 8. MM, Syphaotif , 888. 
beogaleDiia, O.'Autt. Timalia, 396. 
Bereniooniu oomatut, J2q|^., 145 Ur, 
bergii, Heht. Sterna, 989. 
bewiokii, Tarr. prgniu, 944 qmM. 
Bhringa remifer, Tern., 888. 
bicaloantom, Xte. Polypleetrom, 808 puiU, 
bicalcaratni, Pm». Galloperdii, 816 bit. 
bicinota, JM. Oamotreron, 774. 
bioolor, 8eop, Carpophaga, 781 quinL 
bioolor, Wald. Porsana, 911 hit. 
bioolor, Sjfhet. Pratinoola, 488. 
bimacnlata, MSnHr. Ifelanoooijpha, 761 itr. 
bixoitriB, 6eop. Ooyeeioa, 144. 
bupeoolaria, Vig. Oarroliii, 669. 
bistrigioepa, SwUh. Aorooepbalttt, 617 itr, 
bitorquattts, Jerd^ Rhinoptilua, 841. 
blakiatoni, Sfoinh. Anthut, 606 quat. 
blanfoxdi, Wald. DrymoBoa, 648 ttr. 
bluDfordi, Jtrd. Ixyu, 468 quint, 
blanfordi, Sumt, Montifringilla, 768 quint. 
Blanfordiua ftriatulas, Mumt., 649 quint, 
blewitti, Suwu. Hetaioglanz, 76 quint, 
blewiiti, ^««M. HieropOTdiz, 828 hit. 
blighi, Ifaldtw. Anenga, 848 ttr, 
bl^i, Jtrd, Oeriornia, 806 hit. 
biythi, Jtrd. Stamia, 689. 
Blytbipiotti propbyromelaa, Soit,, 176 hit. 

— •„ pyrrhotia, Bod^t., 176. 

bonbamif G, JB. Or. Ammopardiz, 821. 
borealia, Blot, Phylloaoopaa, 666 hit. 
boaohaa, Lin, Anaa, 968. 
Boteuma steUana, Xl«., 986. 
bottanenaia, Dtlttt, Pica, 668. 
boulboal, lath. Kerala, 861. 
bonrdilloni, Burnt, Aleippe, 890 Ut. 
bourdilloni, Sumt, Lynoomia, 114 ttr, 
brachydaotyla, Ltitl. CalandreUa, 761. 
Bracbypodioa oinereirexitrif, Blu,^ 467 quat. 
futooflaTeaoena, Burnt,, 467 ttr, 
melanooepbalna, 6m., 467 hit, 
„»— poioeepbalna, Jtrd., 467. 
BracbypteniuB aarantitu, Zm.« 180. 

reyloniu, Fortt, 182 hit, 

dilotoa, Bfy., 182. 

ponetieoUia, Jfott., 181. 






"11" 



»r 



bnusbypteraa, Jiy. Pernia, 67 M«. 
Braebypteryx eniralia, Blgf., 888. 

— — ,, bypeiytbn, Jtrd. <f J7jr., 887. 

■ ty"— nipalenaia, Bodgt.^ 886. 
pidliieri, BI9,, 888 hit. 



>» 



Bracbypteryx atellatua, Oimtd.^ 888 ttr. 
braohyrbynohiia, BaiU. Anaer, 946. 
brachyura, Lin. Pitta, 846. 
braohyurua, VitiU. MierDptermiS, 178 hit. 
Bradyptetua oetiii, Marm., 618 ttr, 
brama, Tttt, Oaiine, 76. 
braiiliana, Om, Cinnyria, 883 hit, 
brefioaudatoa, Bin. Turdinua, 890 quini, 
breTiroatriiy Ooutd, Linaria, 761 hit, 
breriroatria, Vig. Perioroooiaa, 278. 
brodii, Burt. Ghlaacidiam, 80. 
bmoii, Burnt, Scope, 74 ttpt, 
brunueicephalni, jiml. Lajraa,960. 
brunneifrona, Badgt. Horeitet, 627. 
brunneifrons, Vig, Pioua, 169. 
bronneipeotaa, Big, Bohamioola, 6I96»f. 
branneopectQa, Titk. Arboriools, 824 itr, 
brttnoeaoens, ^iieie. Horeiftea, 627 ttr. 
brnnnena, Big, Izaa, 462 oet. 
Bubo bengaleiiBif, Frmnkl., 69. 
^„ — coromanduB, Laih,^ 70. 
— „ — igoarua, Fortt,^ 68 itr. 
— ,, — nipalentia, Bodgt,, 71. 
— „ — orientalia, Borif,^ 71 hit. 
— „ — tareomanaa, JEntrtm., 68 quat, 
Bubulotta ooromandna, Bodd,, 9&, 
buehanani, Big, Bmberiaa, 716. 
buchanani, Big, FraakUnia, 661. 
Bttclianga atra, Btrm, Jei^l, 278. 

-„^— O0nileaoeDB, Xm., 281. 

•n—' inaularif, Sharpt,, 281 ttr. 

-„— « leuoogenyii Wald,, S80 quat. 
leuoophaea, VitHl,, 280 itr, 

-n leaoopygialia, Big., 281 hit, 

'„ longieaudata, Bag., 280. 

■„ pyrrbopa, Bodgt, 280 6m. 

Badytea caloarata, Bodgt, 694i 
— -„— — cinereooapilla, Sttvi., 698. 
-— „ — citreola. Pott., 694 hit, 
— „• — flaTa, Lin., 693 itr, 
— •„— meUtnocephala, lAekt,, 698 hit. 
— •„- — rayi, Bp,, 692 6m. 
burkii, Burt, Cryptolopba, 669. 
burmanioa. Burnt. Ninox, 81 ttr. 
burmanica, S^iarpt, Pelargopaia, 127 hit. 
burmaniea, Jtrd. Stamia, 689 hit. 
bornati. Big, Gallinula, 906. 
burneai, B^, LaticUla« 448. 
Bumeaia gracilia, Lioht., 660. 
bartoni, Oould, Oalaeanthie, 748. 
Batalia gri>ola, Lin., 299 6m. 
— „- — muttui. Log., 299 ttr, 
Batastar iDdicus, Om,, 48 hit. 
— — „ — liTenter, Tern., 48 ttr, 
— „• — teeia, lirankl., 49. 
Biitoo desertofum, Zkmd,, 446ir. 
— I, — ferox, S. O. Om,, 46. 
— „ — leaoooepbaloa, Btdgt., 46. 
~~~M — plomipet, Bodgt,, 4tl, 
— „ — Tulgaria, Ltaeh,, 44. 
butieri, Burnt, Aaio, 67 hit, 
Butoridei jaranioa, Borrf., 981. 



CACCABig ohnkar, /. J?. Or,, 880. 
caohinoana, Bail. Laruf, 978 



JHDKX TO THX LIST OF THK BIROS OF IHDIA. 



127 



fltrhiiiMiii, J^rd, TMeliAlo0t«niiii« 4S8. 
CMomaatif pMMrimifi Foi/., 206. 

— -., threnodM, Cdb,^ 209. 

tmnSi/LoMt BodgB, GfurruUx, 409. 
csfnlea, JE^. PitU, 844 ^iki^. 
wnil6oc»pUal% Vig. Botieilla, 604. 
aBra]«0oeiifk Lm, BuebMigA» 281. 
ecralMoeiif, Lin, Miorohierai, SO. 
eorulaui, Dnf, Elanni, 59. 
CftlMintliis burtoni, Qamid,* 748. 
Oikodrallabraohjdftotyk, Z«m{., 761. 
edcftraU, ITod^t. Budjtw, 694. 
Oaidria AienariA, JUm., 888. 
alidiif, Xm. Tbtmmt, 897. 
ealigata, JUekt, HjpoUu, 668 hU, 
tf^ygn^aam^ Rtffi. LimnattiUy 84. 
Cdtoiw alMventru, Mairh.^ 889 hu. 
— „— frontelu, Bl$n 840. 
— „ — bodgMmi, ifpoTtf., 889 Ur, 
— „— rofiTentrit, .B^., 889« 
OtUiope camtfehitkeniw, 6^., 512. 
— „— pectoralia, Oonld,, 618. 
Cdlobpboi malaoeefwia, XoM., 175 quai, 
— -„•-— iiitiitali«,2WM., 176 U#. 
— *» pnnioeof, Sorif,, 175 <#r. 
GalobfttM aaeknopa, /W/., 592. 
GblfiMM ziioob«ri(M, Xm., 798 ftit. 
Caloperdiz oouIeiUf Ttm-f 881 ^wi^. 
Oalorhunphui h»ji, /. S. Or,, 190 ftw. 
Ctlornu dialybMiu, Sorrf,, 690 6^. 
— «— tjtleri, Hnme., GdO Ur, 
tilUiropa, Lay. Fftloornia, 151 hit, 
otlnu, Scop, Otop^ 2. 
Oiljptomexm Tindii, Eqffi., 137 (w. 
CBmbaieiitia, Zoti. Tbamoobia, 460. 
nmpettrifl, Lin, Agrodroma, 602. 
camtoebBtknvif 9 Om. CaUioiWv 612. 
Candida, Tick. Striz, 61. 
nndiduty Bonn., Hinunftopna, 898. 
caaffBte, Lcm. H«imoeroai» 165 hie. 
ewicapillufl, Big, Yungipious, 163 hie, 
caiue0p0» V^. Cardualia, 749. 
ranioep«» B^. Lanius, 267 hie, 
anieept, FrankL Megalsma, 198. 
euieeps, Bly. Paloonuf, 151 icr, 
ootfrona, bU. Spisixoi, 468 his, 
cunabinai Xtii. Xinaria, 761 icr. 
caoningi, Tyt, Ballina, 912 icr. 
cmorof, j£i Cuenlua, 199. 
eantator. Tick. Abrornis, 670. 
eantiaoa, Om. Sterna, 990 his. 
caotiaoa, Laih. ^gUlitis, 848. 
eantiUaoi, Jcrd. Hirafra, 757. 
caoatus, Xia. Tringa, 881. 
eapeniia, Xta. DapMon,975 icr. 
capiiferatui, Vig, Malaoiaa, 489. 
eapitalii, McClcU, Hemipua, 267 A. 
capraia, Xm. Pntuioola» 481. 
C^yrhDolgiia albonotatof, Tick.^ 109. 

apdamaniaiia, Smnc,^ 110 hie, 

aaiatioof, Laa,, 112. 

aMpenait, Jcrd, 111. 

indieiit, Laik. 107. 

jotaka. Tern,, 107 hie. 

kelaarti, Bim,, 108. 

maoranu, Borrf., 110. 







■ll" 




Cbprimiilgaa mahraltantia, Sykcc,^ 118. 
— » zDontieoIns, FrmtkL, 114. 

f , anwini, Snmc., Ill hie, 

cara, Mnmc. .SSthopyga, 226 icr. 
oarbo, Lin. Phalaeroooraz, 1006. 
Caroineates palohellaa, Sarrf., 182 icr* 
Oardnelis caoicepa, Vig,, 7419. 
Carina baotriana, Xra^l.* 76 icr, 
— „ — bimma, Tcm.^ 76. 
— -„ — glanz, Sav.f 76 hie. 
^—„ — pnlehra, Sumc, 76 quai. 
oamipes, Hodge. Pjonoramphua, 728. 
Carpodaous arythrinue, Pali., 738. 

„ rubioillna, G^Ud., 787. 

Oarpopbaga cnea, Lin,, 780. 

badia, Bq/l,, 781 icr A. 

bioolor, Scqp., 781 quint. 

oaprea, Jcrd., 781 hie, 

griMioapilla, Wald., 781 icr. 

ineigiaBjSodge., 781. 

inaidariB, Big., 780 Mr. 

palumboidea, SwmCf 781 42«al. 

pasilla, Uly., 780 icr. 
earyopbyUaoea, Laih, Bhodoneaaa, 960. 
Oataroa ruiila, P(Ul. , 964. 
— I,—- soutulata, 6. MiilL, 965. 
oaabmerensia, Brooke, Sitta, 248 hie. 
oaahmrrenaiB, Oould. Chelidon, 98. 
caahmerianais, Oomld. Cinoliu, 848. 
eaaiotis, Bp. Palamboi, 784. 
caapia, Pall. 8tenia» 982. 
oaatanea, Gould, Hernia, 868. 
oaataoea, Qould, Pucraaia, 808 hie, 
oaataneicaada, ffume. Siva, 616 hie, 
oastaneicepa, Hodge. Abrornis. 578* • 
caataneioepa, Hodge. MinU, 619. 
oaataneioepa, Moore. Siaphidea, 624 hie, 
eaataneisollia X«af. Petrooinola, 861 quai, 
caataneiTentrif, Frainkl. Siftta, 250. 
oaataneoooronata, Buri. Teaia, 827. 
eaataneonotam, Big. Qlaaoidiam, 78 5m. 
eaataneoptemm, Horrf. GHbuoidium, 78 icr, 
oatbpharioa, Hodge. Pieua, 166. 
oaudata, I>imi. Ohatarrfaoa, 488. 
caadata, J/y. Pnoepyga, 881. 
earatiu, Sham. Diobooeroa, 140. 
Oentrooooojx andamanenaia, 2^1., 217 hie, 
bengalenaia, Qm,, 218. 
chloiorhynobua, Blgik,, 217 icr, 
intermediua, ITsaia., 217 qnai, 
maximas, Hume., 217 qumi, 
rofipennif, lU., 217. 
Cepbalopjrrhua fliimmieepa, Buri., 688. 
Carchnexa amarenaia, Raddc.f 19 hie, 
— — „- — ing)isi» Hume,, 18 icr, 

n-— ' naumaimi, Fldtck., 18. 

'ft pekinanaia, Swink,, 18 hie. 

„ aattuata, Bfy„ 17 hie. 

— „ tinnunoulna, Xta., 17. 

— „— — yeapertina, Xia., 19. 
Oeroomala fuaca, Big,, 494. 

„ melanura, SUpp,, 498. 

Oeroofcriobaa albiventria, Big., 476 5m. 

„-— maorara, Qm., 476. 

Ceriomia biythi, Jcrd,, 806 hie, 

— ^,— . melanooepbalua, /. S, 0r., 806. 



»» 



n 



128 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



Cerioraift Batjia^ Xin., 805. 
Certhia diBColor, Blgf,, 245. 
— „ — himalajana, Vig.,i4B. 
— „ — nipalensiBy Hodgt. apud Bly,^ 244 
— „- — hodgtoni, Brooks, 248 hU, 
— *„— * Btoliozke, Brookt,, 244 hU. 
Certhiliuda desertoram, StatU., 770. 
oerthiola, Fall. Looiutella 521. 
cervinioeps, Oould. Lyncomis, 114 his, 
oervintu, Fall. Anthtu, 605 (if. 
Ceryle guttata, Vig., 137. 
— ,t — radif, Xta., 186. 
oetti, Marm. Bradyptetas, 518 ter^ 
ceyloneniif , Legffe. Basa, 58 Ur. 
cejlonensiB* Sw». Cnlioicapa, 295. 
oejlonexuif, Om. Ketupa, 72. 
eeyloneiiBU, Om. LimnafttUB, 85 his* 
oeylonenBiB, Bp, OriolnB, 478. 
ceylonenBiBy Boieh, XJpupa, 255. 
ceylonexuiB, Holdsw. ^Bteropt, 681 his, 
ceylonuB, Forti, BraohyptemuB, 182 Us. 
Cejz tridaotjluB, FaU., 188. 
Chetura gigantea, £««., 96 his. 

—„ indioa, Swne,, 96. 

»— y, leucopygialiB, Bly,, 96 his. 

•— „— DudipeB, Hodgs.f 97. 

„ — ByWatica, Tick., 95. 

OhtttorniB BtriatUB, Jsrd., 441. 
Chalooparia BingaleDBis, Om., 288 »sx. 
ChalcophapB indioa, Xt».» 798. 
Chaloostetha inaigniB, Jard,, 281 tor. 
ohalybaeoB, Horrf. GalorniB, 690 h is 
Chaptia asnea, VieiU., 282. 
— „ — maUtyenBia, JTov., 282 Us. 
CharadriuB falToa, Om., 845. 
——„'-— plttfialiB, X»a., 845 his. 
charitoni, Mgt. Arborioola, 825 qfud. 
Cbatarrhaa oaudata^ Dam., 488. 

- earlii, Bly., 489. 

- edipoB, M%ms,t 488 ter. 

- gularia, Bly.^ 489 his. 

- huttoni, .BIj^. , 488 Us. 
ChaaielaBmua anguBtirofitriB, MMlr., 961 his. 

„ atreperuB, Xtn., 961. 

eheala, Lath. Bpilomif, 89. 
Cbelidon oaahmerienau, Qould,^ 98. 

•^^-„ iirbioa, Xmi., 92. 

Ohelidorhynx hypoxantha, J{y., 294 
ChettUBia cinerea, Big., 854. 

„ — gregaiia, FtM.^ 852. 

— ^„ — TillotiBi, Audouin.j 858. 
Chibia hottentotta, Xta., 286. 
Ohimanoriiia leaoooaphfldua, Fi^.t 506. 
ohineDBiB, Bodd. OisBa, 678. 
ehioenaia, Lin. Sxcalfaotoria, 881. 
oliineoBiB, Osh. Flranoolinut, 819 his. 
chinenaia, 8eop. Garrnlaz, 408 Ur, 
chimrgua, 8eop. HydrophoaianiiB, 901. 
ohiqoera, Bamd. Faloo, 16. 
Chleoaaioua rafioepa, Bljf.f 877. 
ehlorigaater, Jerd. ChnBOphlegma, 175. 
ohlorigaater, Big. CrocopuB, 778. 
chloriB, Bodd. Halcyon, 182. 
cblorooephaloB, Wald. Phjllomia, 468 Us. 
obloroncytoa, Hodgs. Beguloidea, 566 tsr. 
ehJorolopbna, Vitill. Clu*jBophlegma, 174. 



■»i' 



ehlorophsa, Btffi. Bhinoiiba, 216 quat^ 
ohloropna, Tieh. Arborioola, 824 qusBt. 
ohloropua, Xta. Oallinula, 906. 
ohloropuB, Big. Fhomiooperdiz, 881 5tf. 
chlozoptara, Btg. Oamotreron, 777 Us. 
ehlororhyDchua, Blgtk, Oentroooocyx, 217 isr. 
ohooolatma. O.-Amst. 4* WaU.^ l^oapjiS ^^ 

Us. 
cbryBafitoa, Zta. Aquila, 26. 
ohryBoa, Hodgs. Staohyria, 894. 
chryBeoB, WM. Abrornia, 576 his. 
obryaena, ffodgs. Proparoa, 681. 
ohfyBouB, Sodgs. TarBiger, 51L 
Ohryaoooobyz limborgi, WM., 211 quat. 

■„««— malajanuB, Buffi. , 211 tor. 
— «*„■ maetdataa, Om., 211. 

,,. zantlioriiynchaa, Eorsf., 211 his. 

OhryBOOoIapteadeleaaerti, MaXk,, 166 Us. 

„ feafcivna, Bodd., 167. 

— — H atricklandi, Lag., 166 «ar. 

w Bultanens, Hodgs., 166. 

ohryBogenya, Tern. 'Arachsothera, 224 isr. 
Chryaomitria tibetana, Ewm., 160 his. 
Ohryaophlegma ohlorigaater, Jsrd., 175. 
— — „— ohlorolophua, VtsiU., 174. 
— „— — flaytnachua, Gould., 178. 
ohryBOpteromi Gould, Troohalopfcerum, 41& 
ohryBOrrhenm, Tsm. Diemxm, 287. 
ohukar, J. B. Gr. Oaccabia, 820. 
cia, XJa. Emberixa, 718. 
Cioonia alba, Boehst., 919. 
— n — nigra, Lin., 918. 
oiliaria, Sodgs. apud Big. Muaoiflapiila, 

SIX his. 
einelorhyneha, Vig. Petropbila, 858. 
Oinolua •aiaticua, Am., 847. 
— «„- — oaahmerienaia, Gould., 848. 
— ff*~- pallaai, Ttm., 849 his. 
— „ — aordidua, Gould., 849. 
oineraoeum, G.'Aust. Trochaloptarom, 418 isr. 
oineraoena, Moni. Ciroua, 52. 
cineraacena, Wald. Laticilla^ 448 his. 
cinerea, Xta. Ardaa, 928. 
cinerea. Big. Cbettoaia, 854. 
cinerea. Big. Minla, 620. 
cinerea, Visill. Poriana, 910 isr. 
cinerea, OUld. Terekia, 876. 
cinereifrona, Big. Garmlax, 409 his. 
cinereiyentria, Big. Brachypodiua, 467 {mL 
cinereocapilla, 8avi, Budytea, 598. 
dneraoeapilla, Sodgs. Prinia, 587* 
cinereua, Msg. Anaer, 945. 
cinereua, Gm. Gkdliorex, 904. 
cinnamomea, Om. Ardetta, 983. 
oinnamomeiTentria, Big. Sitta, 251. 
cinnamomeoB, Oould. Paaaer, 708. 
Cinnyria bniziliana, Qm., 288 5m. 
— ^„ — andamanioa, Swsse., 234 gusd, 
— ,, — aBiatioa, Lalh., 284. 
— ^p, — flammaxillaria, Big., 284 isr. 
— ,,— lotenia, Xtn., 285. 
—-„-'- minima, Sgkos., 288. 
— „ — peotoralis, Sorrf. (use. Tsm) 284 *i#. 
- — „ — leylonioa, Xta., 282. 
Ciroa5toa gallieoa, Gm„ 88. 
ciroia, X(ia. Querquedula, 965. 



! 



nmKZ TO TBI LIST or THB BIRDS 07 IKPU. 



129 



Ciif Of Muginof Of, Zt»., 64. 

'-n— einenoaaa, M<mi., S2. 

— ,( — cjanena^ Xw., 60. 

— „— macrnrat, & O, Om*, 61. 

^„— rndftnolenras, Jhrgt.t 68. 

cirrht&ui, &m. Lunnsfttoa, 86. 

Cum ohixMnais, £odd,f 678. 

— ,r ornftta, Fiy^, 678 6tf. 

Ciatieola euraitanB, DramkL, 689. 

— „ — ejrtbTooephAliu, Jtrd,, 640. 

— n — homalnnif, Bljf,, 641 Mr. 

— n — meUDooephalai, And^i.^ 689 Ur, 

— ». — iDimipiireiiiis, O.-AmsL, 639^. 

— n — tjtleri, Bljf., 641. 

fitnob, Poll. BodjlM, 694 Kff. 

dtrint, Zd^l. GeooehU, 866. 

dngft, PoU. A^uili, 88. 

ClM|ak glftooiiun, Xia., 971 big, 

el jpMta, 2»». SjAfcula, 967. 

CoocothranftM Tulgaris, FaU., 788 5»f. 

eooeixiea, Jg^i. Pifcte, 846 ^or. 

Coeeyitet ooromaadni, JAn^ 218. 

— n jaoobinat, Bodd., 812. 

GoehM porparea, Sod^s., 607. 
— „ — Tiridit, Modg9., 006. 
(olicolor, Eodg». Ghraod^ 478. 
CoUoettlUioDonunAto, Ahm., 108 Ur, 

M Unohi, Mofff., 108 K#. 

— »• — tpodiopjpA, P«02«., 108 jfM/. 
— „— — unieolorj /«ri., 108. 
eoaorio, Xts. lAniitf, 260 K». 
foQiiroidat, Im9. Laxiiiu, 260 <«r« 
ColuDbft iaUrmtdim, SkiekL, 78S. 
— n — lenoonoto, Fy.* 790. 
— ,< — Ut», ii»., 788 his, 
— „ — rupettrif. Pott., 789. 
Mlomboidee, Vi^, Palsornit, 161. 
comata, T<tm. Dendroohelidon, 104 bit, 
eommiztiu, Bwinh, Pania» 646 hit. 
«oiiimiints« Pmw. Coiurniz, 829. 
eoDimiiiu, Bmfkit. Gras, 866. 
oonatni, 2^. Boronicornis, 146 Ur, 
ooneolor, Jtfrd. DioBnm, 289. 
concolor, P/jf. Hjptipetet, 446 hit. 
eoMolor, 4^it«f. Ptjonoprogne, 90. 
wneraU, 2>w. Hslojon, 181 hit. 
OolKMtoma ttmodium, Hodgt.^ 881. 
«mtn, JU^. SturnoDMior, 688. 
eonreza, Ttw^ HjdrodMa, 141 6m. 
Copijohiii mofioof, Btffl. 47S his. 

~*t Mukrit, Xt»., 476. 

CoaeiM alBoii, MeOdl., 124. 
— n-^ ganrula, Lim., 125. 
— „ — mdica, Lin., 128. 
cortz, Z»ii. Corms, 667. 
cordatiu, y«rtf. Hemioexviu, 166. 
ooniiz, Xt». Corrut, 669 6i«. 
comota, ^. e. Ow. Tkdorna, 966. 
coroouuidji, Laik. Halo^on, 181. 
ttoramandelianuB, Om. Kettopiu, 961. 
eoroniMdeliwi, Om. Coturnix, 830. 
ooromaiidelioat, Qm. Cunariua, 840. 
eorooandut, Lath. Bubo, 70. 
eeromBDdnt, Sodd. Babnleoi, 929. 
eoromuidoi, Zim. OoccTttet, 218. 
eonnato, 2Mr. DradrochalidoD, 104. 



ooronata, Bodd. HjdfooiJia, 141. 
ooronatut, P/jf. Ampelioepa, 698 tsr. 
eoronatus, Jerd. if ily. Ortbotomui,631. 
eoronatUB, Ziekt, Pteroclea, 801 ter. 
ooronatas, 2Vm. 4" ^^^' B«guloidet4 663 

6w. 
coronet Xm. Corrui, 669^ 
Comu oorax, Xin., 667. 
— „ — oomiz, Lin., 669 hit, 
— •„ — corone^ Xi»., 669. 
— „— enois Sorqf., 662' 
— t, — firngilegna, Xtn., 664. 
— „— insolent, i2«SM.| 668 hit. 
-—I, — intermediua. Adams, 661. 
— -„— lawrenoii, Ame., 667 his. 
^„ — macrorhjnehua, Wagl, 669. 
— „ — monedula, Xm., 666. 
— „ — splendent, VitUL, 668. 
— M — tibetanui, Sodgt.^ 668 
— f« — umbrinuB, Etdttth.f 660 5»#. 
CorydaUa malayenaii, Jffy#., 600 bit, 
— f. — riohardi, VitiU., 699. 

„ — ruftila, VitiU,, 600. 

— -„ — itriolata, Big., 601. 
Coiydon sumatnuiua, JSq^f 1 189 MJt. 
Cotnmix oommimif , Pofia., 829. 

»,- — coromaDdelioa, ^., 880. 

Ootjie liparia, Xm., 87. 
— ,9^ ainenfit, J.B. Or., 89. 
— »» — aubaoocata, Modgt; 88. 
oraaairoatrxa, Teai. tf- Sehl. Iriaga, 881 6it. 
olftwfiirdi, /. S. Or. Euplocamua, 811 quai. 
orawfurdi, /. JS. Or, Tbnponax, 169 tsr, 
creooa, Xm. Querquednla, 964. 
Orez pratenaia, Btehtt. 910 quai. 
Criniger flaTeolua, Oomld,, 461. 
— „ — griioioept, Burnt., 461 hit. 
— f> — gtttturalia, 8. MUU., 461 tsr. 
— M — ioterioua, Striekl., 460. 
— ,,-— pbAocephaloa, Marti., 461 quat, 
oriniger, Mag. Tiioboleateay 461 tt9. 
Oriniger triatia, Bh., 461 quimt, 
erinigera, Hodgt. outa, 647. 
oriapifrona, Big. Taidinna, 890 Wiot. 
oriapna, Brmoh. Peleoanoa, 1004 6if. 
eriatata, lA/n, Fuligula, 971. 
oriatata, XtJi. Galerita, 769. 
oriatatua, JAim. Laniua, 86L 
oriatatua, X»a. Faro, 808. 
orbtataa, Xta. Podioepi, 974. 
criatatna, Koch, fiegulnta 680. 
Crooopua obloiigaater. Big., 778. 
— „- — phoBniooptferoa, Laih., 772. 

— „ Tiridifrona, Blg.^ 778 bit. 

Crotaoptilum tibetanom, Eodgt.^ 808 tepi. 
eraentatom, Xia. Diceum, 286. 
cruentoa, Eardn. Ithagenea, 807. 
onualia, Big., Brachjpteiyz, 888. 
Crypairhina oueolate, Jtrd.^ 678 ttr. 

„ Tariana, Laih., 678 qwU. 

Cryptolopba burkii, Burt,, 669. 

„— — tephrooephala, Andtrt., 669 his, 

onoulata, Jtrd., Crrpairhina, 678 ttr, 
eaoolaU, Eartl. Pitta, 846. 
ottcaloidea, F^. Olaucidiam, 79. 
Cucnlna affinia, Eag., 204. 

17 



130 



IKDBZ TO THB LIST OF THE BIRDS OP INDIA. 



Cuculus oanorut, Lin, , 199. 
— „ — mioropteruA, Oovld,, 203. 
— 'n — poliocephalus, Lath., 201. 
— •„* — sonnerati, Lath., 202. 
— „ — ttriatus, Drc^.f 200. 
Oulicioapa cejlonensit, Sv>9., 295. 
culminats, Say. TolvociTora, 268 ter. 
ouprea, Jerd, Carpophago, 781 bit. 
ourruoa, Lin. Sylvia, 583. 
oursitans, Frankl, Cistioola, 639. 
Gunorius coromandeliouB, Otn.^ 840. 

1> — gnlliouB, Gm., S40 hit. 

Cntia nipfdensiB, Hodgt., 612. 
ouTieri, Tern. Euplooamus, 811 lii. 
cjane, Pall. LarTiyoro, 507 hit. 
ojanea, Bume. Maacitrea, 266 hit. 
cyanea, Bly. Pitta, 844 ter, 
Cyanecula sueoica, Lin., 614. 

._,, wolfii, Brehm., 614 hit. 

cyaneuB, Xtit. Circus, 60. 
cyaniyentris, Bly. Ixidia, 467 quint. 
cyaniyentris, Eodgt. Tesia, 828. 
cyanooarpuB, Humt. SohoBDioola, 519 ter, 
oyanocephaluB, Lin. PalfleorniB, 149 hit. 
CyanooincluB cyaniis, Lin., 851. 

„ iolitariut, P. L. 8. Jfull, 351 bit. 

Cyanoderma erythropterum. Biff., 396 hit. 
oyanopogon, Tern. PhyllorniB, 463 quat. 
ojanops, Sund. Su]af 999 hit. 
cyanotiB, Jard. Sf Selh, Geooiohls, 351. 
cyanotis, Bly. MegalsBma, 198 ter. 
cyanura, Tall. Kemura, 608. 
oyanuroptera, Hadgt. Siya, 617. 
cyanui, Lin. Cyanocinclus, 351. 
CygnuB bewiokii, larr., 944 quint. 
— .,, — ferufi Leach., 94 i quat. 
— ,^ — oloir, Qm., 944 ter. 
Gjmborhynchus afBnia, Blj/.^ 189 quat. 

• — „ — ^— macrorhynchuB, Qm., 139 quint. 

CyorniB jerdoni, Bly., 805. 
— „ — magniroBtris, Bly., 808. 
— ^^ — xnandellii, Hume., 307 hit. 
— ,, — olivaceoB, Hume., 307 ter, 
— »> — paliip«»» Jerd., 309. 
— „ — rubecQloidoB, Viy., 304. 
— „ — rnficaudus, Swt., 307. 
— „ — tickelli, Bly., 806. 
— „ — unioolor, B^., 803. 
— ^.^ yiyiduB, Swinh.^ 309 hit. 
CypBelluB aouticauduB« Bly., 99 hit. 

aiBnis, J. E. Or., 100. 

apuB, Lin., 99. 

bataBsieiuis, J. H. Or., 102. 



t»" 



*i 






„ infumatoB, Sclat., 102 hit. 

lettconyx, Bly.^ 101. 
melba, Lin., 98. 
paoificuB, Lath., 101 hit, 
palliduB, Shell, 99 ter. 

I, pekinensiB, Swinh., 99 quat. 

•* tubfurcatUB, Bly., 100 hit. 






Dabbti, Verr. .Sttiopyga, 227 bit, 
Daflla acuta, Lin., 962. 



daflaenalB, O.'Autt. Actinodura, 428 &ir. 
dalhouaiiB, Jam. PBariBomuB, 188. 
Daption capenaiB, Xtii., 975 ter, 
Daulias goUii, Cab., 614 ter, 
dauma, Lath. Oreocinclai 371. 
daTiBoni, Hume. GraptocephiiluB, 942 hit. 
dayiaoni, Hume, HemixuB, 448 ter. 
dayiaoni, Hume. Ixua, 462 quat. 
dayiBoni, Hume. Megalema, 195 hit. 
dayiaoni, Hume. SpilomiB, 89 quat. 
delesaerti, Halh. Chryaooolaptea, 166 hit, 
deleaaerti, Jerd. G^rrulax, 409. 
Delichon nipalenaia, Hodgt., 94. 
Demiegretta gularia, Bote., 928. 

„ aaora, Om., 928 hit, 

Dendrochelidon comatai, Tem., 104 hit, 
— — „ — — ooronata, Tiok.,, 104^ 
— — „ — — longipennia, Rafln., 104 ter, 
Dendrocitta aaaimiliB, Hume., 676 hit. 

„ bayleyi, Tyt., 678 hit. 

„ froutalia, MoClell., 677. 

~ — „ hiinalayenaia, Bly., 676. 

•„ leucogastra, Gould., 678. 

pallida, Bly., 675. 

rufa, Seop., 674. 



»»■ 



fi 



Dendrocygna fulya, Om., 953. 

„— — jayanica, Hortf., 952. 

Dendrophila frontalia, Hortf., 253. 
deroepstorffi, Hume. Strix, 60 hit. 
deaerti, Licht. Ammomanea, 769* 
deaerti, BUpp, Sazicola, 492. 
deaertoruiD, Daud. Buteo, 44 hit. 
deaertorum, Stanl. Certhilauda, 770. 
deya, Syket, Bpizalauda, 765. 
diardi, Xittt, Bnopodytea, 216 bit, 
DicBBam chryaorrhfleum, Tem., 237. 
— — „ — coDColor, Jerd., 239. 
— „ — cruentatum, Lin., 236. 
•— „-— erythrorbynchuB, J^Uh., 238. 
— fi — oliyaceum, Wald., 237 ter. 
—- „ — trigoDOBtigma, Seop., 236 bit. 
— n— — yircBcena, Hume., 237 bit, 
DichoceroB cayatua, Shaw.^ 140. 
dichrouB, Hodgt. Lopbophanea, 637. 
dicruriformia, Hume. DisBemuroideB, 283 hit. 
DicruruB axmectana, Hodgt., 279. 
dilutuB, Bly. BracbypternuB, 182. 
diacolor, Bly. Certbia, 245. 
DiaBemuroidcB andaxnanenaiB, 7^t,, 283 ter. 
■ „ — — diorurifonnia, Hume., 283 hit» 

„ lopborinuB, Vieill., 283 quat. 

DiBBemuma grandia, Gould., 284. 
— — „ — — paradiaeuB, Lin., 285. 
disaimiliB, Bly. G^ocicbla, 358. 
Disaura epiacupa, Bodd., 920. 
dobsoni, Tall. Graucalua, 270 ter, 
domcBticuB, Lin. Patser, 706- 
dougalli, Mont. Sterna, 985 hii, 
DromoB ardeola, Tayk., 861. 
DrymocataphuB uigricapitatua, Hyt., 896 tept. 
Drymceca blaofordi, Wald., 543 ter, 

„ — extensicauda, Swinh., 644 quat. 

„- — fuBca, Hodgt., 643 bit, 

„ — inomata, Syket., 643, 

— „• — iuBignia, J^tima., 646 hit^ 
— „ — jerdout, Bly.^ 644 ter. 



INDCX TO THS LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



131 



DiymoBea loDgieandAto, Tick., 544. 
—'n — Deeleota, /mf., 546. 
^— „ — runaeexiB, ffumt., 544 bU. 
— „ — fjlTatics, Jerd,, 545. 
^— „ — ralida, Bly., 545 ter. 
Dijooopai mBrtins, Zt»., 168 bis, 
dubU, 5^op. ^gialitis, 849. 
dnbiot, ifuma. FroparuB, 622 ^t«. 
dabiuf, ^«ej(«^. Turdus, 366, 
dukhanensis, Sykes. Motacills, 591 bit, 
dnlciToz, Hodgs, AUndn, 766. 
Dametiift alboguUris, Bly,, 898. 
Diimetia hyperjthrs, Frankly 397. 
dametonun, Bly. Acrooephalua, 516. 
duMomieri, Tern. Tumix, 835. 
dnraaceli. Tern, Harpactes, 115 6if. 



EiSLii, Bly, ChAtarrlisn, 439. 
eclipes, Hume. Cliatarrham, 438 ier, 
edwardii, /. H, Or. Eupodotit, 836. 
tdwtrdsi, Verr, Propasser, 744 bit, 
eeertoni, Oould. Actinodara, 427. 
ElanuB csruleuB, Detf,, 59. 
elegant, MeClell. Fericrocotot, 271 ttr, 
elgini, Tyt, Spilornia, 39 sex. 
tlphiiutoni, Sykes, Palumbus, 786. 
Emberixa bu<£anai]i, Bltf.^ 716. 

- cia, Lin., 713. 

- fucaU, PaU., 719. 

- bortulana, lAn,^ 715. 

- lencocepbala, 8. G, Om.^ 712. 

- miliaria, Ztii., 720 quat, 

- pusilla, FaU,, 720. 

- achaDnicoluB, Xtn., 720 tsr. 

- apodooephala, JPaU., 717. 

- stewartif Bly,, 718. 
» atraeheyi, Moore., 714. 

- ttriolata, LieM,, 720 bis, 
•meiia, Liu, Otooompsa, 460. 
niea, Horsf. Corvaa, 662. 
eMaletta» Hodgs. Pjrrhopleotes, 738. 
epiioopa, J<M2<i. Diwara, 920. 
epopt, Urn, Upupa, 254. 
eicmiU, Lin, Graculut, 679. 
•rochroos, Hodgs, Begnloidea, 568. 
•7thaca,B/y. Pjrrhula, 780. 
«7thaoa, Bly, 4- Jerd, Siphta, 322. 
Erjtbra phoenicuia. Penn., 907. 
'ijthrinus, Pall, Carpodaoas, 738. 
nrthrooephala, Vig, Pjrrhala, 729. 
•rjthrocephalam, Vig. Trochaloptenim, 415. 
nTthrocepbalaf, Vig. ^((itbaliflcas, 634. 
eiTtbrooophaliia, Jerd. Cistioola, 540. 
•Ttliroeephaliis, Oould, Harpactes, 116. 
ny^rogaotra, Vig. Petrophila, 852. 
e^throgaatra, Oould. Butioilla, 4^9. 
•iTthrogenji, Vig. Puniatorlnnils, 405. . 
erjthrogeiiTS, Sums. Tributa, 522 bis. 
CTTtfarogiiathaiii Hartl. Ramphocoo<*7X,216<«r. 
•Tthrooota, Eeersm. Buticilla, 498 bis. 
CT^tlironotua, Vig. Lanins, 257. 
c^hropleura, Wdld. Suya, 549 quat. 
•rj^niprocU, Oomld. Kuticilla, 497 bis, 
ffjthroptera, Jfrd. Mirafra, 756. 



n 



it 






i» 



erythropterom, Big. Cyanoderma, 896 bis 
erytbropterus, Vig. Pteruthius, 609. 
erythropygia, Sgkes. Hirando, 85. 
erythropjgia, Big. Sturnia, 689 quai. 
exythropygius, Jerd. Pericroeotus, 277- 
erythrorhyndiUBi Lath, Dicieara, 238. 
erjthrorhynchus, Sgkes. Mioroperdix, 828. 
Erjthrospiza githaginea, Licht., 732 bis. 
aangoioea, Oould., 732 ter. 



If 



n 

■>»" 

'it' 



N 



Erythrostema acomaus, Big., 325. 

albicilla, Pall., 323. 

hyperythra, Cab., 323 ter. 

maculatn, Tick., 326. 

parra, Bechtt., 323 bis, 

ptuilla. Big., 324. 
Erjthnira prasina, Sparrm., 703 ter. 
Eftrelda amandaTa, Lin., 704. 

,, flaTidiTentria, Wall,, 704 bis. 

„ — formosa, Lath., 705. 

Eudromias reredus, Gould., 845 ter, 
Eiidynamis honorata, Lin., 214. 

malayana, Cab. 4* Sein,, 214 bis. 



>» 



it 
■•»• 
"»f' 

"M" 

■fl" 
-If' 



»»" 



engenii, Hume, Mjiophoneus, 343 bis, 

Eidabes jayanBnsis, Otb,, 693. 

„ ptiloj^enya, Big., 693 bis, 

n religiosa, Lin., 692. 

eupatria, Lin, PaI»orniB, 147. 

EuploeamuB albocxiatatus, Vig., 810. 

orawfardi, /. E. Or., 811 quat, 
ooTieri. 2^0111., 811 bis. 
honfieldi, G. E. Or,, 810 ter. 
leaoomelanus, Lath.^ 81i) bis, 
lineatus, Vig,, 811 ter, 
melanoDotus, Big., 811. 
yieiiloti. O. R. Or., 811 quint. 

eulophotes, Stoinh, Herodiai, 927 bit. 

EupodotiB edwardfli, /. E, Or,, 836. 

EurylflBmuB jayanious, Horef., 139 ter, 

— ^-,,* oohromelaB, Eaffi., 139 ter A. 

EaiynorhTneliiiB pygmeuB, Lin., 887. 

EarystomuB orientaliB, Lin., 126. 

eurysonoideB, Ijafr, Ballina, 912. 

EuBpisa aureola, PaU,, 723. 

„ — luteola, Sparrm., 722. 

„'—' melanooephala, 8eop., 721. 

„ — rutila. Pall., 722 bis. 

eyenmanni, Bp. PalumbcBna, 787. 

Exoalfactoria cbinenaiB, Lin., 831. 

extenBicauda, Swinh, DrynuBoa, 544 quat, 

ezuBtnay Tern. PterocleB, 802. 



Faibbavki, Si^iff' Troohalopteram, 423 bis. 
faloata, Geor, Qaezquedula, 966 bis, 
FalcinelloB igneua, S, G. Gm., 943. 
Faloo iBBalon, 7\inst., 15. 
— „ — atrioepa, Hume., 9 bis. 
— „ — babylonious, Oum., 12. 
— „ — barbaruB, Lin., 12 bit, 
-^ „ — ohiquera, Daud,, 16. 
— „ — lienderaoni, Hume., 10 bis. 
— ».— jngger, /. E. Or., 11. 
— » — peregrinator, 8und., 9. 
— I, — peregrinoB, Gm., 8. 
— „— Hicw, Gm., 10. 



132 



INDSX TO THE LIST OF THiB BIRDS OV INDIl. 



Falco Mrerui, Mortf,^ 14. 

— n — Sllbbllt0O, Xiw., 18. 

familiarifl, M^kitr. Aedon. 408 f#r. 
&Miata» Sqffl. Balltfift, 918 Ut. 
fiuoiataf, Forti. Harpaotet, 116. 
faBoiatiu, VieUL Nisadtoa, 88. 
faaoiatas, P. £. 8, Mm. PabsornU, 158. 
fksoiatus, 8oop. Pieioolea, 800« 
ferina, Lin. Fuligiila, 968. 
feroz, 8. 9, Om. Buteo, 45. 
ferreui, Sod^t. Pratinoola, 486. 
fermgineof , Sodgt. Alseonax, 899. 
feiTugineuB, Qm, Gallua, 812. 
ferruginoaam, BUf, Malaeoptenun, 896 qnai. 
ferraginoaof, Biff. Pomatorhinua, 401. 
feruf, LeacK Cygnu, 944 qmai. 
fettiYQB, Bodd, Chryaocolaptes, 167. 
filifera, Siepk. Hirundo, 84. 
finlarioni, Striekl Iziia, 468 ier, 
flnieni, Hum€. Palfioniit, 150 M#. 
flammazillaria, Bly. Ciimjria, 284 im^, 
flammeut, F&rit, Perioroeotui, 878. 
flammioepa, BuH. Oaphalopynhus, 688. 
flammifer, Bume. Panoroeotua, 878 qtud, 
ftara, Jam. Budytaa, 698 f«r* 
fla^ala, Hodgt. jEEemitiUi 448. 
flaveolna, Oould. Crinicer, 461. 
flafeolua, Bl^, Paaaer, 708 Ht. 
fiaTdioeiis, Bfy. Ixus, 468 M«. 
flaTiooUii, Lath. Ardatta, 988. 
flafioolliff Frankl. Gymnoria, 711. 
flaTiooUiB, Sodgi. Iztdua, 688. 
ilaTidiTentris, Wall. Eetralda, 704 his, 
flavifroiiB, Ckn, Megalwom, 196 ier. 
flayimiehuf, OmUd. Ohrytophlegma, 178. 
flaTipee, Sodg: Ketupa, 78. 
flaTiroetria, Gomld. Pandoxoniia, 878. . 
flat iroatrif, Brandt. Phaeton, 997. 
flaTiroatria, ^fy. TJrootMa, 678. 
SaTiTontria, JMen. Prinis, 688. 
flayiventria, Tiek. Bubigula, 466. 
flayif entrit, Hodgs. 8oh<»nioola, 584. 
flayogularis, Q.-Angt* Abromia, 678 far. 
flaToliTaceua, Hodgt. Keornii, 668. 
flaTO-olivaoeui, Rnim9. Begttloidai, 664 M«. 
fiaTiatUia, ilTaaai. Stoma, 986. 
flu? ioola, Jwd. Hirundo, 86* 
fonnoea, LatK Estrelda, 705. 
fomioBa, Q^ftr. Qaarqnedulfti 966. 
formoaa, Big. Sitta, 868. 
fortipat, BadgM. SchoBnioola, 526. 
Franoollniia chinenaia, Off5., 819 Us. 

„^^ piotufl, Jard. ^ Selb.^ 819. 

„ TuUarii, 8i9pk, 818. 

fraDklini, Big. Magalsina, 196. 
Frankliaia buohanani, Btg., 661. 
IVegata aqoilos, Lin.^ 1000. 
— „— minor, (?»., 1000 Jit. 
Frin^a montifringilla, I4n., 758. • 
fringiilarias, Drof, Hiorohiarax, 80 itr. 
Fringillanda nemorioola, Bodg9., 758. 

„ ■ordida, 8tol., 768 5if. 

frontalia, Big. Callana, 840. 
fiontalja, MeCldl. Dendroeitia, 677. 
frontalia, Borff. Dendrophila, 868. 
frontalia, Big, Hanicuma, 684 qtu/ii 



frontalia, ^Ig. Propaaaar« 744. 

frontalia, Jig. Bauoilla, 606. 

frugilegni, Ldn. Corma, 664. 

fuoara, Pall. Bmberiza, 719. 

Fulioa atra, Xw., 908. 

fttlieariasy Lin. Phalaropna, 889. 

frdicata, Lin. Thamnobia, 479. 

foliginiyantria, Bodgt. PhjUoaeopna, 586. 

fnliginoaa, Qm. Btoma» 998 5ir. 

fuliginoaa, Bodgt. Snja, 648. 

fuliginosQs, Vig. Bhyaoomia, 605. 

FoUgula oristata, Lin.^ 971. 

■ ,t ' fanna, Lin.^ 968. 

— „~ mania, Zia., 970. 

— H — njroea, €Wd., 969. 

— „ — rnfina, PalL, 967. 

fulra, Om. Dandrooygna, 958. 

f olTateent, Orag. Aquila, 28 5w. 

folTeaoens, Bmne. Ojpi, 8 5iff. 

fiiWioolUs, Wlagl. Otmotraron, 776 big. 

fulrifrona, Bodgf. Snthora, 880. 

falyiTaDtria, Bodgt. Horomia, 688. 

fulroTantor, O.'Anti, BaguloidM, 664 tar, 

faWut, Om. Gharadriaf, 846. 

fulma, Chn. Qypa, 8. 

fumigata, WaU. Amadina, 701 tar, 

fnaca, 0.*Awt. Alcippa, 888 i0r. 

foaoa, Big. Ardaa, 988. 

fuBoa, BUf. Oercomela, 494. 

fuBoa, Bodgt. JhjmcM^ 648 5ir. 

fiisca, Lin. Porsana, 911. 

fuioatOB, Big. Phylloaoopua, 666. 

fuBoioaadata, Ocmld. OtooompBa, 460 Um. 

foBoioollia, Staph. Phalaciooorax, 10U6. 

fuBoocapillum, BUf. Pallomeam, 899 qaint. 

faiooflay«BoenB, Brnma. Braobirpodiiu, 457 Ur, 

faBOQB» WagU AoridotherM, 686. 

fnaeuB, Vi^Ul. Artamua, 887. 

fuBCUB, Lin. LaniB, 978^ 

foBcuB, Un, TotaottB, 896. 

fytchii, Andan. BambuBioola, 886 foini. 



Qalbasve, O.'Autt. Ghurrolaz, 409 jaai. 

Stlbala, Lin. Oriolaa» 470 hia. 
alerita oriBtata, Lin., 769. 
galerituB, Tnn, Anorrhinua, 146 f«al. 
Galliorex oinaraaB, Om., 904. 
gallicoB, Om, CiroaStna, 88. 
galiiouB, Om. OarBorina, 840 5iB, 
Galiinago gallinaria, Om., 871. 
«— „»— gallinola) Lin., 878. 

Domorioola, Bodga., 868* 
Bolitaria, Bodgt.^ 869. 
— ^— BtlienunK Eiihl., 870. 
gallinaria, Om. Galiinago, 871. 
Gallinula burneai, Big.. 906. 

„" — ehloropoB, Lin., 906. 

gallinala, Un. Galltaago, 872. 
GaUoperdiz biealeavatoa, Pms*, 816 hii. 
lanoktna, ralviio., 816. 
BpadioauB, Om.. 814. 



»> 



M 



GkdlttB famiginanB, Om., 818 
— „— lafayatti, Xcar., 818 hit. 
»-„— ionaerati, Z\piii., 818* 



IKDIX TO THK U8T OV THK BUDS OF INDIA. 



133 



QtBipMrhjiMlmt ruAilaf, S^., 884. 

pneM, S^kM. Hjrptipetes, 446. 
gMgetiflih /«rrf. Sujs, 548 <«r. 
guoensii, G.-Aw9i. Turdiniu, 890 »0pt, 
f[«rnik, Lin, Oonoias, 185. 
OtrrnlAX albogtUarif , C^ontf., 411. 

^..— belangeri, Xftt., 407 bit. 

— „-^-~ esnilAtas, Sod^i., 408. 

„ — ohmensis, 8eop,, 408 <«r. 

— ..,. — einareifront, Blf,, 408 Aw. 
-^- — deienerti. /mf ., 409 
— ^ — galbanai, <? -jlfu^.^ 409 ^a<. 
— „ — ffolarii. MeCleU,, 409 ier. 
— „ — toneoIophoB, Sardw., 407. 
— ^ — menilinaB, Bly,, 418 Ur. 
— ^ — moniliger, Siigw,, 418. 
— „.. — nnohaliB, 0.'dm9i., 408 jwa^. 
•^^•— ooellatui, ri^.,414u 
— „ — peetonlify OmUd., 418. 
— N — rniiooUis, Jcntl. ^ Mft., 410. 
— „ — BUinio, 8wimk.f 409 j«jfl<. 
— „ — ■tevpiteoB, Tick., 408 Mt. 
— ^ — •nbcsraktas, Sum$ , 408 <itf . 
Gurnliit bitpeonlariB, Vi^.f 889. 
— „ — laaoeoUtiis, J^., 670. 
— ^. — leuootit, ^SMM., 669 Mt. 
ORfitti, £tii. Hrrodiat, 927. 
GMropieoidet rafflati, Fi^., 185 dw. 
gelMtas, LM& Laraa, 981 jimi^. 
Oaooiohla albognlaris, Bly,, 865 ftif. 
— ^,^-— eitrinsy Zntih,, 855. 
...^ — eja&otu, /ord. & ^/&., 884, 

„— . diMimilis. Bly., 858. 

„ — innotato, Bfy., 855 ter. 

— „ — laraTdi, Wmld., 854 5m. 

„ — tricolor, Amm, 855 quaL 

n" — • nnieolor, Tiek.^ 856. 

Geciniiloa emntui, MeCMl, 177. 
— n — Tiridis, S/y., 177 «t. 
OMinni nigriffenis, Mume, 171 ^#r. 
— „-— oocipitalU, Viff., 172. 
— „ — •qoamatat, Viff., 170. 
— „ — BtrioUtuB, J/jr., 171. 
-.„_ TittataB, rtm//., 171 6lf. 
Mbyi, JToffl, iBRitlitiB, 846. 
Geopelia Btriata, Zta., 797 tsr. 
gennaiiii. Ell, Polyplectmiii, 808 ««r. 
libberifronB, 8. M4UI. Qaerqtiedula, 966 for. 
gigBotea» Ea99, OlMBtura, 96 hit, 
pgiotBiia, Tern, Aigm, 6^8 ter. 
gingalenBiB, Sham. Tookns, 145 hi». 
ginginiMiiB, Laih, AnndolhereB, 686. 
fingmiaam, Laih. Neophron, 6. 
githaginea, ZiM. Biythroapita, 782 big. 
Oitraola laoioa, JWa., 843. 
— n — orientaliB, Zmeh., 848. 
— 'u — pratinoola, Xw»., 848 bis. 
gliniola* Lim. Ehjraoophila, 891. 
Oluddiiim bvodii, BmrL, 80. 
— — „— — «a0taiieoiiotank, iMjf., 78 &tt. 
„— eaBCanaoptomro, Horqf., 78 ter. 

- oBonloidM, Vt^., 78. 

- Bialabarieam, 3^.^ 78. 

- radiatwD, Tiek^ 77. 
•n whitiaji, Sl9'» 79 






glaaoiQm, Zia. Clangula,971 bie, 
glauz, ^<B9. Carine, 76 Mt. 
glottis, Xm. TotanoB. 894. 
OoiBakiua melanolophuB, Sqffl.^ 936 6m. 
goliat, Tern., Ardea, 921. 
golsii, Cab. DavUiB, 514 ter. 
gonldi, ^aoM. Sterna, 988 quai. 
goaldin, Vigi. JEthopygn, 227. 
gofinda, Sjfkee. MilroB, 56. 
gracilis, LiM. BumeBift, 550. 
graoilU, MeCMl. MalaoiaB. 429 6m. 
meiliB, J¥ankl. Prinia, 536. 
GraoaluB eremite, Imk, 679. 
Graminicola bengalensiB, Jerd.^ 648. 
GrammatoptiU Biriata, Viff. 882. 
Qraodala ooBlicolor, Sodge.^ iffS, 
grandiB. Bfy. Aloado, 186. 
grandiB, Qould. DiBaemuraB, 884. 
grandiB, Bly. Nilfeara, 316. 
grantia, MeCUll. Geoiimliu, 177. 
Oraptooaphalaa dariaoni, Bwme, 948 5 it* 
Grattoalua dobaoni, PaU, 270 ter. 

„ layardi, Bfy., 270 Ma. 

— — ,,— macii, Xaat., 270. 

grajii, Syket. Ardeola, 930. 

gregarja, FalL Ohattuaia, 852. 

gregoriana, Nev. Oreooinola, 872 qwimi, 

grifflthi, Bljf., Parua, 644 5m. 

griaea, iSeop. Pjrrhulauda, 760. 

griaeicapiUa. Void. Carpophaga. 781 for. 

grjaeicepa, Sume. Oriniger, 461 5m. 

gnaaifrona, G. R. Or. Abrornia, 577 5m. 

griaaigalaria, Sume. Fyctoria, 386 ter. 

griaeua, ZeUh. Halaoooenma, 488. 

griaeaa, Idn. Nyctiooraz, 987. 

griBeaa, Lath. Tookna, 146. 

griaola, Lim. Bnralia, 299 bie. 

griaola, Bl^. Moaoitraa, 266. 

Groa antigone, Lin., 868. 

— n- commnnia, Beehet,^ 865. 

— .,- lauoogaranaa, Pali., 864u 

gularia, ^/y. Chatarrhaa, 439 5m. 

gnlariB, Bote. Demiegretta, 928. 

gnlaria, MeClell. Ganrulaz, 409 for. 

gnlaria« Jerd. Mieropternoa, 179. 

gularta, Soraf. MixomiB, 895 5m. 

gularia, Taai. Ortjgomia, 828. 

golaria, Horrf. Ftoidoxomia, 874. 

gularia, Ooald. Babigula, 455. 

golaria. Bodge. Yohina, 626. 

golgoUs J^ankl. Alanda, 767. 

garial, Peare. Palargopaia, 127. 

gumeji, ^vflM. PHfa, 846 5ia. 

guttaU, Viff. Oenrle, 187. 

guktatna, Gould. Henionma, 584 5m. 

gnttotna. Tick. Tnrdiona, 390 jmt. 

gnttaralia, 8. MiUl. Oriniger, 451 for. 

gotturalia, 8eop. Hinindo, 82 5m. 

Gjgia alba, Sparrm., 990 for. 

gymnopodoB, O. S. Or. Seopa, 74 for A. 

rannopthalmna, Jfy. Yancipiooa, 164 5m. 

Gjnanoria flaTioollia, JVoai;/., 711. 

Gypafitoa barbatvs, Xta., 7. 

Gypa fnlTaaoena, Smate., 8 5m. 

— „— ftilnia, Om., 8. 

— ,t— himabjanBiai ITaaM, 3 for. 



134 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OP INDIA. 



Gjps indioos, 8eop,, 4. 

— „ — palleieent, HufM, 4 hit. 

— „— tenuiroBtriB, Eodgt.^ 4 Ur, 



'ExukcwtnkJJkt P. X. S, Mull. Xanfchol«xna, 197. 
HematopuB OBtralegni, Xtit-, 862. 
hiemntopygia, Qould. Lenoosticte, 752 his. 
Hematospiza aipahi, Sodgt.^ 736. 
hflsmorrhouB, Gm. Molpastea, 462. 
Halcyon chlorifl, Jo<W., 182. 

jj.. — ooncreta, Tern. , 131 his. 

.^.^.jj.— coromanda, Lath,% 181. 

_-.„ occipitalis, -Bty. , 182 his, 

„ pileaU, Sodd., 180. 

_.,, iaturatior, Eums, 129 his. 

.^..jj.-- « smTmensiBf Lin., 129. 
Haliaetos albicilla, Lin., 42 his. 

„ leucosaBter Om., 48. 

„- — leucoryphuB, Fall., 42. 

.— „ — - Fandion, i»»., 40. 
Haliastur indus, J?oi<i., 65. 
hnrdwiekii, J«r<i. (f 5tf/i., Pliyllornw, 466. 
Harpactes duvanceli, Tern., 115 his. 

„ erythrocephaluB, Oould., 116, 

„ faaciatuB, Fortt., 116. 

„— ^- orcskioB, 2Vm., 116 fti#. 

hastata, Less., Aquila, 80. , 

haughtoni, Armstr., PsendotoUnnf, 894 h%s. 
hayi, /. JE Or. Calorhamphaa, 190 his. 
belretica, Lin,, Squntarola, 844. 
HemioeronB oanente, Less., 165 his, 

-^^- cordntiiB, Jerd., 165. 
_.„.— Bordidns, Efft., 165 6« ^. 
Hemichelidon fibirious, Om., 296. 
hemiptilopui, Bly. Archibuteo, 49. 
HemipuB capitalit, MeCleU., 267 A. 
_.j^ — obsouroB, Eorsf., 267 6»t. 

„ — picatuB. 8ykes., 267. 

hemlBpila, Vig. Nucifragn, 666. 
hemprichi, Bp. LarQB, 981 t«r. 
HemixuB dayisoni, Hume., 448 ter, 

— flayala, Hodgs., 448. 

„ — hildebrandi, ^Vfiiff., 448 his. 

henderBoni, Bums. Falco, 10 his. 
hendenoni, Cass. LocuBt^Ua, 62" ». 
hendenonit Sums., Saxiooln. 492 his 
HeniouruB firontaliB, Bly., 584 quat, 

~ gattatuB, Oould, 584 his. 

-> ixnxnaoulatuB, Hodgs., 585. 

- lesrhenaulti, VieiU,, 584 ter. 

- rnacuUtQB, Vig., 684. 

- nigrifrona, Hodgs., 688. 

- ruficapilluB, TVm., 688 his. 

- BchiBtnceuB, Hodgs., 686. 
„ - Bcouleri, rt>., 687. 

HerodiaB alba, Lin., 924 &w. 
—.„--— eulophotefl, Swinh., 927 Wt. 
— -„-— garzetta, Lin.. 927. 
— -„— — intermedia, Hass., 926. 

„ — - torra, J?.-5a«i., 926. 

HerporniB xantholauouB, Hodgs., 630. 
HaterogUux blewitti, Hume, 76 gifta^. 
Hetaromorpha unicolor, Hodge., 876. 
HeterorbynchuB hamiii Kaind., 883 iw. 



"II 

■>»" 
■|»' 
"if" 
"ii" 
"if* 



'ir 



■»»" 



HeterorhynobuB roberti, O.'Aust. ^ Wold., 

883 <0r. 
Heternra syWana, Hodgs., 60S. 
HieraStuB pennatoB, Ofn., 81 
Hierococcyx nanuB, HumSt 205 his. 

— niBicoIor, Hodgs., 206. 

— nisoidcB, Big., 207 his. 

— Bparveroides, Vig., 207. 

„ variuB, Vahl., 205. 

hildebrandi, Hume. Hemizas, 448 his. 
himolayana, Vig. Certhia, 243. 
himalajana, Hodgs. Lozin, 734. 
liimaliiyenBiB, Big. Dendrocitta, 676. 
himalayensif, Hume, G^yps, 8 ter. 
himalayentiB, Jard. ^ Selh. PioiiB, 154. 
himalayenBia, O. H. Or. TetraogalluB, 816. 
himalayenBis, Jard. 4* ^«^* Sitta, 248. 
HimantopuB Candidas, Bonn., 898. 
Hirundo andamanenBiB, Tgt., 82 quai. 
„ — erythropypio, Sgkes, 86. 

„ — filifera, Steph.f 84. 

„ — fluTicola, Jerd., 86. 

"—^f, — gatturalis, Soop., 82 his. 

„ — horreorum. Bart., 82 quint. 

— „ — hyperjthra, Lag., 85 quint. 
— -„ — intermedia, Mume, 85 ter. 

„ — javanica, Sparrm., 83. 

— ^„ — iiipalenBis, Hodgs., 85 his. 

„ — rufltica, Lin., 82. 

„ — Bubstriolatft, Hume, 85 quat, 

.. — tytleri, Jerd., 82 ter. 

hiBpaniolenBiB. Tern. Passer, 707. 
hodgii, Big. Thriponaz, 169 his. 
hodgsoni, Vig. Alsocomus, 783. 
hodgsoni, G, B. Or, fiatrachostomoB, 106. 
hodgsoni Moore. Callene, 839 ter. 
bodgsoni, Brooks. Gerthia, 243 his, 

hodgsoni, Bp. Megal»ma, 192. 

hodgsoni, &. B. Or. Motacilla, 689 his. 

hodgsoni, Moore. Nitidula, 313. 

hodgsoni, Big, Prinia, 638. 

hodgsoni, Moore. Baticilla, 498- 

hodgsoni, /(9rd. Thriponaz, 169. 

hodgsoni, Moore. Tickellia, 679. 

hodgsonisBt Hodgs. Perdtz, 823 his. 

HodgaoniuB phoBniouroiiies, Hodgs., 841 

homaluruB, Bly. Cistieola., 641 6m. 

honorata, Lin. Eudynamis, 214. 

HoplopteruB Tentndis, Cue., 867. 

Horeites brunneifron«, Hodgs., 627. 

—-,,—— bmnnescens, Jffttme.,627 ter. 

— „ — major, Hodgs., 629. 

— ,^ — pallidipes, Blanf., 627 quai. 

— „ — pallidna, Brooks., 627 his. 

~,,— — polioariB, Hodgs., 628. 

Horomis faWiTentria, Hodgs., 623. 

horreorum, Bart. Hirundo, 82 quint. 

horsfieldi, Bly, ^thopyga, 230. 

horsfieldi, O. B. Or. Eaploeamas, 810 ter. 

horsfieldi, Vig. Limnafitua, 34il. 

horBftaldi, Vig. Myipphoneos, 842. 

horsfieldi, 8ykes, PomatorhinuB, 404. 

hortnlana. Xm. Emberiza, 715. 

hottentotta, Lin. Ohibia, 286. 

Hoabara macqneeni, J, E. €hr. 4" Eariv., 887. 

humii, Mamd, HetarorbynchttBi 888 his. 



IHDKX TO THK LIST OT THK BIBDS OF INDIA. 



135 



hnmii, Brookr, ReguloidoB, 665 hU-. 
humiliB, Svme. Podocet, 679 bU. 
hamiiu, 8, M€lL <f Sehl. Polioafitin, 41 ier. 
hamilii, Sumo. Prinia, 586 quat, 
hamilii) Sume. Staphidea, 625 bis, 
humilif, Tern, Turtur, 797 bit. 
hattoni, Bly. Chatarrh»a, 438 bi*. 
hrbrids. Fall. Hydrochelidon, 984. 
Hydrochelidon bybrida, Pali, 984. 

leuooptera, Meis. <f Seh.y 984 



bit. 



it 



»* 



— nigra, Xiii., 984 ier. 
Hjdroeissa affinii, Sutt.f 143. 

„ albirostriB, Shaw., 142. 

„ convexa, Tem.^ 141 bit. 

n coronata, Bodd., 141. 

Hjdrophasianus chirurgus, Seop., 901. 
HjdrorniB nipaleiuiB, Hodgt.^ 344. 

» oatesii Hume, 844 bit. 

Hjpacanthiscpinoides, Vig., 750. 
hyperboreus, Lin. Lobipes, 890. 
hjperjtbra, Jerd. 4" Bly. Brachypterjz, 387. 
hTperytfara, I^ankl. Dumetia, 397. 
liyperjfchni, Cab. Erytbroflterna, 823 ter. 
hjpeiytlira. Lap. Hirundo, 85 quint. 
lijperythra, £ly. Nemura, 509. 
hjperjthrus, Vig. Hypopicas, 161. 
ETpocolins ampelintif, Bp.^ 269 quai. 
hjpograoiinioi, S. MUll. Anthreptes, 233 quini. 
HjpolaiB caligata, Lieht., f 53 bit. 

,. — lanf^uida, Hemp. S( Bhr., 553 quat. 

• — ,i — pallida, Hemp. ^ Shr., 653 ttr. 
— -„ — nma, Syket., 558. 
hjpoleocae, Bly. OrthorhiooB, 405 bit. 
hjpoleucus, Lin, Tringoidet, 893. 
HjpopicuB hyjwrythrui, Viff., 161. 
Hjporsnidia abDormis, Eume., 913 ter. 

„ obflcuriora, Sume , 913 bit, 

' „ — 5— striata, Lin., 913. 

Hypotbjmifl aznrea, Bodd., 290, 

„ tytleri, Beau., 290 bit. 

lirpozantha, Bly., Cbelidorbjnx, 294. 
HjpsipeteB concolor, Blif., 446 bit. 
ganesa, Stfket.y 446. 

•„ macelellandi, Hortf., 447. 

> malaccensiB, Bly., 447 ter. 

nicobariensis, EortJ. Sf Moore, 
4A1 quai. 

'—I,' nilgberieDBiB, Jerd,, 445* 

— M psaroides, Vig., 444. 

— „ tickelU, Big., 447 bit. 



Ibidomtitcha Btnitbeni, Vig., 879. 
Ibis melaoooephala, Lath., 941. 
ichthja«tuf, Hortf. PolioaStus, 41. 
ichthja^taa, Pall, LaruB, 979. 
Jctericnf, StrieH., Crinigor, 450. 
icterioides, Vig. Fycnorampbua, 726. 
ignavin, For$t. Bubo, 68 ter. 
igneos, S. O. Om. Falcinellus, 943. 
igneoB, Big. Pericrocotus, 273 bit. 
iguicauda, Sodgt. iBtbopyga, 228. 
ignipeHug, Sodgt. Hjzantbe, 241. 
igiiotincta, Sodgt. Minis, 618. 



ignottim, Sume. Fellomeufn, 899 ter A,. 

iliacuB, Lin. Turdut, 369. 

imbricata, Lag. Oreocincla, 372 quai, 

imbrioatum, Sodgt. Trocbalopteram, 426t> 

ixnmaoulata, Sume. Mirafra, 754 bit. 

immaouIataB, Sodgt. Accentor, 651. 

immaculatuB, Sodgt. HenionruB, 585. 

immodestuB, Sume. PericroeotuB, 277 ter, 

impeyanuB, Lath. LopbopboniB, 804. 

inoertuB, Shaw. FsittinuB, 153 ter. 

incognita, Sume. Megalema, 195 ter, 

indica, Sume. CluBtura, 96. 

indica, Lin. OhalcopkapB, 798. 

indica, Lin. Ooraciw, 123. 

indica. Lath. Parra, 900. 

indica, Oould. Yunz, 189. 

Indicator zantbonotus, Big., 190. 

indicoB, Lath. Anser, 949. 

indicuB, Om. Batattur, 48 bit, 

indiouB, Lath, Caprimulgui, 107* 

indioQB, Seop, G-ypB, 4. 

indiouB, Om. LimonidromuB, 595» 

indicaa, Bodd. LobiTanelluB, 856, 

indiouB, Om. Loriculus, 163 bit. 

indicuB, Jerd. OrioluB, 471. 

indiouB, Sume. Pbaeton, 996 bit. 

indicns, Jerd. PbyllosoopuB, 662. 

indicuB, Big, Pratincola, 483. 
indicuB, Big. Ball up, 914. 
indobiinnatiicus, Sume. PaleBomiB, 147 quaim 
indranee, Sgket. Syrniuin, 68. 
induB, Bodd. Haliaitur, 55. 
inframarginnta. Big. Oreocincla, 872 bit, 
infumatUB, Sclat. Cypsellun, 102, bit, 
infuBcata, Big. Taccocua, 221. 
ingliti, Sume. Amadina, 699 quai, 
inglifli, Sume. Cercbneis, 18 ter. 
ingliii, Sume. Ortborbinus, 405 ter. 
innominata, Sume. CoUocalia, 103 ter, 
innominata, Burt. Viyia, 186. 
innotata. Big. Geocicbla, 855 ter, 
Inoootis pnpillosui, Tem., 942. 
inornata, Sgket. Drymoeca, 543. 
inomata, Wald. MegalsBma, 193 bit, 
inqoieta, RUpp. Scotocerca, 560 bit. 
insigniB, Sodgt, Carpopbaga, 781. 
inaignifl, Jard. CbalcoBtetbn, 281, ter, 
inaigniB, Sume, DrymoBca, 545 bit, 
insignia, Wald, Poliobierax, 16 bit. 
inBigniB, Sodgt. Pratineoln, 485. 
insolens, Sume, Corrus, 663, bit, 
insularlB, Sharpe. Bucbanga, 281 ter, 
intermedia, Strickl. Golnmba, 768. 
intermedia, Satt, Herodias, 926. 
intermedia, Sume, Hirundo, 85 ter, 
intermedia, Sume, Pelargopais, 127 ter, 
intermedia, Sume. YolyociTora, 269 bit. 
intermediuB, Sume. AllotriuB, 611 bit, 
intermedius, Blu, Arborioola, 825 ter. 
intermediuB, Sume, CentrococcTZ, 217 quat, 
intermedius, Adamt, Corrus, 661. 
intermedius, Sag. Molpastes, 461 bit, 
interpres, Lin, StrepsilaB, 860. 
lole TiridescenB, Big,, 452 dee. 
lora lafresnayii, Sartl., 468 quat. 
-„~ nigrcluteft, Marth., 468 bit. 



136 



nirBXX TO THE liIST OF THK BIftDB OF INDIA. 



Ion tiphia, Xmi., 468. 

— „- TiriduaimA, Tem^t 468 Ur. 

— ft" sajlonioft, (?m., 467. 

iouMhistus, Ifodifs, ^githalaaoas, 686. 

Irens puollft, Laik,, 469. 

imbellinuB, Semp, ^ Shr, Lanioi, 262. 

iBAbelliniif, S4ipp. Saxioolat 491. 

ispid*, Lin. Aloedo, 184 bis, 

ItnsgenM croantut, Eardm,, 807. 

intalaris, Bljf, Carpophaga, 780 hU. 

Ixidia mniyentria, ^^., 457 qmUU, 

IxuluB flayicoUiB, Bodgw.t 628. 

— n — oooipitalia, BUf,^ 624. 

IxuB blanfbrdi, Jtrd,^ 4Jb^ quint* 

— „- brannauB, ^(y.| 462 oii, 

— „- daviBOni, Eum$,^ 452 gnat, 

— „- finlayioni, Siriekl, 452 Ur. 

— „- flayeBoenBt Bljf.t 452 6m. 

— „- lutaolna, Lbm., 462. 

— „- plumoBua, Bljf.f 452 M€pt. 

— „- pofilluB, SalfMtd.t 462 noa. 

— „- xantholiBmiia, J^rd., 458. 



jAOOBUnTB, Bodd. Cooeystaa, 212. 
jayanenaiB, Osb. Rulabaa,698, 
jayanenaiB, £«#«. Katupa, 73 hii. 
jayaneiiBia, Zefa. Flocaella, 696 iif. 
jayanenBia, I^nff. Tiga, 184. 
jayanioa, Mors/, Butoridea, 981. 
jayanioa, Eorif. Dandrooygna, 952. 
jayanioa, Sptnrrm, Hiruodo, 88. 
jafaaica, Spairrm. Lauoooeroa, 298 hii. 
jayanica, Om. Strix, 60. 
laTaaiouB, Bortf, Rnrylmnna, 189 iar. 
jayanicus, Bw^. Iiepfcoptilut, 916. 
jayanieuB, Bonf. Falecaiina, 1008. 
jayanioua, Bwrtf. Zaneloitomua, 216 qmnt, 
jayexuia, Bortf, Batraohoatomuai 106 Mt. 
javansiB, Eorif. Fbyllornia, 468 <ar. 
jayenaia, Eorif, Thriponaz, 169 g«a#. 
jardoni, Brookt. Abrornia, 672 6a. 
jerdoxii, Brook*. Accentor, 654 6m. 
jardoni, Bl§f, Gyomia, 806. 
jerdoni, Bl$, DrymoBca, 544 ier. 
jatdoni, Bly, Oreicola, 487. 
jerdoni, Bly, Fbyllornia, 466. 
jardoni, Bly, Sylvia, 681. 
jerdoni, Bl^. Trocbaloptemm, 424^ 
jotaka, Tern. 4* 8ehl, Cnprimalgua, 107 6m. 
joudara, Bodgt. Tomiz, 834. 
jogger, /. B. Or. Falco, 11. 
jugularia, Big, MiglypteB, qnat. 



XlLAASTl, Big. Amadina, 700 6m. 
kelaarti. Big. CaprimulguB, 106. 
kelateti, Legge, lanmaetua, 36 6m. 
Kelaartia panoillata, Big., 454. 
Ketupa oeylonenaia, Om., 72. 
— •„•— flayipeB,Jffoc^«.» 78. 
— „— jaTananaia, Zaaa., 73 6m. 
khaaiana, 0,»Angt. BuyR, 540 6m. 
kieneri, P Oerv, Lophotriorehia, 87. 



kingi, ITaflM. Saxioola, 491 6m. 
kiniiiai, Bel. Merolii, 860 6m. 
kundoo, SgkM, OrioloB, 470. 



Laotba, Tern, Glareola, 848. 
lafayetti, Len, Gallua, 812 6m. 
lafreanayii, Earil, lora, 468 qnai. 
Lalaga terat, Bodd., 269 Ur. 
lanceolate, Tern, Loouatella, 520 6m. 
lanoaolatuB, Vig, Gktrrulua, 670. 
languida, Bemp, 4* Bir. Hypolaia, 553 quat, 
Laniua aurioulatua, P. Z. 8. MmU.^ 259 6m. 
— •„— canJoepB, Big., 857 6m. 
-~„ — ooUorio, Idn., 260 6m. 
— „ — coUoroideB, Xeii., 260 ier, 
— -„ — oriBtetna, Xta., 261. 
»-„ — ezythronotua, Vig,, 257. 
— „ — itabellinuB, Bemp. S[ Bhr,, 262. 
— „— lahtora, 8gk«9,, 256. 
— I,— InoionenBu, Xta., 261 6m. 
— „ — magniroatria, Zart., 260 q^ioL 
— „ — nigricapa, Wrankl.^ 259. 
— -„— Buparoilioaiia, LaiL, 261 A. 
— „^ tephronotoB, V%g., 258. 
— „•— yittatuB, VaUne., 260. 
— „— labtoxa, ^yifcM., 256. 
Upponioa, I4n. Limoaa, 875 6m. 
LaruB affinia, Beink^ 978 ier, 
— »>— brnnneioephalna, Jerd,, 980. 
— „— eaohinnana, Fall, 978 big. 
— „ — faaeoB, Lin., 978. 
—,1^ galaatOB, Lieht., 981 qnai. 
— ,»— hempriobi, Bp., 981 ier» 
— „— iehthyaetua, Pall., 979. 
-— „ — minatna, PalL, 981 6m. 
— „ — ridibandoB, Lin., 981. 
Laryiyora cyana, Fall., 507 6m. 
— „— BQperciliaria, Jerd., 607. 
lateralii, Tarn. ZoatoropB, 681 A. 
lathami, Tick. LimnaBtua, 84 quint, 
Laticilla bumoBi, Big., 448. 
— „ — oinerateena, Wdld,, 448 6m. 
lataroBtria, Btffl., AlBOonas, 297. 
Uwrencii, Hume., Conrna, 657 6m. 
layardi, IFald. Ghaooichla, 854 6m. 
layardi, Big. Ghraaoalaa, 270 hit. 
Layardia rufeacena, Bfy,, 487 6»a. 
— „ — • Bnb^lfi^ Jerd,, 437* 
lempgi, Boref, Scopa, 75 quint. 
LeptoptiloB argaluB, Lath., 915. 
— „— jayanicuB, Horef., 916. 
Lerwa niyioola, Bodge,, 817. 
leacbenaulti, VieilL HanicaraB, 584 ier. 
leBchenaulti, Leee. Taocoooa, 219. 
lattia, Bodge. Scopa, 75. 
lauoooapilluB, Oould. Anona, 994 6m. 
leucocephala, 8, G. Om, Smberiia, 712. 
lanoocaphaluB, Bodge. Bateo, 46. 
laucooephaluB, Vig. Chimarromia, 606. 
leucooephaluB, Foret, Tantalua, 988. 
Leacocaroa albiooUiB, VteilL, 291. 

„ aiu6ola> VieilL 292. 

— „— jayanioa, ^arrai., 298 hie. 
— — „— lancogaateri (Mv., 298. 



IKDBZ TO THE LIST OF THB BIRDS OF IKDIA. 



137 



leofiogaator, €fm, Hftliailiit, 48. 
leoeogaitar, (Mv. Lenooetm, 208. 
UofOguUr, Oomid. Ponmtorhiniii, 108 
WneogutiB, Blf, AsumUba, 701 bis. 
Itueogaitn, Cfould, DandrocitU, G78 
ktwogenjt, Mo0r§, ^ntthftlitotis, 68i Mf. 
leocogenyi, WM. Bnehuigft, 880 qutU. 
leooof «njft, J. 2. ^. OtooompM, 468. 
leooogeiftiiiit, Pall. Orm, 864 
kneoDhacft, VmlL Bnehangft, 880 Ur. 
lettoolophat, Sardw. Garrulftx, 407. 
leneomelanara, Bodg: Siphw, 880. 
Iraoomdaaaf, Lath, BupuMftmnt, 810 ftit. 
IfUMmdM, Poll. Sftxieola, 480 i§r. 
toneonota, Vig. Oolumba, 780. 
leooonyi, JS^f. pTpMllni, 101. 
leoMproefeimi, TOmmI. Triohaitmiift, 887 qnat. 
Ifoeopiit, 00vlfll. MotMilU, 580. 
leueopof, QmM. SitU, 840. 
iMMoptnB, JfMt.4'afl*. H7draefaetidoii,8846»r. 
Ifneopterui, r««i. FUtytmurui, 678 ^mW. 
Itoeopjgiftlii, ^Iv. Baehanga, 881 hU. 
IfiuopjgiiliB, BUf. Ohalurft, 85 &t«. 
leooorhynehiis, Xt». ArtMnm, 287 6tff. 
leiuorodiA. £m. FlatolM, 888. 
Icneoryj^hnt, PaU. H«lia8tu«,48. 
Leofoiheto hftmfttopjgia, Oomld., 752 Am. 
leucotis, AuM, Oamtloi, 668 5tt. 
leoeotii, Oamld, Otocooiptft, 469. 
leneart, Esdgs, liyionMla, 477. 
Iffaeonu, BUf. FMinoola, 484. 
licktoniUini, 2V«i. PtofoolM, 800 h%9. 
limboitet, Wold. Ohrjioeooeyx, 211 ^a<. 
Lioiieok platyrhynoba, 2V«i., 886. 
— -„ — libirioft, JDffJt , 886 hit. 

«lbonig«r, Ji^., 84 for. 

AndAinaiienns, Tyt.^ 84 ftt#. 

ealigAtnt, Btffi.t 84. 

Mjloiienm, 6'fli., 85 hit. 

mrrhmiut, ^., M. 

honii«ldl, Vig., 84 ^1. 

k«]MWti, X«^^., 86 hit. 

Utluuni, Tieh., 84 qwimi. 

lUDAleiiab, Hodgg.f 86. 

-;— ,1 fphyni, JTflMM., 84 giM<. 

Idmonidromui indloof, Om., 696. 
LiootA ftgooephal*, Lim., 876. 
— H— Upponieft, X<«., 876 H«. 
Luarift braTivMtm, OmUd., 761 »i«. 
— ^n — mnntbiiia, Im., 761 #«r. 
linehi, S^tnf. Oolloodb, 108 6w. 
UneataiD, l^g. Troohftlopteram, 426. 
HncOat, jy. laploeaans, 811 «#r. 
lioMtoi, do, VwauminB, 877. 
Lioptik MiiieoteDi, Blw.^ 618. 
— ,^ — Mtnriftm WM., 618 U#. 
liopiit, Adtf t. AlBoda, 767 Mf . 
Liothrix latel^ 8eop., 614 
Hrenter, 21nm. BuUftnr, 48 Ur, 
liria, ITp. Oolambft, 788 hit. 
I«bipM bjperbomi, £•»., 880. 
LobiploTiA msUbftrioA, Bodd., 866. 
lAUnneUiM alnmiMhalit, Bfy., 886 lit. 

„ indieiM, .BmM., 868. 

I<oeQiUlk CMthiobi, PaU., 681. 
-"»— kendMreoni, Out., 680. 



» 



•I 



LooutUUa Ittieeolate, IW., 620 his. 
loogicaudAta, Jf«gf. BuohangA, 280l 
longicaodata, Tick, Drymow**, 644. 
longJMiadaU, Moors. Fnoepvg«» 832. 
longipennii, Jtq^ Dendroohelidon. 104 isr. 
longipennis, Nordm. Sterna, 986 hit. 
longirottn, Latk. Araohnothera, 824. 
loogirofltrit, Moors. Orooorjs,' 764. 
longirostrii, Smms, Peleoanui, 1001 hit, 
loDgirottna, Eodgs. Pyotorit, 886. 
loDgirof trii, Jsrd. Upupa, 254 hit. 
Lopbopbanet mnodiiu, Eodgt., 648. 

-„..— beaTaai, BUf., 641. 

.. ,._ diolirana, Sodgt , 687 

•„ melanolopbnt, Vig., 688. 

'n rabidiT«ntri«, Big,, 688. 

lufoBuohalit, Big., 640. 
Lopbophorna imp^janna, Lsth., 804. 
— -M-— •claUrl, Jsrd., 804 his. 
lopborinnfl, Visill. Dusemuroides, 888 i[SMi. 
lopbotet, Om, Baia, 68. 
Lophotriorobii kieneri, Osrs.. 87. 
Lorionlns indioua, Oss., 168 hit. 

^M— ▼erniJia, Sfoirrm., 158. 

lotenia, Xta. Cinnyns, 286. 
Lozia bimalajana, Hodqs., 784. 
ludonentii, .^. Lanios, Ml Mt. 
lugubris, IWii;. Ninox, 81. 
lugubrit, Big. PbyUoaoopui, 668. 
Ingnbrif, Sorrf. Sumiouios, 810. 
lonatiia, Oosdd. Serilopbns, 189 his, 
laniilatiu, Valmte. Qalioperdix, 816. 
Lnaoiniola malaoopogon, TWi., 618 his. 
latea, Qeop. Liothrix, 614. 
lateola> Cipmrm. Bntpita, 722. 
Intaoliu, IMS. Ixui, 462. 
lateoventrif. ffodgs. Tribura, 622. 
Ljnooniw boardiUoni, Hsms.t 114 isr, 
— .-„— ~ otmnioapa, OoM., 114 hit. 



HAOOSi£Lijn>z, Eorqf. HjptipHM, 447. 
maoolellandi, Jsrd. FomatoniiiiiiSi 404 guini. 
maogrigoruD, Bmrt. Nfltera, 816. 
Hac^rampbua aloinai, Wssi., 67 isr. 
MiiobetM pugnax, Lin., 880. 
Haohlolophof aplonotoa, BI&., 648. 
.....,,.».«i.^ apUonoluf, B1^., 649. 

......^^^^ xanthoganTf , l^.,647. 

maeii, Lsss. Ofanoaliu. 870. 

maeii, VisUL, Pioas, 167. 

maoqaMBi, /. E. Or. ^ E&rdw. Hovbara, 887. 

maorolopba, Lsss. Puoraaia, 80S- 

Maoropjrgia aMimilia, Ernsts., 791 isr. 

—..„«—. roipaiiBia, Blg.^ 791 his. 

^^^„ tuMUia, Eodgs t ^1- 

maeroriijnobiif, Emms. Aorooapbalos, 617 Itf. 
maororbynobos, JPagl, Oorrua, 660. 
maororhynohut, Om* Ojmborhynthwh 189 

quitU. 
maororbynebos. Siol. Pratbioola, 486 his, 
mMnira, dm. Oevootriobaa, 476. 
maoranu, Eorsf. Oaprimnlgns, 110. 
maorunift S. 0. Qst, OnrooSf 61. 
micraniai Big, Oriolat, 471 ptoi, 

18 



138 



INDEX TO TBB XilST OF THB BIBDS OF INDIA. 



maoulaU, Thh. SiythrMtertw, 826. 
maculatuB, Modgt. Anthus, 696. 
maoulatuB, Om. Ghrysoooecyx, 211. 
maculatas, Vlg, Heniearui, 684. 
mAOuUtiu, Tm. Frionoohiluf, 240 quint, 
maoulcMa, Tern. Tarniz, 884 hit, 
mftderMpAteniis, Om. Motiioilla, 689. 
magna, Hodg$. Arachnotbera, 228, 
magna, W.-Bams, Sitta, 248 quat 
magniroBtria, Oiof, i» VieiU. JEmcub, 858 bis, 
magnixotfcrit, Big, Ojornif , 808, 
magniroatrii, Le$9, Lanins, 260 quai. 
magniroatrii, Moore, Malaoopternm, 896 quini, 
magnirottria, PaU, Paleomis, 147 bis. 
magniroatris, Big, Phylloaoopoi, 666. 
magnirottria, Big, Urooissa, 671 bis. 
magnum, Egt, Malacoptarum, 896 ier. 
mahrattenais, Sgkes. Aoridotberei, 686 bis, 
mahrattensia, 8gkss. Caprimulgof , 113. 
mahrattensitf Lath. Pioni, 160. 
major, jSitN^#. Honitet, 629. 
major, Brooks. SohoDnioola) 619 quat, 
majoroidea, Sodgs. Pient, 166. 
malabarioa, Lim, Amadina, 708. 
malabarica, Bodd. LobipluTia, 866. 
malabarioa, Jsrd, Oamotreron, 776. 
malabarica, 8eop. Spisalanda, 766 bis. 
malabarica, Om, Stumia, 688. 
malabarica, Bfy, XanthoU»ma, 198. 
malabarioum, Big, Glaaddium, 78. 
malabariona, Jord. Malaoocerona, 484. 
malabariouB, Om. Pbyllornii, 464, 
malabarioua, Jsrd, Soopa.. 76 quai, 
malaooa, Lim. Amadina, 697. 
malacoenaia, 8eop. Anthraptea, 288 ter, 
malaooenaii, Lath, Callolopbna, 176 quat, 
malaeoanab, Big, Hjpaipetea, 447 ter. 
Malaeiaa capiitratua, Pig,, 429. 

» gnoilit, dieCleU., 429 &i«. 

-«-„—— malanoleuooa, Tiek., 429 quat. 

»-" polohellua, O.^Aust., 429 tor. 

Makoooerooa griaena, Latk., 488. 

malabarieua, /ard., 484. 
pellotia, Eodgs,, 481 bis. 
aomerrillii, Sghes., 486. 
■„ atriatoB, £kw., 482 bis. 

-■ " n terrioolor, Hodgs.^ 482. 

]Ca]aoo|»tanim farmginoanm, Big., 896 quai. 
■w— magniroatrii. Moors,, 896 quint, 

n magnum, Bgt.^ 896 ier. 

malaooptilna, i^Af. Bimator, 886. 
malajana, Oab.i Sein. Sudynamia, 214 bis, 
malayanuf, M^. Chiyiooocoyz, 211 ter. 
malayanua, Bagf. Soopa, 74 aea. 
malayooaia, fcgr. Ohaptiay 282 bis. 
wahjnuu, Eyt. OcnjdaUa, 600 bis, 
malayentia, BsiMW. Noopua, 82. 
maloolmi, l^kes. Arsya, 486. 
m an d e lli i , JSmme, Arborioola, 826 bis. 
mandollif, Emms. Oromia, 807 bis. 
mandollii, Mume. MontifringiDa, 762 ee9. 
mandallii, O.-Aust. Pkoparoa, 622 ier. 
manderinua, Qould, Tar. Qod.-Aust. Picua, 

166 Hf. 
manjar, Bartf. Plooena, 696 
ICaraca peuelope, Lin., 968. 



■>»■ 



»» 
■|»" 

"m* 
■l»" 

■l»' 
■>»■ 



maiginata, Sly. Zootbera, 860 iw . 
mania, Lim. Fnligula, 970. 
maraballorum, Soink. MegalAma, 191. 
martiua, Lim, Dryooopua, 168 bis. 
maruetta, Leaeh, Porzana, 909. 
maxima, Oould. Melanooorypba, 761 quat. 
mazimua, Hmme. Centroooooyz, 217 quint. 
media, fforsf. Sterna. 990. 
meena, Sgkes, Turtur, 798. 
Megalvma aaiatioa, Lath., 196. 
— „— — oanioept, FramkL, 198. 
„— — oyanotia, Big., 198 ter. 

daviioni, Sume.^ 196 bis. 

flarifrona, Cbo., 196. ier. 

franklini. Big,, 196. 

hodgsoni, JSp», 192. 

inoognita, JEFaaie., 196 ier. 

inomata, Wald., 193 bis. 

maraballorum, Swinh., 191. 

myatacopbanut. Tern., 19S quat, 

ramsayi, Wald., 196 bis. 

▼irena, Bodd., 191 bis. 

▼iridia, Bodd., 194. 

leflanioa, Om., 198 ter. 
Megalurua paluatria, flerff., 440. 
Kegapodiua nioobarienaiB, Bfy., 808 oet» 
megarbyncba, Sekk Pitta, 845 ier. 
megarbynohus, Sume. Ploceus, 694 ter. 
meianancben, Cab. PyrrhiUauda, 760 bis. 
melmiotera, Om. Bubignla, 466 6m. 
melanioterua, Om. Melopbua, 724b 
Melaaipama BemilarratoB, Saload., 649 bis. 
melanooepbala, LiM. Badytea, 6^ bis. 
mebmooepbala, Seop, Buapiia, 721. 
melaoocepbala, Lath. Ibis, 941. 
melanooepbalua, ^ai. Braohypodiua, 467 bis. 
melanooepbalna, J. S. Or. Oeriomii, 806. 
melanooepbalua, Anders. Cittirola, 689 ter. 
melanooepbalna, Xm. Oriolua, 472. 
Melanooblora aultanea, Rodgs,, 650. 
Melanooorypba bimaoulate, MMtr., 761 ter: 

i, maTima, Oould., 761 quat. 

melanogaater, Penn. Plotua, 1006. 
melanogaatra, Una. Sterna, 987. 
melanoleuoua, Forsi, Oirens, 68. 
melanoleuoua, Tiek. ICalaciaa, 429 quat. 
melanoleuoua, Big. Miorobieraz, 20 bis. 
melanobpbuB, Mqffl. Goiaakiut, 986 bis. 
melanolophua, Vig. Lophopbanea, 688. 
melanonotua. Big. Baplooamna, 811. 
melanonotua, Peim. Saroidiomit, 960. 
meUnope, Pd^. Calobatet, 692. 
melanopogon, 2Wi. Lnacintola, 618 bis. 
melanopa, Vig^ Stoporala, 801. 
melanoatemua, Lt^gge. Aoridotheret, 684 bit. 
melaooatigma, Big. Trocbalopterum, 41b Ier. 
melanotia, Sodffs. AUotriua, 611. 
melanotia, Tsm. ^ Sekl. Milrua, 66 bis. 
melanotia, Jerd. Smlomii, 89 6w. 
melanozantba, Boags. PachygloaM, 242. 
melanoxantbua, Hodgs. Hyoerobaa, 727; 
melanura, BUpp, Ceroomela, 498. 
melanura, Baril, Yolrocirora, 269 bis A, 
melanurua, Big, Pomatorbinoa, 404 6»r. 
melaaobiita, Bodgs, Yolrooirora, 269. 
melaacbiitui, Eume. Aooipit4r, 24 bis. 



INDBX TO THE LIST OF THB BIBD8 OF INDIA. 



139 



melU, Zm. OypwUos, 98. 

Helopliiu melmniotenw, Om., 724. 

memoricoU, Hodgs. Fringillauda, 753. 

menmliog, Horrf. Alcedo, 185 ier. 

mentalit, Tew. CallolophuB, 175 6m. 

mf rgUMTr Xi». Mergat, 972. 

Uergelliu albellus, Xm., 973. 

Mflrgnt merganier, Xta., 978. 

Merops apu8t«r, ^A, 121. 

— ^M— ptilippinui* LuLf 118. 

— „ — penious, Pa/I., 120. 

— n — iwinhoii, Bwme,, 119. 

— „-~TiridiB, Xcik, 117. 

Mtrnlft •Ibooineta, BoftU., 862. 

— ^n— boulbonl, LaU,, 861. 

— „— mtteneft, QouU., 868. 

— „- kinDiai, KbL, 860 ln», 

— ^„— Bigropilea, X<;/V*., 859. 

— n-- limillima, Jerd,^ 860. 

— „— TolgBris, Leaeh,^ 859 Uf. 

BMrulinnt, Bly, Qaimlax, 418 5t#. 

Mens ugflntonm, JTb^t., 615. 

QMoleuca, JffMw. ^ Bhr. Buticilla, 497 ier, 

Uetoponw pniilla, FatL^ 751. 

Hiorobienz cmmleioeiit, JAn,^ 20. 

1}-— fzingilliriQS, Drop., 20 t«r. 

— «y mehnoleaoui, Jiy., 20 5m. 

Miorqwrdiz blewitti, JZiiMtf., 828 hit. 

— -„ eiTtluorhyDobuB, Syket, 828. 

mienptefa, ITimm. Minfrft, 755 bit. 

KifiiopterniiB bnobyanu, VieiU., 178 hU. 
— -„-— gulaiii, Jtffif., 179. 
— ^„— ^ phflBoeeps, ^ly., 178. 
mieiopteruB, uould. CnoulttB, 206. 
Ifigljptoi jogaluris, Bljf., 165 quat. 

— „ triftii, Sarrf,, 165 <Jr. 

^ tuUd, XMff.» 165 ^ni. 

mignuas, Bodd. MIItub, 56 quai, 

miliana, Lim, Bmberiia, 720 ^lui^. 

MUf oa ftffinis, QoM.^ 56 ier. 

— ^n— goTioda, 8sfk^» 56. 

-^n— meUinofcia, Tern, # ^Ai.^ 56 bis, 

— „ — Diigrans, Bodd,, 56 puU. 

mmima, Sykes. Cinnjris, 288 

mininrai, Bmwte. Spilomis, 89 iepi, 

Hilda CMtaneioepa, Modgs., 619. 

— ti— oineiea, ^/y.* 620. 

— »-* ignotinota, Hodg9.<t 618. 

—•m^ lufogiilAris, Jf«Ml., 618 6w. 

minor, Om. Fregttfca, 1000 iw. 

BMoor, G. 5<. ^il. FhcBnioopteras, 944 6m, 

amor, &m. Fodioeps, 975. 

minor, Bmme, Stamiu, 681 bi$. 

ainos, Hume. Trichattoma, 887 6m. 

miouacula, Bwrne, Sjlyia, 582 6m. 

minnta, FdU. JBgialUia , 850. 

minnta, Un. Aidetta, 985. 

minnta, Bmme. Siphia, 818 6m. 

miniita,JUs. Sterna, 968. 

minnta,. LtuL Tringa, 884. 

minntas, Ifamm. Aiuer, 948. 

minutns, FaU, Iiarus, 961 6m. 

minntos, Legge, Soops , 74 C 

Miialra affinia,V«rc2., 756. 

— M — aiMamioa, MeCUU,, 754. 

— „— cantillans, Jeril*, 767. 



Mirafra erTtbroptera, Jarii., 756. 

„ — immaoulata, JBWffM, 754 bii, 

— „-— microptera, AiMe, 755 6m. 

mttratuB, JAelU. Peleoanoa. 1002. 

Mixornis gMlaria, Bonf.^ 895 6m. 

— ,1 rubricapilluB, Tick., 895. 

modesta, Byt. Araohnothera, 224 6m. 

modestna, Bwme, Prionoohiliu, 240 sex. 

modeBtoa. Wald, 8oo]^, 74 qiM, 

modeatas, Burt. Sylyiparna, 682. 

moffflnik, 8. O. Om, Aqnila, 27. 

moUiaaima, Big. Oreooinola, 870. 

Kolpaatee atrioapillaa, VieiU., 462 ter. 

— „~ bmtnorrhoua, Om., 462. 

n'— intermediua. Bag., 461 6m. 

n nigropileua, Big,, 462 6m. 

— „ pyfDUa, Sodgs., 461. 

molnooenaia, F. L. 6. JiiiU. Pitta, 845 6m. 

iDonachua, BUpp, Sazioola, 490 bis, 

monachua, Lin. Yultar, 1. 

monedula, Lin. Oonrua, 665. 

mon^la, Fall. ^giaUtia, 847. 

momliger, Bodgs. Anthipea, 817. 

moniliger, Lag. fiatraeboatomoa, 105. 

moniliger, Bodgs. Qarrulaz, 418. 

montanellna. Fall. Accentor,. 655 6m. 

montanua, Jerd. Antbua, 598. 

montanua, Lin. Paaaer, 710. 

montioola, MoOlell. Otooompaa, 460 ier. 

Montioola aazatilia, Lin., 851 ter. 

montioola, Vig. Zootbera, 850. 

montioolaa, Frtuikl. 0»primuIgua, 114. 

monticolua, Vig. Parua, 644. 

MontifringiUa adamai, Moore., 752 ter. 

— — M-^— bhmfoidi, Stme., 752 ^int. 

montifringiila, Lin. Fringilla, 752. 

MontifringiUa mandelUi, Same., 752 eeg. 

» rofiooUia, Blat^., 752 pud. 

mono, Bemp. 4" Bkr. Saziec^ 480. 

MotaoiUa alba, Lin., 591 ter. 

-„ — dukbunanaia, SglM , 691 6m. 
.„ — bodgaoni, 0. 12. 6^.. 589 bis. 
'„-^ lenoopaia, Oomld., 690. 
•„— — maderaapatenaia, Om., 589. 
-„ — ooularia, Sufink, 691 gnat. 

„ — peraonata, Oonld., 691. 

MoeUeripioaa polyeralentua, 2bfli., 168. 
inoltipunotata, OeuUL Nuoifraga, 6iS7. 
moniparenaia, O.-Aust. CiatiocSa, 589 6m. 
munipnrenaia, O.'Anst. S1Xtbo^^ 880 6m. 
mararia, Lin. Tiobodioma, 247. 
mazrayi. Big. Propaaaer, 745. 
Muaoioapnla aatigma, Bodgs., 811. 

„ oiliaria,iro(fy«.apad Big., 911 bis. 

„ aappbira, Tieif.,Sl2. 

„' aupereiliaria, Jerd,,ZlQ. 

Moaoipeta affinia. Lag. , 289. 

„— — paradiai, /•»., 288. 

MuBoitrea oyanea, Bnme., 266 6if. 

„ «riaoU^ Big., 266. 

mnaioua, BcsB^. Gopayohua, 476 6m. 
matioaa, Lin. Paro, 808 6m. 
muttui, Lag. Bntaiia, 299 ter. 
Kycerobaa melanozantbna, Sodgs., 727. 
Mjiomela leuonra, Bodgs., 4/17. 
Myiophonena eugenii, Bume.^ 843 6m. 



} 



140 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIBBS OF INDIA. 



MyiopliODaiik hoetiUldi, F?^., 842. 

„■■ ternminoki, Vi^.^ 848. 

nmtaeophaniu, Tern, Megalmna, 196 qmat. 
Mysaiithe ignipectos, BodgM,^ 841. 
Myiomif pTrrhttnu, Eadgt, , 689. 



NieAiSBUi, O.'Amti. Sitto, 848 ier. 
nana, Memp. <f Mkr, Sjlria, 688 his. 
)iannB| Mvme. Hierooooojz, 206 bii. 
nairni, Vig. Yungipioua, 164. 
naroondaxhi, Sume, RhytiMrof, 146 putt. 
saaalis, Legpe, Pyotorii, 886 Ht, 
nattxnaDni, FlmscK Oeiehneit, 18. 
negleota, J§rd, DrvmoBoa, 646. 
negleota, W<M. Sitta, 260 hU. 
negleota, Sums, yolyooivora» 268 fftai, 
segleotiu, JZfUNtf. Periaoeotos, 278 for. 
negleetut, JSTimm. PhylloMoput, 664 hU. 
neglaotns, Brook§, iVMlodytet, 888 his. 
nemorioola, Eodgs, OiJiixiago, 868. 
nemorioola, Jsrd. Btornia 688 Mr. 
Nemura oyanuia, PaU,, 608. 

If — byjjeiyihra, Big., 609. 

Neophron ginginiannt, Lath,, 6. 
NeopuB malayenaiit J2#tiiw., 82. 
Kaornis albiventrif, G.-Jmi., 662 for. 
— „»^ aMimilit, Sodgs,, 668 5i«. 
— „—^ flayoliTaoeut. Sodgt., 662. 
Nettopus ooromaodelianni, 6m., 961. 

neumajreri, Mieh. Sitta, 248 jfrniii. 

newarenie, Hodga. Sjmitim, 64. 

aioobanca, Hums. iBthopyga, 226 hia. 

niMbarioa, JAn. Cfalosnaa, 798 hit. 

nioobaricnij QfnM. FabBornit, 162 hii. 

Dioobarioof , Hums. Soops, 74 quat. 

nioobariensit, Eorsf. Ar Moors. Hjptipetei, 
4A7qitmi. 

moobariessis, Bly. Megapodina, 803 est. 

nioobariaotia, Big. Zotteropa, 681 for. 

nigra, Lm. Oiconia, 918. 

nigra, Lin. Hydroohelidon, 984 for. 

nigricaas. Big. Aloedo, 186 his. 

nigrioapitatua, Byt Bf^mocataphoik 896 sspt. 

nigrieeps, Frmnkl. Lanraa, 269. 

nigrioepa, Eedgt. Staehyrif, 891. 

nigrioollia, Simd. Podioepa, 974 his. 

nigrifrona, Cu/s. ^figiaHtia, 860 ifo; 

nigrifrone, Bhf. Aleippe, 890 for. 

nigrifrona, Eodgs. Henicoroa, 688. 

nigrigenii. Bums. Gecinna, 171 for. 

nigrimentam, Hodgs. Yuhina, 628. 
. nigrogularia, Eodgs. in Moors. Ruttcilla, 602. 

nigrolntea, Marsh. lora, 498 his. 

nigropilea, Laft. Memla, 869. 

nigropileoB, Bly. Molpaatei, 462 his, 

nigrorufa, Jsrd. Ochromela, 800. 

nilgheriensis, Jsrd. Hjptipetea, 446. 

nikherienaif. Big. Oreocinda, 872. 

Niftafa grandia, Biff., 816. 

— „— - macgrigoriflB, Burt , 816. 

— „- — aundara, Eodgs,, 814 
Kinox aflSnia, Tyt., 81 qsat. 
— „— barmanioa, JSTaffM^ 81 for. 
— n — lugubha, Tish., 81. 



Ninox obacura, Eums.^ 81 fuiimt, 
^„— - loatulata. MtM,, 81 his. 
nipalenaii, Eodgs. Acanthoptila, 481. 
nipalensia, Eodgs. Aeoentor, 662. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Aesros, 146. 
nipalenaia, Eodga. Aotinodnra, 428- 
nipalensia, Eodgs. ^khopyga, 222. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Aloippo, 888. 
nipalenaia, Eodjgs, AquiU, 27 Mr. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. BraohjpieiTZ, 886. 
nipaleoau, Eodjf$. Bubo, 71. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. apad Big. Oertiua, 244. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Cutia, 612. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs, Deliehon, 94. 
nipalenaia, Eodg: Hirando, 86 hss, 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Hjdromia, 844. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Liinnattaa, 86. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. PaUaomia, 147 for. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Pama, 646. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs, Pellomeum, 899 Uaw 
nipalentia, Eodgs. Proeaidaelia, 746. 
nipalenaia, Gould. Puoraaia, 808 for. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Pjrrhula, 781. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. Sathora, 878. 
nipalenaia, Eodgs. l^wron, 771. 
nipalentia, Eodgs. Tio^lodTtaa, 888. 
Niaa6tua faaoiatna, Vimll, 88. 
niaieolor, Eodgt. Hieroooooyx, 206. 
niaoidea. Big. Hieiooocoyz, 207 his, 
niaua, lAm. Aocipiter, 24. 
nitena, Eums. Stnmna, 682. 
Nitidula hodgaoni. Moors, 818. 
nitidua. Big. Pbylloaoopua, 669. 
niTeognlaria, Gould. JBgithaliaeaa, 686. 
niyioola, Eodgs. Ler#a, 817. 
niricolum, Eodgs. Symium, 66. 
nnohalia, G.»Aust. Gkrralax, 408 qusii, 
nochalia, Jsrd. Pama, 646. 
nuchalia, Wold. Pomatorhioaa, 406 for. 
Nucifraga hemiapila, Vig., 666. 
.— M-* " maitipunotata, Gould.^ 667. 
nndipea, Eodgs. OliAfeura, 97. 
Numanina lineatna, Ons., 877. 

f,-""" pbwopua, Ian., 878. 

Nyotea aoandiaoa, lan^ €S8 his. 
Njotioorax grieeua, Xaa., 987. 
Nyoiiomia amietna, Tsm., 122 his. 

„ athertoni» Jsrd. <f 8slh., 122. 

nyroea, Quid, Fuligola, 96d. 



Oatw, Eums. HydrornM, 844 
obacura, Eums. Niiiox, 81 quint, 
obaoariora, Eums, Hy^oUanidia, 018 
obsouroe, Eorsf. Hemipna, 267 Ma. 
obaouma, EnsM. Pomatorhiniiji,.404 for. 
obacuraa, Om. Tuxdoa, 869 his, 
obaoleta. Cab. Ptyonoprogne, 91 his. 
ochrooepbalua, Qm, Traohyooniiia» 449 
ooeanicua, i^asAt. Ooeanitea, 976. 
Ooeanitea ooeanioUa, Banks, 976. 
ooellatam, Lsss, Bymiun, 66. 
ooellafcua, Vig. Garrnlax, 414. 
oooipitalia, fig. QmrnaoMt 172. 
ocdpttalia, Blg» Haleyon, 182 his. 



INDIX TO THE UST OF THB BIBD8 OF INDIA. 



141 



oodpitoljf, Bljf. IxnloBf 624. 
ocoipiralu, Jerd, BefuloidM, 563. 
ocdpitiliB, Bijf, Urooiata, 691. 
ocdpitalU, Eodg$. Yuhina. 627. 
oehraoM, Hodys, Satift, 117. 
oehraceicepi, Wald. PomaUnrhinut, 401 Ur 
Oehromeia nigrorafft, Jerd., 800. 
oehromelAs, Maffi. BarylAmni, 188 Ur A. 
ochropos, £•». Totanuf , 892. 
oenlun, Smmk. Motaoiila) 691 fuat. 
oeukiu, Tern, CSaloperdix, 881 ^uU. 
OcyoerM birottrit, 8eop., 144. 
(Edienemai toolojMa, 8, G, Om,, 859. 
oglii, 0,'Atut. AotinoduTtt, 427 quai, 
odTiceam, Wold, Diomim, 287 ter, 
oUTM«iif, Hmme* Ojamn, 807 <m*. 
oliTaoens, BIgf. Pomatorhiniu, 408 hU, 
olor, Qm. CjgniM, 944 far. 
onoerotiilos, Zim, Feleeaniu, 1001. 
Ophi^BiB taperdUoM, J. S, Or,, 827 Mt. 
ojnstholaaeuB, Sirwkl, SaxiooU} 468. 
OreifloU jerdoni, Bly,, 487. 
OreoeincU dATuna, lo^ik, 871- 

-— „ ^regoiiana, Ntv., 878 ^uniI. 

— „— - imbricate, X<iy., 878 qmat. 
— „-^ ixiframarginata, Bljf., 872 big, 

— „ moUiMima, Blv., 870. 

— n nilgherieniii, i/y., 872. 

— ,, ipilratera, Biy., 872 itr, 

oreakiof, Tmm. Harpaotef, 116 bis. 

orientaliB, Tmm, 4" Sekl, Aorooephalut, 516 hit, 

orifiitalis, Ilonf. Bubo, 71 bit, 

orientalis, Lim. Baryrtomus, 126. 

onentalit, Ltath, GHareola, 842. 

Onolnt andamanantii^ 2J^., 471 bit, 

«„ — rajlonanfiiy Bp,, 478. 

— „• — galbula, Xm., 470 Ml. 

— „— indicni, Jtrd,, 471. 

"~„— kundoo, Sffkti., 470. 

— „ — maerarna, Bim,, 471 guai, 

— n-^ melnnoeephilus, lAm.^ 472. 

— ,.— tennirottris, Big,, 471 ttr, 

-.„— trailli, Vig., 474. 

— n-— xmthonotas, Horwf,^ 478 3tff. 

omatft, Fc^I. Cttaa, 678 bit. 

Ortborbiniu hypoleuoua, SUf,^ 405 bit, 

— -„•— inglisi, Bumtt 405 <»r. 

-^-„-"^ tickelli, Hwmt, 406 ^mo^. 

Orthtytomot atrigularia, 2b«i., 680 bit. 

ooronatns, Jerd. ^ Bly., 581. 

nifloepa, Zttt., 680 itr, 

•nioriuf, Fdfrti., 580. 
OrtjgornM gularit, 21mi., 828. 

" — If pondicerianua, Om,, 822. 

oijafora, Ita. Anwdina, 708 bit, 
oritant, Sodd. Aimtomxu, 940. 
Osinoirieron bioioeti», Jtrd,, 774: 
»— otilovoptortt, J^., 777 W». 

fulTieoUif, Woffl,, 776 ftit. 

nudabariea, Jerd,^ 775. 

phayrii, J»^., 776. 

poo^Mdoiua, ^m., 777. 
■■"*•"»•— ▼«rn»ni| Xm., 774 Wt. 
<"tn<egni, Xta. HmatopOi, 862. 
Otu tifda, Ita., 886 Ma. 
Otii tetnxi Lin,, 886 far. 






»" 



Otooompoa analk, Sorrf,, 452 w«. 
* emeria, Xta., 460. 

- futoioaiidata, Gould., 460 &tt. 

- leuoogeiiyt, /. JB, Ghr,, 458. 

- leoooiiB, Goaiicf., 469. 

- montioola, MeCltU,, 460 far. 
OtoooryB alpestriai lAn,, 768 6if. 

„ — - longirosti-is, Moort, 764. 

~-„~ penoillata, Oould,, 768. 
Oto^pt calTut, 80Op., 2. 
otua, Lin, Ario, 67. 



■f»' 

'm" 



»- 
■l»" 



"o' 



>> 



PAomoua, Laih. OypieUiu, 101 bit, 
Paohygloflsa maUmoiantha, Hodgt^, 248. 
pagodamm, Gm, Stuniia, 687. 
ralttomit calthropo^ I^!f»t 161 bit. 

„ oanioepB) Big,, 151 far. 

•— »^- oolumboidea, Fy.* 161. 
„• — ojanooephaltts, lAn., 149 bit, 

— fiwoiatuf , P. L, a. MiU., 152. 

— finiohi, JTaina., 160 bit. 

— indobunnaiiioiia, Bnmt., 147 quai. 

•„ mugnirostrM, FaU., 147 bit. 

•n nicobariouB, Gould., 162 bit, 

'„ nipalenflia, Sodgt^ \4t! Ur. 

parpnreoa, P. L, 8, MiUi,, 149. 

•ohiitioepii Hodgt,, 150. 

torquafciu, Bodd,, 148. 

tjtleri, JlaflM., 162 far. 
— — „~ aopatria, Lin., 147. 
palletoensy Enmt. Qyp*, 4 M«. 
pallaai, Tmi. CinoliM, 849 bit. 
pallida, Bly, Dendrodtta, 675. 
pallida, iTaiap. ^ IBkr, Hypolaia, 558 Ur. 
pallidipes, Bl€H^. Horeites, 627 ^ao^. 
palltdus, 8k$U. OypselioB, 99 Ur, 
pallidus, Brookt, Horeitat, 527 bit. 
pallidus, Gm, Turdas, 869 far. 
pallipes, Jtrd, Oyornis, 809. 
palliseri, Big, BraahTpteiyz, 888 Mr. 
palpebrota, Tern. Zoeteropi, 681. 
palaiiibariat, Lim, Attor, 21. 
PalambcBna erersmanni, Bp,, 787. 
palomboides, Sumt, Oarpophaga, 781 quai^ 
PalumbuB oasiotis, ^,, 784. 

1,—- elphinstoni, 8gket,, 786. 

»"—• puiohriooUis, Modgt., 785. 

— „— — torringtom, Ktl,, 786 bit, 
palustre, Jtrd. Pellonienm, 899 quai. 
paluskrifl, Hortf, Megaluras, 440. 
Piindion haliafitue, £in., 40. 
papilloeua, 2\mi. Inoootif , 942. 
paradisi, Lin, Mnaoipeta, 288. 
paradisens, Lin. Diaaemurut, 285. 
Paradoiomia aoatani, Gould., 878 bit. 

— — n flaTiroatri^ €hnld., 878. 

„ gnlarii, Sortf,, 874. 

>• rufioapa. Big., 875. 

Parra indioa, LM,, 900. 
Pftma atidnaoni, Jtrd., 648. 
— „ — oommiitua, 8minh., 645 bit. 
— „— griiHtbi, Big., 644 bit. 
— „— modt^oolua, Vig., 644. 



/ 



142 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



FaruB nipfdenBis, Sodg9,.t 645. 

— „ — nuobalis, J9rd,^ 646. 

parra, Beehtt. ErythroBtema, 828 bis» 

pMira, Scop. Porsana, 910 big. 

Passer asBimiUB, Wold., 708 ter. 

— „ — oixmamomeOB, Oxmid,^ 708. 

'"n-^ domesticuB, Lin,, 706. 

— „— flayeoluB, BUf.^ 708 bia. 

— „ — hiBpanioleiiBiB, SVm., 707. 

— „— montanuB, Xm., 710. 

— » — pyrrhonotuB. BUf.^ 709. 

— „ — pjrrhopteruB, Xe««., 710 bia. 

paBieiinuB, Vahl. OaoomantiB, 208. 

Pastor roseuB, Lin.^ 690. ' 

Payo oriBtatuB, Zti»., 808. 

— ,,— maticoB, Lin.^ 808 bia. 

pectoialiB, Jard. AmadiTia, 700. 

peetoralis, OoM. Calliope, 618. 

pectoraliB, Saraf. {nee. Tarn.) CinnyriB, 284 bia. 

peotoralis, OotUd. Garruliix, 412. 

pectomlis, O.'Auat. PeUomeum, 899 aapt. 

pekinenBiB, Swinh. Cerohneis, 18 bia. 

fekinensiB, Sioinh. CypseUas, 99 quat. 
'elargopsis amauroptera, Paara., 128. 
buimanioa, Sharpa.f 127 bia. 
ff arial, Paars. , 127. 
intermedia, Huma., 127 ier. 
PelaoanoideB urinatriz, Laih.^ 977. 
PeleoanuB orispiu, Bruoh., 1()04 bia. 
jaTanicuB, Horaf.f 1008. 
• longiioftris, JSuma., 1001 bia. 
mitratUB, Lieht.t 1002. 
onocrotaluB, Lin., 1001. 
philippensis, Om., 1004. . 
Pellomenm fiuoocapillain, Bly., 899 quint. 
ignotum, Mnme., 899 ter. A, 
nipalensiB) Modga.^ 899 bia. 



it 



tl 






M 



}> 



-„ palustre, Jard,, 899 qmt. 

peotoralif, &.'JMat.y 899 aapt. 
rufloepB, 8wa.t 899. 
Bubochraceum, Swinh,^ 899 aa». 
tiokelli, Bly., 899 tar. 






pellotiB, Hodgt. Malaoooerciis, 481 bia. 
pelvioa, Modga. Tephrodomii, 268. 
penoillata, Big. Kelaartia, 464. 
pencilltttH, Oould. Otocorys, 768. 
penelope, lAn. Mareoa, 968. 
pennatuB, Om. HieraStus, 81. 
pennatuB, Hodga. Scops, 74. 
perooBBUB, Tarn. Prionochilui, 240 quat. 
Perdioula areoondah, Sgkaa., 827. 
_.,,— asutiea, Zath., 826. 
Perdiz hodgsonifs, Sodga., 828 bia. 
peregrinator, Sund. Falco, 9. 
peregrinusi Qm, Faloo, 8. 
perigrinuB, Lin. Pericrocotns, 276. 
PericrocotoB albifrons, Jard.^ 277 bia. 

andamanensis, Tgt., 271 bia, 

breyirostris, Vig'y 278. 

elegans, MeClall., 271 ter. 

erythiopygtuB, Jerd., 277. 

flammeuB, Forat., 272. 

flammifer, Humey 278 quat: 

igneUB, Big., 278 bia. 

immodestUB, Hume, 277 ier. 

neglectUB, Suma, 278 tar. 



u 

■w" 



PericroootuB peregrinuB, Lin. 276* 

„ — — rofleua, FieilLf 276. 

— — ., Solaris, Big,, 274. 

— - — „— — speciosus, Lath., 271. 
Pemis braohypteros, Big., 67 bia. 
— „— ' ptilornynchus, Tarn., 67. 
peniouB, Pall. Merope, 120. 
penicus, Hume. Puffinas, 976 bia. 
personata, Oould. Motaoilla, 691. 

?enonata, O. S. Or. Podica, 908 bia. 
etrooincla oastaneioolliB, Leaa., 861 quat. 
Peiropbila oinolorhyncha, Vtg., 868. 

„ erythrogastra, Vig., 852. 

Phnniooperdiz chloropus, Big., 881 bia. 
phflBnioun^ Lin. Butioilla, 4&6. 
pbflBnioaroides, Moore. Baticilla, 496. 
phsooephaluB, .Hbr^j. Oriniger, 461 quat. 
phfBooepB, Big, Micropternus, 178. 
pheopuB, Lin. Numenias, 878. . 
Phaeton flayirostris, Brandt., 997. 
— — „- — indioos, Hume^ 996 bia, 
_.„.-.. mbrioaudoB, Bodd., 996. 
Phalaoroooras oarbo, Lin., 1006. 

^„— — fusciooUiB, Staph., 1006. 

„— — pygmsBUB, Pall., 1007. 

PhalaropuB fuUoariuB, £«'»., 889. 
Phasianus walliohi, Hardu., 809. 
phayrii, Big, Alcippe, 888 bia. 
phayrii, Bl^. Antbocinola, 846 ter. 
phayrii. Big. Osmotreron, 776. 
phayrii, Big. Pomatorhiniu, 401 bia. 
rhilentoma pyrrhoptemm. Tern., 289 bia. 

»— — Tolafcmn, Tern., 289 ter, 

philippensis, Qm. Pelecanas, 1004. 
philippinoB, lAn. Meiops, 118. 
philippinuB, Lin. Ploceui, 694. 
PhocUlas asaimilis, Hume, 62 hia. 

>» badius, Horaf,, 62. 

phoBniceom, Ghuld. Gbwohalopteram, 428. 
PhonioophSes pyrrhooephalas, Forat., 216 Ut. 
PhoBnioopterus antiqnorum, Tem,, 944. 
phoBnioopteruB, La^. Orooopos, 772. 
PhoBnioopteros minor, Q. St. HU., 944 hia, 
phcsnioora, FrauH. Ammomanes, 758. 
phcBnioura, Penm. Bxythra, 907. 
phcBnicuroides, Hodga. HodgBonius, 841. 
Phyllomis aurifrons, Tem., 466. 

-„ ohlorooephalus. Wold., 468 bia. 

-„ cyanopogon, Tem., 468 quat. 

.„ hardwiokii, Jard. ^ Selh., 466. 

jayensis, Horaf., 468 ter, 

„ jerdoni, Big., 463. 

_-„ malabaricos, Om., 464. 

Phyllosoopns affinis, Tiek., 661. 

borealis, .B2a«., 666 Ha. 

ftdigyiiyentris, Hodga,, 585. 

fascatns, Big., 565. 

indieuB, Jard,, 662. 

Ingnbris, Bl^.^bOS. 

magnirostris, Big., 656. 

negleotua, Hume, 664 bia, 

nitidos. Big., 659. 

plambeiiarsos, Swinh., 668 bit* 

ichwani, Badde,, 656 ter, 

Beebohmi, Hume, 558 tar. 
-„ teneUipeB, 5iw«* , 656 qnat. 



» 
■i»' 

"w* 

n 



IKDBX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



143 



FhjUotoopui feristiB, Blj^.^ 664. 

> troehiluB, Idn., 667. 
tytleii Brook9,f 660 bU. 
Tiridanaa, Bfy.^ 660. 






botUnenBis, DeU»9., 668. 
Fiea nitiea, 8eop,, 668 his. 
picBoidet, Sodg*, Sibia, 480. 
pioaiiu, Sghet, Hemipaa, 267. 
pieams, Bly. 6axtcoll^ 489. 
pieatos, Tick. Thamnocataphns, 883. 

PieoB bobKb, Aorwf.^ 167 ter. 

— „ — BodaraanenBiB, Bly^ 167 Im. 

— M^ BtratOB, Blff,^ 167 quat, 

—„— branneifronB, Vig,^ 169. 

— M— OBthpharioB. Hodgt,* 166. 

— „— himaUyeriBiB, /aril. 4* ^0^- > 164. 

— .r-maoii, VieiU^ 167. 

— „— mahrattonBiB, Lo^il., 160. 

*~i, — mBJoroidea, JTocf^c, 166. 

— n — manddriziaB, Oomld. var. Ood'-Ausi, 

155ftiff. 
PicuB sindianus, QoM,^ 168. 
— „ — weBtormanni, £2y., 167 9«m<. 
piUriB, Zm. TardnB, 867. 
piletta, Bodd. Haloyon, 180. 
pipra, Leu. PrionochiluB, 240 hie, 
PipriBoma agile, Tiei,, 240. 
pnoBtor, JUm. Sala, 999. 
pupoletta, PoO. Alandola, 762 hie. 
Pitta bnobyora, X^, 845. 
— »^ csralea, B<iffi», 844 gwo^. 
— I,— oocotnea, 1?^., 846 g«a<. 
—I,— cncnlata, Haril,^ 846. 
^»— ejmea, ^^. , 844 Ur. 
^n-^ gimeyii i7«M«f 846 &m. 
— „~ masarnjiiohay Sehl,, 846 ftfr. 
— »— moTnooenBiB, P. X. ^. il^/., 846 bis. 
daoida, G. 12. 6^f. iBgifOitiB, 848 his, 
PhtBln l0Q0orodia, Idm., 989. 
PlBtylophoB ardeBiaoaB, Cb^., 668 ter, 
pbtTrhjnoha, Tern, Limioola, 886. 
PlB^nmoniB leueoptenu, Tern., 678 quint. 
plB^nroB, Jerd. Schcsnioola, 442. 
PloeBella javanenBiB, Less,, 696 6m. 
PlooeoB baya, Bly., 694 his. 
"~-»-~ bengalBBBis, Lin., 696. 
— „— manyar, Sorsf,, 696. 
— „— siBgarh^ohuB, Hume., 694 ter, 
"""»*-* pbilippinuBi Lin,, 694. 
PlotoB melanogaBter, Fenn., 1008. 
plombeieepB, O.-dnst. Staphidea, 624 ter* 
phombeitarBiiB. Smnh. PhylloBoopuB, 658^. 
plambeoB, Hodgs, PoUoafitos, 41 his. 
plombipes, Hodgs, Turniz, 888. 
piQXDipes, Hodgs. Buteo, 47. 
plnmiptB, Hume, 8oopB, 76 his, 
plnmoBQB, Big. Ixua, 462 sept. 
ploTialiB, Lin. CharadrioB, 845 hU. 
Pnoepyga candata, Blg.^ isi, 
— „— — . chooolatina, Q.-Aust, Sr Wold. 

382 H«. 
PDoepyga longioandata, Moore,^ 882. 

n poBilH Hodgs., 880. 

" — n Bquamata, Oould., 829. 

Podicapenonata^ 0, B, Qr., 903 Us^ 



PodioepB oriBtatus, Lin,, 974. 

— -«•— minor, Om., 976. 

— -„— - nigricollia. Bund., 974 his. 

PodoooB humiliB, Hums., 679 his. 

poBoilorhyneha, Forsi. Anaa, 969. 

poiooephala, Jerd. Alcippe, 889. 

poiocephaloB, Jerd, Bracnypodiaa, 467. 

polioaria, Hodgs. Horeites, 628. 

PolioaetuB bumiliB, 8. MaU. if Sehl, 41 ter. 

— „— idithyadtuB, Horrf., 41. 

^j,— pliunbeoB, Hodgs., 41 his. 

poliocephala, A. Anders. E^nia, 536 hi9. 
polioeepbalaB, Lath, Ouoolas, 201. 
poliooepbalaa, Lath. Porpbyrio, 902. 

g^liogenya, Big, Abromia, 676. 
Olioliierax inaigniB, Wald.^ 16 his. 
poliopaia, Hume. Aatur, 23 his, 
polioUa, Bfy. Sntbora, 879. 
Polypleotmm bioaloaratam, Lin., 808 quini, 
——»*•*— germaini, HIL, 803 sex. 
tibBtanum, Om,, 808 quai. 



n 



pomaiiniiB, Tern, Sterooraritia, 977 hie. 
Pomatorbinoa albignlaria, Big., 401 quat., 

„ erythrogenya, Vig., 405. 

•„— • ferruginoBUB, Big., 401. 

-„-— horafieldi, Bgkes., 404. 

•„ leuooKaBter, Oould., 403. 

-„ maoolellandi, Jerd., 404 quint, 

'„— melanuroa, Big,, 404 his. 

'„ Duohalia, Wold., 408 ter. 

'„•"•'— obaoaroB, Hume.^ 404 ter, 

'„ oohraoBioBps, Wold,, 401 ter, 

„ - olivaoeuB, Big., 408 his, 

„ pbayrii, Big., 401 his 

„ rufiooUiB, Hodgs,^ 400. 

„ -— ■ Bohiatioepe, Hodgs,, 402. 

— — ,, atenorhynehiiB, Q.^Aust, 401 

quint. 
pompadoora, Om, Oamotrenm, 777. 
pondioeiianuB, Om. OrtygomiB, 822. 
pondioerianuB, Om. TepbrodonuB, 266. 
Porpbyrio poliooepbalna, Lath., fii02. 
porphyromelaa, Boie. Blytbipicoa, 176 his* 
Poraana akool, Bgkes,, 908. 

— „ bailloni, Fwitt., 910. 

— -„" — bioolor, Wold,, 911 his, 
— »"— cinerea, VteilL^ 910 ter. 
— -„•— fuBca, Liu,, 911. 
— „~ maraetta, Leaeh,, 909. 
— •„• — parva, 8eop., 910 hie. 
pniBina, Sparrm. &ythrura, 703 ter. 
praainoBoelia, Swinh. Ardeola, 930 his, 
pratenaiB, Lin. Antbua, 606 quint, 
pratenaiB, Beehst. Orex, 910 quat. 
Pratinoola bioolor, S^kes., 482. 
^— „^~ caprata, Liu., 481. 
— „^-^ ferrena, Hodgs., 486. 
pratinoola, Lin,, G-lareola, 842 his. 
Pratinoola indioua, Big., 483. 

„ inaigniB, Hodgs,, 486. 

^— „ leaonroB, Big,, 484. 

'-"-„•— ^ maororbynohoB, Stok, 486 his» 
Prima adamai, Jerd., 638. 
— „*- beavani, WaH., 688 his. 
— „ — oinereooapilla, Hodge., 687. 
--„— flayiTentriB, i)e£Bf«.r 682. 



144 



INDBX TO THE LIST OF TBI BIRDS OF INDIA. 



»» 



Frinit graoilif, IWuii/., 588. 

— „ — hod^oni, Sly.^ 688. 

— „— humilii, Hum0,, 586 quai. 

— „ — polioo«ph»lA, A, AnifrM,, 585 

— „— rafeM^ns, Bijf., 586 Ht. 

— ^y,— rufuU, 0.'Amgt,f 686 $§r. 

— „— loeialii, ^to., 584 

— ^ — ttewarti, i^i^., 585. 

Pri^n „? 975 big. 

Prionoohilof maonlstui, 7Wk, 840 fuini. 
—.—•,,-—— modeittit, jETvflM., 840 ##«. 
_.„——— parooMut, 2Vm., 240 ^ai, 
pipm, X«tr, 840 ^. 

„ thonunom, Tern., 240 »€pi. 

„- — — yiaoeiw, Selai., 840 <er. 
Piocflffdoelit nipal«nus, Hodgt.f 746. 

-»-— roDMoeni, Blanf., 746 bit. 

Proparut ohrjieuf, Sodg:, 681. 

^„— dabint^ i7miM., 682 Hi. 

„ — mandellii, 0,'Aiui,, 688 tor. 

— „~ TinipeotoB, Modgs,, 622. 
PropasMT ambiguui, ITkam., 748 bis. 
^..^y,.,^ edwurdd, Ftrr., 744 bit. 

„ firontalit, Bly., 744. 

— — „-— mumyi, B^,, 745. 
.....,,. — puloherrimut, Eodgt.^ 748. 
— — rhodoehUmyi, Brandt.^ 741. 
•— • rhodochroui, Fi^., 742. 

_ — * rhodopepluf, Fi^., 739. 

^i,-— thuns J^, 740. 

Fropynhula sabbimMhAla, Hodgt., 786. 
pioregiiliif. BmU. Begaloidat, 666. 
pMrifomus dAlhoQsia, Jam., 186. 

fiaroidei, Vig. HTpwpetM, 444. 
■eudogypt bangaUnsit, Om., 6. 
Pfeeadofoolopax Mmipalmatnt, Jerd., 874 
Pteudolotanui hAUglitpiii, ArmHr., 894 M«. 
Prittinnt inoertm, Skaw., 158 <#r. 
Ptexodef aLdhato, £i»., 801. 
— ^„—- anDarini, FkU., 799. 

M— - ooroDafcua, Lieht, 801 l«r. 

— „— ezoiiiUi Ttm,, 602. 
— -„— - faaoiatni, Avop., 800. 

„ — liehtonrtaini, Tm., SOObit. 

„-— Mnegailui, JUw., 801 bit. 

Pfeerathias vralatiif , Tick., 610 bit. 

^„— — fiijthropl«rut, Vif., 609. 

-i— „ mflTenter, Bl^.. 610. 

ftiiogmy, Bly. BnlabM. 698 bit. 
ptibrbjnohut, Am. P»rnif, 57. 
rifonoprogii« oonoolor, Sjfktt., 90. 
_«.,,-_ obiolela, Cab., 91 &iff. 

„ nipeffcrii, Stop., 91. 

PoorasU oastanea, 0aM , 808 ^. 
— -^-^ maorolopha, X«it., 806. 
— ^,,-— nipaleiiaia, fi'oiilii., 808 <0r. 
paella, Lad. Iwoa, 460. 
PofflnoB ■, Lt0^., 976 <«r. 

— -„-~ panioas, Burnt., 976 fttt. 
pagnax, £4%. Machaiati 880. 
palohra, jETvmm. Oarina, 7^ ^(uai, 
pulobaUilfy KoNi. Oannsaatai, 182 Ur. 
pulohallufy G-Amtt. Malaw'aa, 489 <«r. 
puloharrinmi, Sad^, Propaaaar, 748. 
palabntoi, Sodfft, Tnitur, 798. 
pnkhrioollif. So^. Palombtti, 785. 



pultarnlantai, Ttm. MuaUaripimiti 168. 
pnnotatiis, ^«aM. Batarachoatomiit, 105 bit. 
punctatoa, Bly. Troglodjtat, 884. 
panetiooUit, JfaM. BrachjpteniiUt 181. 
panotulata, Lin. Amadina. 699. 
punioaa, Sodgt P^rrboapisa, 747. 
punioaut, Tiek. Alsooomus. 782. 
pamoeoB, Sorwf. Oallolophua, 175 Ur. 
porpnraa, Xta. Ardaa, 924 
piirpuiwa, Sodgt. Gooboa, 607. 
purpuratts, P. L. 8. WUU Palsoniif, 149. 
puailla, Biy. Oarpopbaga, 780 tar. 
paailla, Ptdl. Smbarisa» 720. 
paailla, Biff. Errtbioaiama, 824. 
pnaillay Pail. Matoponia, 751 . 
pufilla, Sodgt. Pnoapjga. 880. 

fufillus, Salvad. Iiiit, 452 aoa. 
'yonorampbua aifinia, Big., 726. 

— - — „ r*arnipeB, Sodgt., 728. 

„ ictarioidaa, Vtg., 725. 

Pjotorii altiroatriB, Jtrd., 886 bit. 
— ,,— griaaigulariai Sumt., 886. 

— „ longiroatiit, Sodgt., 886. 

.*.„..^ naaalia, Ltggt , 885 bit. 
— — „-~ ainantia, €ha., 885. 
P7g»iu, Sodgt. Molpnataa, 461. 
pj^mmnt, Lin., Borrn^rbjiicbQa, 887. 
pjgmnaa, Pall. Pliuaorocorax, 1007. 
pvgmttua, Vig. Yuiigipieua, 168. 
pyrrhooaphaliu, Forti. PboBnioopbiat, 216 Mi. 
Pyrrhoeorax alpmua, Jfoeh., 680. 
pyrrhonotna, Big. Plaatar, 709. 
Pjrrboplaetaa apaalatta, Sodgt., 783. 
pjrrhopa, Sodgt. Bachanga, 280 bit. 
pyrrbopa, Sodgt. Stachyria, 898. 
pyrrboptaram, Ttm. Fhilentoma, 289 bit. 
pyrrboptania, Zeta. Paaaar, 710 bit. 
I^rrboapixa punioea, Sodgt., 747. 
pyrrbotia, Sodgt. Blytbipioua, 176. 
Pyrrbula aunntiaoa, Ghnld., 782. 

— -„ arythaoa, Blg.^ 780. 

— „-— ei^hrooepbala, Vig., 729. 
— — ,,-*^ nipalanaU* Soagt., 781. 
Pyrrfaulaada griaaa, Seop., 760. 

.— *„- malanaaoban, Cab., 760 bit. 

pyxrhnrua, Sodgt. Mysornia, 629. 



QuiBQTnniULA eireia, Xta., 965. 

— craooa, £t«., 964. 

— fiiloate, Goor., 966 bit. 
'" fonnoaa, Ooor., 966. 

•,,~ gibberifrona, 8. MuU,, 966 itr. 






Baszatuic, Tiek. Glaueidium, 77. 
rafflaai, Vig. Qanropiooidaa, 185 bit. 
Ballina oaimmgi, Tgi., 912 tor. 
— .„- — aaryionoidea, Laflr,, 912. 
— „ — fraciata, Bi^, 912 bit. 
Balloa aqnatioat, Lm., 914 Ht, 
— ^„— indiooa, Blg.t 914. 
rama, ^laat . Hypolaia, 558. 
nmaayi, IFaM, AattnodiiiB, 487 <«r. 



INDEX TO THK LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



143 



M 

"w" 



u 



M 



nunaaji, Wald. If egalama, 196 bit, 
nji, i^.Bu'dTtes, 692 ^i«. 
njUl, BUf. Alaudula, 762. 
SecarriniBtra ATOcetU, Xtn., 899. 
renuriroftriB, (^v. .fiaaout, 868. 
BtfguloidM ohloronotos, Eodfs,, 666 <er, 

- ooronaiufl, JWn. ^ ^eA/., 663 ^. 

- erochroQs, ^(Mr^#., 668. 

- flaTO-oliTAPeus, Sume., 664 bi$, 

-faIfoyentar,6^.-^M<.,664 ^. 

- hatnii, Brookt,^ 566 ^. 

- oeoipitalif, Jerd,, 668. 

- proiegiilaai Potf., 666. 

- sabriridu, Brooke. ^ 666 hit, 

- saperciliosuf, Gm,, 666. 

- troohiloide*, Sund,^ 664. 

- TiridipenniB, J9/y., 667. 
Beguluiorbtatus, JIToeJI., 680. 
religioM, Zm. EulAbes, 692. 
Tnnifer,r0M. Bhrings, 283. 
Bhimphococoyx erythrognathui, HarU, , 216 ter. 
Bhinoplaz vi^il, J%r«<., 146 qmini, 
Bhinoptilns bitoiqiutus, Jtrd,, 841. 
Bhinortha ohlorophaea, Baffin 216 quai. 
riiodoohlAmyB, Bramdt PtopsMer, 741. 
rhodochfous, Fty. Propasser^ 742. 
Bhodonena csi7oph7]lftcea, Zaih,, 960. 
rliodopepluf, Fty. Propaaaer, 789. 
SkopodTtet diardi, Xm«., 215 M«. 

f» Bomatraniis, Bn^,, 216 ^. 

^11 triBlia, Zm«., 216. 

» Tiridiroataris, /myI., 216. 

Bbjaeophila glareola, Idu., 891. 
Bhjicomia fuliginoaiu, P^., 606. 
BhjncluBa ben^enaiB, Idn,, 873. 
HhyBoHopa albiooUit, Sw§,f 996. 
Bhytioeros naroondami, ir«fli«., 146 quat 

m sabruficollit, J/y., 146 Ur. 

n nndulatua, Shaw,, 146 bu, 

richardi, rieill. Corydalla, 699. 

ridibnndiii, Liu. Larus, 981. 

Btmator malaooptilus, Bfy., 836. 

riparia, Zm. Ootyle, 87. 

riaorim, Lin. Turtur, 796. 

roberti, G.-Atut. i Wald. Heterorhynohu^ 

888 ier, 
roberti, O.-Auti. # Wald. Turdinulus, 332 Ur. 
BolluliiB roulroul, Seop., 831 ier, 
itMceuf, Bodfft, AnthuB, 606. 
rooeot, Lin. Pastor, 690. 
roKOt, VieHL PericrooottiB, 276. 
ronlrotd, 8eop. RoUiiIub, 881 ier. 
rnbeeuloideB, Moore. AooeDtor, 666. 
rnbeouloidBB, Fi>. Oyornia, 304. 
robBweiif, Blanf. ProrardueliB, 746 big. 
rabieilluB, OiUd, OarpodncuB, 737. 
mbidiTentriB, B^. Lophophanea, 639. 
rybiginoBum, Wald. Triohaatoma, 387 <#r. 
Kubiguk flariyeiitria, 7\ek., 466. 

n — gularia, Oould., 456. 

~fi — melanioten, Om., 466 bit. 
rubricapUla, Gm. Xantholsma, 198 bit. 
nibrieapiUoB, Tiek. Mizornia, 396. 
rubricate, Bly. Yungipioua, 162. 
rabrioaiidiu, Bodd, Phaeton, 996. 
rubronigra, Mod^t. Amadina, 6i^8. 



rabropygialia, Malk. Tiga, 185. 
rabropjgiua, Hodgt. Serilophua, 189. 
rudia, Lin. Gerjle, 136. 
mfa, Scop. Dendrocitta, 674. 
ni&, Bodd. Sjlyia, 682 quat. 
rufeaoena, Hnmt. Drymoaca, 644 big, 
mfeaoena, Blif. Layardia, 487 bit, 
rufeao4*na, Big. Prinia, 636 bit. 
rufioapillum, Bly. Trocbalopterum, 416 bit, 
ruficapilluB, Tern. Henicnrus, 688 bit. 
nifioaudiia, Sfot. Cyornia, 307. 
rufleepB, Bly. Chleuasicua, 877. 
ruflcepa, Lett. OrthotomuBi 630 ter. 
rufioepa, Big. Paradozoniia, 376. 
ruficepB, 8wt. Pellomeum, 399. 
rufirepa, Bly. Staohyrif, 893. 
rufioollia, Jard. ^ Selb. Qarnilaz, 410. 
rtificollia, Blanf, Montifringilla, 762 quai. 
rufleollia, Sodfft PomatorhmuBi 400. 
riificoUia, FaU. Triogn, 884 bit. 
riifiooilia, FaU. Turdua, 364. 
rufifrona, Sume. Staohyria, 393 bit. 
rufigenia, Burnt, Staphidea, 626 ier. 
rufigulare, Gould, Troohalopteram, 421. 
rufiiia, Fall, Fiiligula, 967. 
rufipennia, /tf. Oentrooocoyx, 217. 
rufipennia, Bly. Maoropygia, 791 bit. 
ruflpennia, Sharpe. Sropa, 74 B. 
rufitiiictiia, McCkll. Aatur, 22 bit. 
raflTenter, Big. Pteruthiua, 610. 
rufiTetitriBi Big. Callene, 339. 
rufiTentriBy Vieill. Buttoilla, 497. 
rufogolaria, Big. Arborioola, 826 
rufogularia, Mand. Minla, 618 bit. 
rufoniichalia, Big. Lophophanaa, 640. 
rufula, Vieill. Oorydalla, 600. 
riifula, G.'Autt. Prinia, 636 itr. 
rufulua, Big. Gampaorhynchua, 384. 
rupeatria, Fall. Columba, 789 
rapeatria, Scop. P^onoprogne, 91. 
ruatica, Lin. Hirundo, 82. 
ruatioa, Scop. Pica, 668 bit, 
nurioola, Lin, Scolopax, 867. 
ratherfurdi, S^nh. Spilornia, 39 ier, 
Batioilla aurorea, Fall,, 600. 
— — „ — enraleoeephala, Vig.f 604. 

„ — erythrogaatra, Guld,, 499. 

„ — erytltronota, Evertm., 498 bit. 

„~ erythroproota, Gould. , 497 bit. 

„ — fruntalia, Vig., 603. 

— — „ — hodgaoiii, Moore,, 498. 

«— „- — meaoleuca, Semp. 4* ISbr., 497 ier. 

„ — nigroeularia, Hodgtin Moore. ^ 602. 

— — „ — phoBuioiira, Lin., 496. 

„- — phoBnioiiroid«a, Moore., 406. 

„ — rufif entria, Vieill., 497. 

— ~y,— achiatioepa, Eodgt., 801. 
rutila, FaU. Caaaroa, 964. 
rutila, FaU. Euapua, 722 bit. 



Saobb, ^aa. Faleo, 10. 
aaora, Gm. Demiegretta, 928 bit. 
aagittataa, Oatt. Soopa, 74 nov. 
Sidpomia apilonota, Frankl., 246. 
aanguinea, Gould. Srjtiiroapiza, 732 ttr. 



19 



/ 



146 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



sanguinipectus, Wald, ^thoprgn, 231 bit. 
saniiio, Stoinh, Garruinx, 409 quint. 
tapphira, Tick. Muscicapula, 312. 
Sarcidioriiis melanonotns, Penn.^ 950. 
Saroglosaa spiloptern, Tr^., 691. 
Saflia ocbrncea, Hodga.^ 187. 
■alurata, Hodga. JSthopjga, 231 . 
saturata, Big. C^rchneis, 17 hia. 
saturata, Wcdd. Linptila, 613 hia. 
saturatior, Hume., Halcjnn, 129 bia. 
Baryrii, Lin. Ceriornii, 805. 
saiilaru, Lin Copsjchui, 476. 
saundeni, Hume. Sterna, 988 ter. 
Baxntilis. Lin. Montioola, 351 ier. 
Saxicola alboniger, Hume.t 489 6if. 

„ de«erti, RUpp. , 492. 

„ — hendersoni, Mume., 492 bia. 

1» isabelliniis, Jliipp., 491. 

— -„ kingi, Hume , 491 bia. 

„ leucomelas, Fall. , 490 ter. 

— -„— • uonnchiiB, Supp., 490 bia, 

— „ morio. Hemp. ^ JShr., 490. 

„ opistholeiifug, Striekl,, 488. 

„ picatus. J?ty., 489. 

Bcaiidiaca, Lin. Njctea, 68 bia. 
■oIiistaceuB, Hodga. Henicurus, 586. 
ichisticeps, Hodaa. Abrornis, 571. 
fchisticeps, Hodga, Paleomis, 150. 
soliisticeps, Hodga. Pomatorliinui, 402. 
scbistirepn, Hodga. ButioillH, 501. 
Sohoenii'ula afBnis, Hodga. ^ 619. 

brunneipectus, Big., 619 bia. 

-„ cjaiiocarpus, Hume., 519 ^er. 

•„ flaviventriny Hodga., 524. 

-„ fortipcB, Hodga,, 526. 

•„ major, Brooka,, 619 quat, 

pUtyurufl, Jerd., 442. 
EchoBnicIus, Lin. Emberiza, 720 ter. 
schwarzi, Radde. FhyUosoopus, 556 ter, 
selateri, Jerd, Lopliophorui, 804 bia. 
Bcolopaxy /. O. Om. (EdionemuB, 859, 
Soolopas nistioola, Lin., 867. 
Scops bakkamuna, Forat,, 75 ier. 
— „ — balli, Hume., 74 oet, 
— „ — brucii; Hume,, 74 tept. 
— „— gymnopodoB, O, R. Or,, 74 ier A. 
— „ — iempiji, Horaf,, 76 quint, 
— „ — leitia, Hodga., 75. 
— „ — inalabariout, Jerd,, 76 qucd. 
— „— maiayanusi Lag., 74 aew, 
— ,t — miiiutuf, Legge,, 74 G, 
— „— iiiodesttti, Wald., 74 quini, 
'—„ — nicobariouB, Hume., 74 qu€ti, 
— >» — penutttu*, Hodga,, 74. 
— II — plumipes, Hume, 76 bia, 
— „ — rufipennit, Sharpe,, 74 B. 
— „ — BagitUtuB, Caae., 74 nov. 
— ,9 — BpilooephaluB, Big,, 74 ter. 
— „•— BtiotonotUB, Sharpe., 74i A. 
— „ — Bonia, Hodga,, 74 Ua, 
Scotocerca inquieta, RUpp,, 660 hia. 
Boouleri* T'ig, HenicuruB, 687. 
Boatulata, 8, Matt, Caaarca, 956. 
Boatulata, Raffl. Ninoz, 81 hie. 
■eebohmi, Hume. FhjUoBoopuB, 668 ier. 
BBena, Sghea, Sterna, 985. 



segetum, Qm. AnBer, 946 hia. 

seharie, Tiek. ^thopyga, 226. 

Beloputo, Horaf. Syminm, 65 Hi. 

Beinilar7atu», Salvad. Melaniparufl, 649 hia, 

semipalmataf, Jerd. PBeadoBColopaz, 874. 

Beinittriata, Hume. Amadina, 701 quai, 

BeneealenBii, Lin. Turtur, 794. 

senegiilliis, Om. Pterocles, 801 hie. 

Benex, Tern. Sturnia, 689 quint. 

Serilophus lanntut, OiUd., 139 bia. 

Serilophiis rubropygioB, Hodga, 189. 

BeycruB, Horaf. "Fileo, 14. 

Bhorii. ng. l^ga, 183. 

Biamentifl, Swinh. AcridotbereB, 686 quai. 

•iamensis, Big. ZostaropB, 631 quat. 

Si Hilt picanid«*B, Hodga,, 430. 

Bibiri(*a, Dreaa. Limicoia, 886 bia, 

Bihiriciif, Qm. Hemichelidon, 296. 

sibirioiiB. Fall, Turdus, 369 quat, 

Biinile, Hume. Trochalopterum, 418 hia. 

Biinili*, Jerd. Agrodroma, 603. 

timillima, Jerd. Merula, 260. 

iiiDplex, S. Mull. Anthreptea. 288 quai, 

BMiiplex, Swinh. ZoBteropB, 631 B, 

Bind inn uB, Qould. Picas. 158. 

BingnletisiB, Gm. Chalooparia, 233 ae». 

BinensiB, Om. Ardetta, 934. 

Binensis, J. E. Or. Gotyle, 89. 

Bii)eu»i8, Om. Pyotoris, 385. 

sinensis, Om. Sterna, 988 hia. 

sinensis, Gm. Stumia, 688 ter, 

sipahi, Hodga. Hemat-osniza, 735. 

Siphia erythaoa, Bfy. f Jerd., 322. 

— „ — leupomelanura, Hodga., 320. 

— „ — minuta, Hume., 318 hia. 

— „ — strophinta, Hodga. ^ 319. 

•~^„ — Bupercilinris, Big., 321. 

^-„ — rrioolor, Hodga., 318. 

sirkee, J. E. Or. Taccocna, 220. 

Sitta cathmerensis, Brooka., 248 hia. 

— ,,- castaneiventrii. lyamkl., 250 

— „- cinnamomeiventriB, Blg-t 251. 

— „- formosa, Big., 252. 

— ,,-himalayensis, Jard. and Selh., 248. 

— „- leiicopsis, Gould., 249. 

— „- magna, W.-Rama., 248 quat. 

— .,- iiagaensis, O 'Auet., 248 ter, 

— n- neglecta, Wald., 250 bia. 

— „- neiimayeri, Mich., 248 quint, 

Siya oaBtaueicaudn, Hume., 616 hia, 

— „- cyanuroptera, Hodga,, 617. 

— „~ sordida, Hume,, 617 bia. 

— „- strigula, Hodga,, 616. 

BmymeiiBis, Lin. Halcyon, 129. 

social is, Sgkea. Prinia, 534. 

Bolaris, Big. Pericrocotus, 274. 

Bolitaria, Hodga, Q-nllinnco, 869. 

BoliiariuB, P. L. 8. Jlf«^;. CyanociDcIus, 851 bu. 

BoloenBia, Horaf. Astur, 23 ter. 

Bomerrillii, Sgkea, MalaoocercuB, 486. 

Bonnerati, Lath, Cuciilua, 202. 

Bonnerati, Tern. OalloB, 813. 

Bordida, RUpp. Agrodroma, 604. 

Bordida, Stol. Fringillauda, 753 bia. 

iordida, Hume. Siya, 617 bia. 

lordidai Wald, Stoporala, 302 bia. 



INDEX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



147 



sordidu, Gould, Gindni, 849. 
soididns, Ejft Heroioerous, 166 bis A, 
•pidioeas, Om, Qalloperdix, 814 
tptrToroides, Vi^, Hierococojz, 207. 
8i«tula clypeatA, Lin., 957. 
speeiosui, Laih. Pericroootas, 271. 
Sphenocercus apio»adnt, Eodgt,, 779. 

■„ »pheiiani8| Vig,^ 778. 

sphenariit, Vig. Sphenocercuf, 778. 
ipliynZi Hume, LimnaStuB, 34 quat, 
•pilocephaliiB, Bly. Seops, 74 ter. 
ipilogMter, Bly, Spilomit, 39 Hm A, 
■pilonota, FroMhl, Salpornis, 246. 
ipilonotos, B/y. Maehlolophus, 649. 
ipiloptera, Bly. Oreooincla, 372 ter. 
•piloptera, Vig. SarogloBM, 691. 
Spilomis baeha, Vaud,, 89 quint. 
— „ — cheela, Lath., 39. 
— ,,-^ daTifloni, Hume., 89 qttaU 
— „ — elgini, Tgt., 89 mx. 
— „ — melanotis, Jerd., 89 his. 
— ,, — minimus, Hwne,^ 89 sept, 
— „ — rutherfordi, Swinh., 39 ter. 
— „ — ipilogastpr, Sly,, 89 bin A. 
•pinoidet, Viy. Hjpaoantliit, 750. 
spinolettii, Lim. Anthiu, 605 ter. 
8pix»Uuda deTa, Sykes., 765. 
-*-„^— malabanca, Seop., 765 his. 
Spiiixui canifroiit, Bly., 453 his. 
•plfndent, Vieill,, Corviu, 663. 
ipodiopyiriii, Feale, CoUooalia, 103 qnat. 
ipodooephala, Pall. Emberisn, 717. 
•quftmata, Gould, Fnoeprga, 329. 
•quaauktuio, Oould. Trochiilopterum, 420. 
■qummatus, Vig. Gecinus, 170. 
iquimieepty Swinh, Urosphena, 522 ter. 
Sqnatorola hclvt^tica, Lin., 844. 
Stachjrii Mtimilis, JFald., 394 his. 

„ — chrjBen, Rodgs,, 394. 

„-^ nigricrps, Hodgs., 391. 

„ — pyrrhops, Hod^s., 392. 

„ — rnfioepB, Bly., 393. 

„ — rufifrons, Hume,, 393 his. 

ttagfwtilif, Bechst. Totanus, 895. 
SUphidaa caitaneiceps, Moore., 624 his. 

- haiuilisf Sums., 625 his. 

- plumbeioepe, 0,'Aust., 624 ter. 

- nifigenii, Hume., 625 ter. 

»*— 8triwt<i, Bly., 625. 

•telltrit, Lin. Botaorus, 936. 

steliAiiu, Oould. Brachypteryx, 838 ter. 

slenorliynohus, 0,'Aust. FomatorhiniiSf 401 

quint. 
lUntoriut, Hemp. ^ £kr. Aorooeplialiif, 615. 
Bteroonrios asiaticut, Hume., 977 ter, 

„ poDmrmus, Tern., 977 his. 

Stoma albigena, Lieht., 987 his> 
— »,— anaeilietii, Scop., 992. 
^„ — angUcai Mont., 988. 
— ,, — bergii, Lieht., QBd. 
— „— caiitUca, Om., 990 his. 
— „— caapia, Pall, 982. 
— ,1— dougalli, Mont., 985 his, 
— „— fluTiatilia, Ifaum., 986. 
— »i— fuliginofa, <?m.,992 his. 
'^u-^ goiddiy Hume., 988 quat. 



n 



>i 



Sterna longipennif, Nordm., 986 his, 

— „ — media, Horsf., 990. 

— ,, — melanogftttra, Tsm., 987. 

— „ — minuta, Lin., 988. 

— ,, — saundersi, Hume,, 988 ter. 

— „ — Beena, iSykes,, 985. 

— ,, — Binensis, Om., 988 his, 

— „ — BUinatrnna, i2q^., 991. 

Bt«warti, Bly,, Emberiza, 718. 

Btewarti, 2?/y., Frinia, 535. 

Btlienuru, Kuhl., Gallinngo, 870. 

BrirtoiiotuB, Sharps,, Soopa, 74 A. 

BroliczkiB, Brooks. Certhia, 244 his. 

BroliduB, Lin, Anout, 993. 

Stoporala albtoaudata, Jerd., 802. 

>» — melanopB, Vig,, 301. 

„ — Bordida, Wdld,, 802 his, 

•tnicheyi, Moore. Emberiza, 714 
BtreperuB, Lin, OhaulelaBmuB, 961. 
Btrppitans, Tick. Qarrulaz, 408 his, 
StrepBilaa interpres, Lin,, 860. 
Btrinta, Lin. Amadina, 701. 
Btriata, Lin. Geopelia, 797 ter. 
Btriata, Vig, Q-rammatoptila, 882. 
Btriata, Lin. Hjpotnnidia, 913. 
Btriata, Bly, Staphiden, 625. 
BtriatuluB, Hume. BlanfordiuB, 649 ^nt, 
■triatuB, Bly., AlcuruB, 449. 
BtriafuB, Jerd., ChflBtomiB, 441. 
BtriatuB, Drop., Ououlua, 200. 
BtriatiiB, 8u)s. MnlacocercuB, 432 his, 
Btricklandi, Lay, OhryBocolaptee, 166 ter. 
Btrigulo, Hodgs. Siva, 616. 
Btriolata, Bip. Corydalla, 601. 
Btriolata, Lieht, Emberiza, 720 his. 
BtriolatuB, Bly; GeoinuB, 171. 
Striz Candida, Tick., 61. 
— „— deroepBtorffi, Hume., 60 his, 
— I, — JBTanioa, Om., 60. 
Btrophiiita, Hodgs. Siphia, 819. 
BtropbiatuB, Hodgs,, Accentor, 654. 
Btrutbeni, Vig, Ibidorhyncha, 879. 
Sturnia andamanenais, Tyt., 689 ter, 
— „ — blythi, Jerd,, 689. 
— „ — burmanica, Jerd., 689 his, 
— „ — erythropygia, Bly., 689 quat, 
— „ — malabarica, Om., 688. 
— „ — nemorioola, Jsrd,, 688 hit, 
— „ — pagodamm, Om., 687. 
— , — aenez, Tem,, 689 quint, 
— », — BinenaiBy Om., 688 ter. 
— » — atnmina, Fall., 689 sex» 
Btarnina, Pcdl., Sturnia, 689 sex. 
Sturnopaator contra, Lin., 683. 

M fluperciliaria, Bly,^ 683 his, 

StumuB minor, Hume,, 681 his, 
— „ — nitens, Hume,, 682. 
— „ — vulgaria, Lin,, 681, 
BubarqaaU, CHUd. Tringa, 882. 
Bubbuteo, Lin. Faloo., 13. 
Bubcsrulatus, Hume. Qarrnlaz, 408 A, 
Bubfurcatus, Bh. CypselluB, 100 his. 
Bubhimachala, Hodgs, Fropyrrbula, 736. 
Bubmoniliger, Hume. Anthipes, 317 his. 
Bubochraoeum, Qwinh. FellorneiUDi 899 ux, 
lubrufa, Jerd, Layardia; 437. 



148 



IKDEX TO THB LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



■ubrufioollif, Bh, Shytteeros, 146 ter^ 

•ubfloocata, Hodgt, Cotjle, 88. 

BubBtriolata, Sum§, Hirundo, 85 quat, 

•ubandulatn, G,'AuH. AmAdina. 699 bis, 

•abanicolor, Hodgt. Troohalopterum, 417. 

■iibnridiB, Brooks, Beguloidet, 666 bit, 

•ueoicA, Lin, Oynneoala, 614. 

Bula aottraliB, Sispk., 998. 

— „- tjhnopB, 8uud., 999 bit. 

—yf- piMStor, Lin.f 999. 

■aitanea, Hodgt, Helanochlora, 650. 

•ultaneuf, Hodgs, Chryiocolaptea, 166. 

■umatrana, B<iffi, Ardea, 922 bit, 

■nmatrann, Rcffl. Sterna, 991. 

■nmatranQB, Uaffi. Corydon, 139 ttx, 

■umatranus, Rojil. Bhopodjt«B, 216 ter, 

aumatransiB, Lqfr. Baiai 58 bit. 

Bundara, J7o<l7#. Niltava,314. 

iunia, Hodfft, Soopa, 74 bit, 

iuperoiliaria» Tick. Abromia, 574. 

Buparciliarii, Jtrd. LarTivora, 607. 

Bnperoiliarif, Jtrd, HuBcioapuU, 810. 

BuperoilitriB, Bljf. Sipbia, 821. 

BuperoiliariB, JB/jf. StumopaBtor, 688 bit, 

Buporciliaria, Andtrt, Suya, 647 bit. 

aaparoiliariB, Hodgt. Taraiger, 510. 

BoperoiliAriBy JB/y. Xiphoramphui, 406. 

•uperoilioBa, J. E, Or, OphryaU, 827 bit, 

■aperoiltoBUB, Om, Bagaloidea, 666. 

aoperoilioBUB, Lath, Laniua, 216 A» 

■nparatriata, Sumt, Amadina, 699 ttr, 

anratenBiB. Om, Turtur, 795. 

SarniotduilttgubriB, Sortf,t 21^0. 

Suthora f ol? ifrona, Sodgt,^ 880. 

— — y, — manipuraDBiB, O.'Autt,, 880 bit, 

— „— nipalenBia, Hbdgt,^ 878. 

—-♦I — poliotia, B/y., 879. 

BUtorioB, Fbrtt, Ortbotomua, 530. 

Buja atrigularis, Moort,, 549. 

— „- oiioigera, Rodgt.^ 547. 

•— „- eiytluopleura, Wtdd,^ 549 qmat, 

— „- fuliginoaa, Sodgt,, 548. 

•— ,,- gangetioa, Jtrd,, 549 ttr, 

— ^y,- kbaaiana, O.-Amtt,, 649 bis, 

— „- Buperoiliaria, Andtrt., 647 bit, 

iwinhoii, Smmt, Maropa, 119. 

ajkesi, Siriekl, Yolrooifora, 268. 

ayhana, Hodgt, Hetanira, 696. 

BjlTatioa, Titk. CbBDtnra, 95. 

SjItU ai&niB, JB/v., 582. 

— „— altboa, Sumt,^ 582 itr, 

— ,, — oarraoa, Xta., 683. 

— ff — jardoni, Bly,, 581. 

— f, — minuacula, Hume., 582 bit, 

— „ — nana, Htmp, f JEhr,, 683 bit, 

— ,,— nifa, Bodd., 682 qitat. 

•jlrioola, Jtrd, TepbrodomiB, 264. 

SjlTipanu modaatuBi Burt., 682. 

Bjlratica, Jtrd, DrymoBca, 645. 

S jpheotidaB auHta, Lath,, 889. 

STpbeotif bengalenaiB, P. Z. S. WiU, 838. 

Byrnium indranee, S^fhtt,, 63. 

— — ^ — nawarenBe, Hodgt,, 64. 

— — ,, — nifiooliun, Eodfft., 66b 

— „ — ocellatomi Zttt., 65. 

— »), — lelopoto, Sortf,, 65 bit* 



SyrrhapteB tibeUniia, Ooutd., 802 bit. 



Taccocua affinia, Bfy, 222. 
— „• — infuBcata, Bly., 221. 
— -f,— leBchenaulti, Lett,, 219. 
— .. — airkae, J, E, Or., 220. 
Tadorna cornuta, S, O. Om,, 966. 
tnigoor, Syktt. Turniz, 832. 
TanraluB leuoooephalits, Forti., 938. 
tarda, Lin. OtiB, 886 bit. 
TarBiger chryaeaB, Hodgt,, 511. 
— „ — aaperciliariB, Bodgt., 610. 
teesa, Frankl. Butaatur, 48. 
temmiiicki, Vig. Mjiophoneua. 343. 
teuimincki, Ltitl. Tringa, 885. 
tenellipt^B, Swinh. PliylloBOopua, 666 quai, 
tenuirostria, Ttm. Anoua, 994. 
tenttiroatria, Hodgt. Chrpa, 4 ttr. 
tenuiroatrit, Bly, Oriolua, 471 Ur. 
toplirocephala, And$rt. Crjprolophai 669 bit. 
TephrodomiB affinia, Bljf., 266 bit. 

„ pelf ica, Hodgt,, 268. 

— — ,,— pondioerianuB, Om., 266. 

„— Bjlvicola, Jtrd,, 264. 
tephronotuB, Vig. Laniua, 258. 
terat, Bodd. Lalage, 269 ter, 
Terekia oinerea. Quid., 876. 
terrioolor, Hodgt, Alieonax, 298. 
terricolor, Hodgt, Halacooeroua, 438. 
ToBJa cnBtaneoooronata, Burt., 327. 
— If — oyaniventrif, Hodgt., 328. 
TetraogaUua himalayenaia, O. R. Or,, 816. 

' ft tib«tanuB, Otmld,, 816 bit. 

tetraz, lAn, Otia, 836 ter. 
Tbamnobia oambaieiiBiB, LaiK, 480. 

— „ folioata, Lin., 4!J9, 

TbamnoeataphuBjpioatUB, Tick., 883. 
thoraciooB, Ttm. PrionocbiluB, 240 ttpU 
threnodea, Cab. Caoomantta, 209. 
Tbriponax crawfurdi, /. B. Or., 169 far. 

- bodgii, Big., 169 hit, 

- bodgaoni, Jtrd.^ 169. 

- jaTenaia, Hortf,, 169 quat, 
thura, Bp, rropaater, 740. . 
tibetana, Humt. Cbryaoinitrb, 750 bit, 
tibetanum, Hodgt. CroBBoprilum, 808 tepi. 
tibetanum, Om, Poljplectrum, 808 quai. 
tibetanuB, Hodgt, Oorrua, 658. 
tibetanuB, Oould, fiyrrbaptea, 802 hit, 
iibeUnua, Oouid. Tetraogallua, 816 5m. 
tickeUi, Big. Anorrhinua, 144 bit, 
tickelli, Big. ^ornia, 306. 
tiokelli, Big. Hypaipetea, 447 hit. 
tiokelli, Humt. Orthorbiniia, 405 qmai, 
tiokeUi, Big. Pelloraeum, 399 ttr. 
Tickellia bodgBoni, Moort,, 679. 
Ticbodroma muraria, Lin., 247. 
Tiga JATanenaia, I^nng., 184. 
— „- rabropygialii, Math,, 185. 
— ,,- Bborii, Vig., 183. 
tigriouB, Ttm. Turtur, 795 hit, 
Timalia bengalenaia, O.-Autt , 896. 
tinnunoulua, Lin. Cercbneif, 17. 
tipbia, Lin. lora, 468. 



•if' 



mOKX TO THK UST OV TEX BIBDS OV DTDIA. 



149 



Toekn gingftlemif, Skam., 145 hU. 
— -„— griteui, L&ik., 145. 
torqtutus, Mnme. OampsorhTiiolias, 384 hit. 
torquAtus, Bodd. Faleomis, 148. 
torqueolm, V&iene. Arborioola, 884. 
toiquills, X<|k Tunz, 18a 
torn, B.-Ram. HerodiBs, 925. 
toningtoni, Xel, Fttlombus, 786 hu. 
ToUnns calidris, Zf»., 897. 
— -„ — futniB, Xin., 896. 
— ff — gloitiB, Lin., 894. 
-— „ — ochropuB, Lin., 892. 
— „ — itagimtilUs, Bechst., 895. 
Tracbjoomus ochrocenhalui, Gm. 449 5i«. 
tniQi, Viff. Oriolus, 474. 
trtnquebttrious, Herm. Tartar, 797. 
Treron nipalnitU, Hodgt,^ 771. 
triboriijncha, Hodgt. Alaada, 767 ter, 
Tribora arjthrogenyg, Hume, 522 bU, 
— ,, — luteoTentrU, Hodge , 622. 
Trichattoma nbbotti. Big., 387. 

— — „ lenroproctiim, Titeed,, 887 quai. 

„ minuB, Sufi*ef 387 Wt . 

j,"^-^ rubiginoBum, Wold., 387 ier, 

Tricfaolesf es ormiger, Htig , 451 msv. 

tricolor, Hume, €i«ocichla, 355 ^aL 

tricolor, Hodge. Siphim, 318. 

tridaeiyiuB, Ball. Cejx, 133. 

trigonoBtigma, Seop. DietBum, 236 He, 

Tringa alboBceng, Tem., 884 ier. 

— fi— aipina, Xia., 883. 

— n — oanatOB, Lim., 881. 

— „— craBBiroBtria, Tem, ^ SehL, 881 hie, 

— ,, — minura, Leiel, 884. 

— „— rafiooUiB, FaU,, 884 hie, 

— „— Babarqoate, Guld. , 882. 

— '„ — teminiiicki, ZeieL, 885. 

TringoideB hjpoleiicus, Liu., 893. 

triBtiB, Liu, AcridothereB, 684. 

trbtiB, Bfy. Criniger, 451 quiui. 

triftiB, Soref, MigWpteB, 165 ier. 

trifltiB, Big, PhylloBoopuB, 654. 

tristiB, Leee. Rliopod/iteB, 215. 

tnTialiB, Lim, AnthuB, 597. 

triTirgatoa, 2Vm. Astar, 22. 

Troduloptenim affine, Hodge., 419. 

aosteni, Jerd.^ 417 hie, 

cachiimaiiB, Jerd,, 423. 

chryBopterum, Ootdd,, 416. 

cinenioeuin, 0.»Auet, 418 ter. 

erjibrocepbalum, Vtg., 415. 

fairbanki, Blanf., 423 hie, 

• imbricatom, Hodge,, 426. 
jerdoni, Big., 424. 
lineatum, Vig., 423. 

' melanoBtigma, Big,, 415 ter, 
pboBniceum, Oould., 422. 

• ruficapillom. Big., 415 hie, 
' rafii;ulare, Gouid., 42L 

Bimile, Sume., 418 hie. 

Bquamatum, Oould., 420. 

Bubunicolor, Hodge., 417. 

yariegatom, Vig,, 418. 

rirgatam, O.-Auet., 425 &»«• 
troehiloideB, ^nd., RegnloideB, 564. 
irocbiluBj Lin. PbjlloicopuB, 557. 






ft 



-» 



M 

•»t' 



»» 



■it' 



Troglodytet negleetoB, Brooke,, 333 M#. 
-^-„ — nipalenBiB, BTodge., 333. 

M-"— punotatui, J?fjf., 334 

takki, Leee, Miglyptei, 16*5 quini. 
turcomannB, Mverem. Babo, 68 quat. 
Tardinalaa roberti, O.-Auet. ^ Wold., 332 ier, 
TurdinuB breTieaudstaB, Big,, 390 quini. 

— t, oriBpifronB, BJ^., 890 quai. 

— n — garoenaiB, O.-Auet., 390 eept. 

>» gutUtUB. Tick., 390 ees. 

TurduIaB wardi, Jerd,, 857. 
TardiiB atroguUriB, Tem,. 365. 
— „— dobiuB, Beekei., 366. 
— „ — iliaeuB, Xta., 369. 
— „ — obBouruB, 0111., 369 hie. 
— „— palliduB, Om., 369 ier, 
— „ — pilariB, JUn . 367. 
— „— riificolliB, Pdll., 364. 
— „ — sibBriooB, FM., 869 quai. 
— „ — TiBciToroB, Lin, 868. 
Turniz albirentriB, Hume., 83'! ter, 
— ,, — doBBumiBri, Tem,, 835. 
— , , — joodera, Hodgt. , 834. 
— M — niaouloBa, Teu^, 834 He. 
— „— plumbipoB, Hodge., 833. 
— „— taigoor, Sghee., 838. 
Tartar hamiiiB, Tem., 797 hie. 
— „ — meena, Sghee., 783. 
— „— pulohrataB, Hodge.^ 792. 
— „ — riBorioB, lAm., 796. 
— }i— ' BenegalanBia, Xts.« 794. 
— „ — Buratonsis, Om., 796. 
~^»i— " tigrinuB, Tem., 706 bie, 
— „ — tranqaebariooB, Herm., 797. 
taBalia, Hodge. Macropjgia, 791. 
tytleri, Hume. Calomu, 690 tor. 
tjtleri, Big. Ciaticola, 541. 
tjtleri, Jerd, Hirando, 88 ter. 
tytleri, Bea^, HypothymiB, 290 &•#. 
tjtleri, Hume, PalaBornia, 152 ter. 
tytlari, Brooke. FfayUoaoopOB, 660 



Umbbdots, Hedenb. Oorrw, 600 hie. 
andaiatuB, Shaeo. Rhj^tioaroB, 146 hie, 
anioolor, Jerd. OoUoadia, lOB, 
onicolor, Big. CjomiB, 808. 
anioolor, Tiek, Geooiebla, 856. 
anirolor, Hodge, Heteromorpha, 376* 
onwini, Hume, CaprimulgaB, 111 hie, 
IJpapa oeylonenBifl, Beieh., 255. 

,, — epopB, Lin,, 254. 

- — „ — longiroBtriB, Jerd,, 254 iat. 
urbioa, Lin. Chelidon, 92. 
urinatriz, Lath. PeleeanoideB, 977. 
UrooiBsa flaviroBtrlB, Big., 672. 

., magniroBtriB, Big., 671 hie. 

„ oocipitalia. Big,, €71. 

UroBphena BqaaailoepB, Swink., 528 ter. 



Yalida, Big, DrymoBoa, 645 ier, 
VanellaB TalgariB, Beehei., 861. 
Tariana, Lath. Crjpairbina, 678 quai, 
Tariogatam, Vig. Troobalopteram, 418. 
rarittBi Vahl. Hiarococcjz, 203. 



150 



INDSX TO THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 



Talatam, Tm. Philentoma, 289 ier* 
rentralis, (^, Hoploptenis, 857. 
T«redu8, Govld. Eudiomiiia, 845 <er. 
Temalis, Sparrm, Lorionlaf, 153. 
TenDBziB, Zin, Osmoireron, 77A bit. 
Tespertinay Lin. Cerohnab, 19. 
vidua, ffartl. YolTooiron, 268 qmni, 
TieiUoti, O, JB. Or. Euplooftmut, 811 quint, 
yigjltFortt Bhinopho, 146 g^t*^. 
▼igoni, Syket. ^thopjga, 226. 
Tillolei, Audomn. Ghettnsia, 863. 
Tinoens, Solai. PrioDOchiluB, 240 ter» 
▼indhiana, Firankl. Aqnila, 29. 
TinipeotuB, Hodgt. Proparus, 622. 
Tirens, Bodd. Megaliema, 191 bit. 
▼iresoexu, Hume. Dioasum, 237 bit. 
Tirgatnm, O.-AuH, Trooholopterum, 425 Hi. 
TirgatuB, JSetmo. Aocipiter, 25. 
TUj^o, Lin. Anthropoides, 866. 
▼indanuB, BUf. PhylloBcopUB, 660. 
TirideBcenBi Bly. lole, 452 dee. 
TiridifronB, Bly. CrooopuB, 773 bit. 
TiridipenniB, Bly. BeguloideB, 567. 
TiridirosriB, iTM. BhopodytoB, 216. 
yiridiB, Biffl. Calyptomena, 137 bit* 
TiridiB, Sodgs. Ooohoa, 608. 
Yiridis, Bly. GboinuluB, 177 bit, 
TiridiB, Bodd. Megalnma, 194. 
TiridiB, X»M. MeropB, 117. 
TiridiBBima, Tern. lora, 468 ter, 
TifoiyoruB, lAn. TarduB, 368. 
▼ittatuB, VieiU. GheoinuB, 171 bit* 
TittatuB, Valene. Lanioi, 260. 
Yivia innominata, Bmrt.t 186. 
TifiduB, Swinh. OyorniB, 309 bit. 
YoWooiYora arensiB, Bly., 268 bit. 

culminata, Mc^.^ 268 ier. 

intermedia, Hume., 269 bit. 

melaimra, HtMrfL, 269 bit A. 

melasohiBta, Hodgt., 269. 

negleota, Sume.^ 268 qnat. 

Bjkesi, StriekLj 268. 

Tidna, Hartl, 268 qmnt. 
yvlgtaJM, L&Mek. Buteo, 44. 
Tulgaris, Fall. OoooothraiuteB, 728 bit. 
TulgariB, 6teph. FranooUnuB, 818. 
TulgariB, Ltaeh. Merula, 859 bit. 
TolgariB, Lim. SturnoB, 681. 
▼ulgariB, Btoktt, YanelluB, 851. 
Ynltnr monachusi Xm., 1. . 



n 
"ff" 
"w' 



n 



■|» 



Waldxki, G.'Autt. Aotinodara, 427 Ht. 
walliohi, ffardw. PhaBianiu, 809. 
wardi, Jerd. TarduloB, 357. 
wastarinaQni, Bly. Picas, 157 quini. 
whitleji, Bly. Glaucidium, 79 bit. 
wolfii, Brehm. Ojaneoula, 514 bit. 



XiiTTHOCHLOBis, Sodfft. AUotrioB, 611 ter. 
lanthogenjB. Vig. MaohlolophoB, 647. 
XantbolflBinaberoaoephalB, P. L. 8. Mill., 197. 
malabarica, Bly.^ 196. 
rubricapilla, Gm., 198 



>» 



»» 



zantholsmuB, Jerd. Iziib, 453. 
zantholeuoiu, Modyt. HerporniB, 630. 
xanthonotUB, Bly, Indicator, 190. 
zanthonotos, Sortf. OrioloB, 478 bit. 
lanthorhynchuB, ffortf. CliryBoooocyr, 211 bit. 
xanthoBohistus, Eodyt. AbromiB, 572. 
XenorhynohuB aBiatictts, Lath., 917. 
XiphoramphoB BupercilianB, Bly,, 406. 



YannrA gulariB, Bodgt., 626. 
— n — nigrimentum, Hodgt,, 628. 
— „ — ocoipitaliB, Hodgt.f 627. 
Yungipicua canicapilloB, Bly,, 163 big. 

„ gjmnoptlialiDU% Bly., 164 Ht. 

M nanuB, Vig., 164. 

»»— — pygmsBUfl, Vig,, 163. 

•I—— rubricatua, Bly., 162. 



)i 



Yunz indioa, Oould , 189. 
— „— torquilla, Xw., 188. 



Zanolostouus jaraniouB, Hortf., 216 quint. 
seylanioa, Qm. Megaladtna, 193 ier. 
seylonica, Xta. Ginnyria, 232. 
seyionioa, Qm. lora, 467. 
Zoothera marginata, Bly. 350 bit. 
— -„ — monticola, Vig., 350. 
ZostezopB auBteni, JFald., 631 quini. 

1* oeylonenaie, Eoldtw., 631 bit. 

— -„ lateralis, Tern., 631 A. 

n nioobarienaifl, Bly., 681 Ur. 

— — H— palpebroaa, Tern., 631. 

„ BiamenBiB, Bly., 631 qualt. 

~-»»"— fimplezi 8winh.^ 681 B. 



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Contents. 



ElBMBKTABT SkBTOH of the OsTBOLOGT 07 B1BD89 ^^ 

four plates, by B. Lydekker, B. A., Geological Surrey 
oflndia ... ■•• ... ... ••• 1 

A FiBST Tektatiye List of tee Bibbs of the westbbit 

HALF OF THE MaLIT FeNHTSULA ... ... ... 37 

BBOETfTTLY-DESCBrBBD SPBOIES ... ... ... 72 

A BoxTGH Tentative List of the Bibds of Liydia ... 73 

IlTDEX to the list OF THE BiBBS OF LSTDIA •• »•• 123 



LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA; 

Corrected up to March Ist, 1879. With references to the places in 
^'Jerdon** and "Stray Feathers" at which each spedes is discusBcd, 
discriminated or described. With Introduction, Index to authorities, and 
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mission by post, with Postage ... ... ••• » ^ ^^ 

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J>1^ 



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Vol. VIII. \ 



i N08.2—6. 



•y% ry» 



sTRitr 



^%tm^g 



A JOURNAL OF 



FOR INDIA AND 



ITS DEPENDENCIES 



EDITED BY 

ALLAN HUME 
1879. 



(RultUtiK 



'^<r 



Alft) PUBLISHBO BY A ACTON, CALCUTTA CBNTKAL PSBSS COMPANY, LUIITBO. 



N 



THE CENTRAL PEE8S COMPANY, 6, COUNCIL HOtTSJS STBEKT, CAXCUTTA. 

THE INDIAN ORNITHOLOGICAL COIil^ECTOR'S V-ADE- 
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ing, preserving, packing, and keeping specimens of birds, eggs, 
nestSi feathers, and skeletons, bj Allan 'ELtjis^e. 

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bj Allan Huhb. 
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VoL Vin. OCTOBER 1879.1 Nob. 2-6. 



Wit ^tr^8 4 th MtsUrn latjf 9jf i\u lltstsg leninstik 



Seookd Notice. 



In my first tentative list of the birds of the western half 
of the Malay Peninsula I enumerated 408 species ; we have 
now to add 47 other species, which undoubtedly occur in the 
Malay Peninsula, making a total of 455 species. 

Out of the birds formerly enumerated, I considered the 
occurrence of 20, or their validity as species, doubtful. One of 
these, Euptilosus euptilosus^ I now unhesitating^ly identify with 
Criniger irUtis already entered. Thus reducing the total to 
454, and the number of doubtful birds to 19. 

Of these latter we have procured one, Dusura epiaeopa, 
and one AccipUer siwensoni ought not to have been entered as 
doubtful^ so that our list stands now at 437 species, the occur- 
rence of which we, pro tern, accept, plus 17 of which we are 
doubtful. 

We had formerly ourselves collected specimens of 301 species 
(erroneously printed 302, ante p. 42). We have now collected 
specimens of 27 more of the species entered in our first list, 
and 44 out of the 47 species that we are now adding to the list, 
making a total of 372 species, of which we have actually pro- 
cured specimens against a total of 487 that we admit. 

Out of the 437 species there are only 119 that do not, so far 
as we know, occur within the Indian Empire elsewhere than in 
the Malay Peninsula, and even out of these there are a few, 
like Sphenocercua oxyurm and 8. korthaUi^ of whioh, though I 
liave not entered them as doubtful, I yet think the occurrence 
in the Malay Peninsula needs verification. Specimens may, 
doubtless, have been sent from Malacca, but as we now well 
know, in former times especially, many birds were brought from 
Sumatra and other Islands to Malacca and Singapore, and sent 
ibence intermingled with local oollectiona without any tickets 
JOT anything in fact to indicate that they had not been locally 
procured. I may here mention that, though we have two 



152 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

specimens of Anthreptes rhodolama, one from Malacca and one 
from Singapore, I find that both were purchased, and as none 
of onr people have since come across the species anywhere, I 
begin to doubt whether these also may not have been imported 
specimens. 

I will now give one list of the 47 species which have to be 
added to our first list^ and another of the 27 species included 
in the first list, and of which we had then obtained no specimens^ 
but of which we have since procured these^ and I will add a 
few notes on, and necessary corrections to, the first list. 



Species to be added to the List. 



In this list, as in the previous one, the names of species 
occurring elsewhere within the limits of the Empire are printed 
in italics, while the names of those which are not yet known to 
occur anywhere within our limits, except in the Malay Penin- 
sula, are printed in roman type ; of these it will be seen that 
there are only six in the present list. 

The great majority of the species we have now to add are, it 
will be seen, Indian or Indo-Burmese species, which we have 
obtained in the northern portions only of the Peninsula. 

It is early as yet to attempt any generalization, but we are 
inclined to believe that just as further north a line drawn some 
little way south of Tavoy indicates approximately the southern 
boundary of some, and the northern boundary of a good many 
other species, here a line drawn somewhere to tlie north of 
Keddan near the narrowest portion of the Peninsula indicates 
also the boundaries north and south, respectively, of a good 
number of species. 

^ 22 bia. — Astur n^netue^ MoClelL 

[EoMOQin.] 

Kussoom is in the northern portion of the Malay Peninsula^ 
and the place where this specimen (which is a typical rt^tinetus) 
was shot, is not a hundred miles south of Victoria Point, the 
southernmost point of the main land of Tenasserim. 

* dG.'^Chcstura indiea, Hume. 

[Salang, Tonka Ib.J 

This again was obtained in the north at Salang on the 
Island of Tonka or Junk Ceylon, in 8° N. Lat. Therefore only 
2® south of the southernmost point of the main land of Tenas- 
^rim. 



or THK HALAT PENINSULA. SECOND NOTICE. 153 

* 142,'^- Bydrocista albirostrisy Shaw. 

[Tonka, 69 N. Lai.] 

* 153.— Lorieulus vemalUj Sparrm. 

[Tonka.] 

* 168 6m a. — Tun^ipicus variegaius^ WagL (? T. fuaco^ 
albiduty Salvad. U. di B., 42.) 

[Kkng, so N. Lai] 

In the birds of Tenasserim, pp. 125, 126, 1 doubtfully united 
Tungipicus canicapiUtM, BIytk, which occurs thronp[hout the 
Malayan Peninsula from the extreme north to the extreme 
Boudi, with variegatus, of Latham apiul Wagler (Syst. Av, Oen. 
Pic. Sp. 27, nee Latham). I did this as I explained, because 
this variegatus was said to be common in the Malay Peninsula 
and Sumatra, and because this eanicapillua was the only species 
we had met with or seen from either of these localities ; but I 
said : '^ Is it possible that a second smaller race occurs both in 
Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, and that eanicapillusy a 
distinct and larger race, also extends to both these ?" 

We have now procured a single specimen of this smaller and 
unquestionably distinct race. 

This specimen agrees perfectly with Wagler's description. 
It has no trace of grey whatsoever on the crown^ which, with 
the ground color of the whole of the upper surface (except the 
back of the neck which is darker), is, as Wagler says, '^fuligi- 
no^o-fuscutj^ a regular smoky brown ; whereas the crown of 
eanicapillus is a distinct grey, sometimes browner, sometimes 
whiter, and the ground color of the whole upper surface almost 
black. 

Again of an enormous series no specimen of eanicapUltM has 
the wing less than 3*0 ; only one has it less than 3*1 ; several run 
to 3*3 and one or two exceed this. In the present species 
the wing is barely 2'9, though the specimen is an adult 
male. 

Wallace gives the wing of his tondaieus as 2*88, and I should 
not have doubted that his species was the one that I have 
obtained, were it not that Wallace says that hia sondiaetu is the 
bird figured by Malberbe as molueeensia^ whereas our bird agrees 
perfectly with Malberbe's figure of variegatus^ but is not yellow 
underneath nor nearly so dark above as his figure of his moluO' 
eensie. The true moluccennB^ according to Wallaccj has the wing 
only 2*25. I am, therefore, unable to make certain which 
species Salvadori refers to as molucceneU^ since he unites under 
this both 9ariegatu8j Wagler, of which the latter gives the wing 
at 2' inches 8 lines, of the old Paris foot, equals 3*02 English, 
with moluceeneiSf of which Wallace gives the wing as 2*25, at 



154 THB BIRDS OF THE W18T1RM HALV 

t)ie same time declaring that ibis is perfectly represented bj 
PL EnL 748^ fig. 2, in which the wing is shown as 3*3 1 

The whole thing needs elucidation. All that is oertain is, 
that, first Yunffipieus canicapillus, Bljth, occurs throughout 
Eastern Bengal^ Assam, Pegu, Tenasserim, the Malaj Penin- 
sula, and North-West Sumatra, and that 7. aurantiiventris^ 
Salvadori, (Atti. R. Ac. Sc. Tor., Ill, 524, 1868, and U. di B., 
p. 41, Tav. IV. f. 2) is doubtfully distinct (vide S. P., VL, 600) ; 
that second we have in the Malay Peninsula a second smaller 
species which corresponds absolutely with Wagler's description 
of variegatuBj and Malherbe's picture of this same species (which 
shows the wing as fitr as can be judged as 2*88) ; that third 
this may be fustxhalbidus, and might have been assumed to be 
identical with sondiacusj of Wallace, did it not disagree in color- 
ing with Malberbe's figure of his molueceniiij which Wallace 
himself states to represent his sondiacus ; and, fourth, that 
Wallace's statement that the wing of true moliiccenaia is only 
2*25 requires to be reconciled with Buffon's original figure, in 
which the wing is shown as 8*8. 

* 166 bis. — Chfysocolaptea etrictuSf Hortf. 

[Tonka.] 

In my first list I entered C. eultanetu, Hodgson, doubtfully, 
and remarked that the Malayan bird would probably prove to 
be 0. etrictiM, of Horsfield. 

We have now obtained two specimens, males, clearly I think 
referable to this species. They are fine adults, the wings mea- 
8ure6*15 and 6*3, and the bills at front 1*8 and 1*95, respectively* 
They are clearly too small for mUaneua, in which, in the smallest 
specimens, the wings are not less than 6*7, and which in fine 
adult males, like the present, run up to 7*45. In which the bills 
at front do notj in any adult, fall short of 2*0, and in fine adult 
males run up to 2*45. But these Malayan birds are absolutely 
inseparable from the Southern Indian birds, which in my list 
of the ** Birds of India" (Vol. VIIL, p. 15), I have recorded as 
(7. delesaerii, Malh. This name must now be suppressed, and 
that of strictus^ of Horsfield, substituted. Malberbe himself says 
that he has seen numbers of stricttu sent home by Jerdon from 
Southern India. What bird Malberbe intended to separate 
under his name delesaerti neither his plates nor bis description 
enable one to make sure, but I now believe that the specimens 
he had got hold of must have been the somewhat intermediate 
race which inhabits Bunna^ and which, though running larger 
than strictuSf both of the Malay Peninsula and Southern India^ 
is yet decidedly smaller than the true suUaneus of the Himalayas.. 



OF THB MALAY PBHINflULA. 8B00ND NOTICE. 155 

The dimensions of the three races will be found contrasted| 
S. P., III., 65. 

I have always nnited the Burmese birds with sultaneua, to 
which they are nearer than to the Southern Indian and Malayan 
sirietuB ; but I am pretty well convinced, after carefully re-read- 
ing Malberbe's remarks, that any one who desires to separate 
them must apply to them Malberbe's name delessertu 

I cannot discover that, except in the matter of size, there is 
any permanent and constant difference between the three races, 
though it may be that the Malayan strietus has, on the average, 
a less amount of red on the lower back and rump than the 
Burmese, Himalayan, and even Southern Indian forms. It 
may, therefore, be a question with many whether all should not 
be merged in one species, but the difference in size between 
the true 9uUaneu8 and airicius is so great that for the present 
I prefer to keep them separate* 

* 190 ^.—Indicator malayanus, Sharpe. F. Z, S. 1878, 794. 

[Near KUmg.] 

We procured one specimen, a female, oF this species, which 
I at once recognized as differing by the want of the yellow patch 
on the shoulder of the wing from Temminck's /. arehipelagicua* 
Not feeling sure that the female of this latter might not thus 
differ from the male, I did not describe it as new. Mr. Sharpe, 
however, who has examined a female of arehipelagicuBy procured 
at Bintnlu by Mr. Alfred Everett, assures us that the Malayan 
bird is distinct, and he has named it as above. 

^198 ier. — Megakma eyanotia, Bly. 

[TonkA Ig. and Klang.] 

* 211. — Chryaaeoecyx macuhxtua, Gm^ 

[MalMoa and Klang.1 

♦217 quat. — Centrococeyx intermediuSy Bume. 

[EnMoom and Tonka.] 

It will be observed that we have met with this species only 
quite in the north of the Malay PeninsuU. 

* 254 bia. — Upupa hngiroatria^ Jerd. 

Flkinkalf.] 

* 267. — Bemipua picatua, Sykea. 

[Tonka la. and KuflBoom.1 

* 278. — Buchanya atra, Uerm. 

[Tonka If ] 



156 THE BIRDS OF THS WESTBBN HALT 

These are clearly atra of the albirietus type, witli well marked 
ifhite rictal spots. 

* 280. — Buchanga longicaudata, Bay, 

[Tonka Is.] 

* 280 bis. — Buchanga pyrrhops, Hodgs. 

[Tonka Is.] 

* 296. — Hemvchelidon sibiricuSy Gm. 

[Dingding Is. and KUmg.] 

^ S45 ter. — Pitta megarhynclia^ Scfd. 

[Ettssoom and Tonka Is.] 

* 346 bis. — PUia gurneyi, Hume. 

[Tonka.] 

"^355. — Geocichla cUrina^ Lath. 

[Tonka.] 

* 366 A. — ^Tardus Daumanni^ Tern, 

[Singapore.] 

^ 452 dec. — lole viridescenSj Bly. 

[Tonka.] 

* 457 quat. — Brachypodius cinereiventris, Bly. 

[Tonka.] 

As already noticed, S. F., YL, 319, it is doubtful whether 
this very distinct looking form is specifically distinct. 

* 463 bis. — Phyllornxs chlorocephalus^ Wald. 

[Eossoom and Tonka Is.] 

* 469. — Irena puella, Lath. 

[Eussoom and Tonka la] 

It will be observed that in the more northern portions of tbe 
Peninsula, it is the Indian species that we obtain. 

^ 472. — Oriolus melanocephaluSy Lin. 

[Tonka.] 

* 538 bis. — Prinia beavani, Wald. 

[Elang.] 

* 593 ter ^.— Budytes taivanus, Sioinh. Ibis, 1863, 309; 1866, 
188; 1871,364. 

[Elang.] 

I have compared our birds with a large series of Chinese 
specimens sent me by Mr. Swinlioe^ and there is no doubt that 
the birds are identical. In this Mr. Brooks also concurs. 



or TBI MALAY PENINSULA. SECOND NOTICE. 157 

Although, BO far as I can yet judge, female breeding iaivanns 
will prove difficult to separate from female breeding ctnereoca" 
piUay and the young may be almost inseparable from those of 
other allied species, adult male taivanut is thoroughly distinct 
£rom the other field yellow wagtails^ rayi, cinereocapilla^ flava^ 
and melanocephaloy and still more so from the yellow swamp 
wagtails, eiireola and ealearatus, 

I find by the way that Mr. Swinhoe himself states that 
Gould had a specimen of tliis species from Singapore. 

* 630. — Herpomia aantholeueua, Bodgs. 

[Tonka.] 

* 782. — AUocomus punieetu^ Tick. 

TTonka.] 

* 846. — ^ialiiis geofroyi^ WagL 

[Toaka, Elansf, Singapora.] 

* WO.^^Strepnloi inkrpres, Lin. 

r Jumm, Elang.] 

873. — Rhynchaa bengalensisj Lin, 

Although we ourselves procured no specimens, Lieutenant 
Kelham, of H. M.'s 74th Highlanders, shot it in Perak. 

* 875 il« — Limosa melanuroides, Gould. 

[ICalMoa.] 

This appears to be a very distinct species ; the plumage is no 
doubt very similar, but the difference in size between this and 
any and every specimen of L. agocephala is very marked. I 
do not know that this small species occurs anywhere else, I 
mean outside the Malay Peninsula, within the limits of our 
Eastern Empire. 

* 881 iw. — Tringa eraasirostriiy Tern, and SehL 

[JumnD, Klaag.l 

^ 884.—- 2Wii^a minuta, LeisL 

r^nka, Jarmm, Klang.] 

* 884 ter. — Tringa albescens. Tern. 

fTonka, Jnrmm, Klanf^.j 

The bird I call ruficoUis is at once distinguishable amongst 
other things by its long toes. There is no difficulty about it ; 
of it also, as I have noted elsewhere, we have obtained numerous 
specimens, but minuta and albescens are barely to be separated 
except in summer plumage. We fortunately obtained some 
specimens of both iu summer plumage. 



158 THE BfRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

In separatiDg T. minula and aUbefteenn in flummer plnmn^e 
the red throat and the brown mottled breast at once distinguifth 
the latter ; but in winter plumage it is to a great extent guess 
work ; but it has appeared to us that in albetcens the bills are 
shorter, that the tertiaries also are shorter, and, lastly, that the 
tarsi are somewhat shorter. But of these three points, judgr- 
ing from our summer-plumaged individuals, the shorUiessof 
the bill is the best criterion. 

^ 886. — Limieola phtj/rhyncha^ Tern. 

[Singapore.] 

901. — HydrophoBianuB cMrurguMj Scop, 

Although we have procured no specimens, lieutenant Eelham 
obtained it in full breeding plumage in Perak. 

* 912 6t» B. — Ralliua mandarina,* SwinL 

[Malaooa.] 

The occurrence of this, hitherto, purely Chinese species to- 
wards the south of the Malay Peninsula is noteworthy. 

* 922 bis. — Jrdea mmatranay Raffl, 

[Eunoom, and teen at Elang.] 

* 924. — Ardea purpurea, Lin. 

fTonka.] 

* 927 his. — Herodiaa euhphoUa, Swinh. 

[Tonka.] 

* 928 6i#. — Demiegretta saeraj Gm. 

[Near KuHOom, eeen Coaat, jMMim] 

* 942 bi$. — GraptocepluduB davisoni, Hume. 

[Tonka.] 

955.— -iln<M eeutulata, S. MalL 

Davison met with this species (which is in no wise a Caearca 
as Blyth and Jerdon seem to have considered it) in the forests 
of Eussoom, but failed to procure a specimen. The bird is 
quite unmistakable, and there can be no (u>ubt about t^j i f . 

* 986 ter. — Sterna iibetanay Saund. 

TTonka.] 

Two somewhat immature specimens, which I identify with thia 
species, though somewhat doubtfully, since although I have 
large series of albigena and tibetana^ I have no authentic adult 
Imgipermie. It is very easy to separate the adults of these 

• Should have been entered ai B. papkmlH, Xjungh, wkidi name faaa pnceibnoe; 
iee full note lowarde the end of thia number. 



OF THB MALAY PEMIKSULA. SECOND NOTICE. 



159 



three species, but the immature birds^ all of whose bills in the 
diy specimens are black, pnzzle me. 

I take this bird to be tibetana and not albigenOy because it has 
the long wing 10*35; because the rump and tail are nearly 
white, except the outer web of the outer tail feather which is 
very dark ; because the dark band on the inner web of the first 
primary is narrower than in albigena as it is in tibetana ; be- 
cause on the breast there is a very faint uniform^ yinous grey 
tinge, such as is observable in the earlier stages of tibetana^ 
whereas in corresponding stages in albigena the grey on the 
breast is much more decided, lacks the vinous tinge, and ie in 
patches. 

I am beginning to suspect that the birds which I have re- 
corded as Umgipennis from various parts of our Indian Coast, 
may after all be only the young of tibetana. The only points of 
difierence seem to be the eometohiU shorter wing^ and the »ome- 
what coarser bills. 

Why I identified these birds as lofMtpennis was because 
Captain Legge sent me a specimen from Ueylon, which I under- 
stood him to say had been identified by Mr. Saunders as lonai" 
pennie. There may have been some mistake about this, or this 
present bird may really be Umgipennis and not tibetana^ but in 
the absence of a good series of Siberian longipennis I am unable 
to make certain of these immature birds. 

In perfectly adult birds, in breeding plumage^ I find the follow- 
ing to be the dimensions of tibetana and albigena : — 



Spedat. 


Sex. 


Winj. 


TvnaB, 


Mid Toe and 
Claw. 


Bill at front from 

margin of 

feathen. 


8* tivtiotui ••• 
8,<Mig0na ... 


FonuuA ••. 


10*66 
9-7 


0-79 

078 


0-89 
(y9l 


1-8 
1*4 



So that, as you cannot depend upon the length of the wing 
in immature specimens, there is no difference in dimensions 
such as to enable one to separate immature birds, and as the 
quite young albigena seem to have the rump, upper tail-coverts, 
and tail nearly as white and almost as little shaded with grey 
as those of tibetana^ it is a great puzzle to me how they are to 
be separated. I have undoubted series^ of both, breeding birds 
and young in different stages from Yarkand and Tibet of tibe- 
ianoj and similar series of albigena from the Persian Gulf, but 
even amongst these there are some immature birds that I do 
not know how to separate. I know what they are by the 

21 



160 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

localitj, and the old birds shot in company with them, bnt I 
cannot hit npon any point which furnishes a clear diagnosis, 
and I hope Mr. Howard Saunders will soon take up specially 
the case of the immature birds of these two species and longi^ 
pennis. 

The mature birds of course a child could separate. 

* 988 bis. — Sterna sinensis, Gm. 

[Klang.J 



List of species entered in our First List^ now, but not previously^ 

obtained. 



37. — Lophotriwchis iieneriy Gerv. 

[Malacca.] 

48 bis. — Butastur indicuSj Gm. 

[SalaDg, Tonka Is.] 

65 bis. — Syrnium seloputOy Horsf. 

[Eussoom and Tonka.] 

9Q bis, — Chatura giganteoj Hass. 

[Langat, 8<> N. Lat.] 

100 bis. — Cypsellus subfurcatusy Bly. 

[Elang. Also in incredible numbers in all public buildings at Penang.] 

103 quat. — Colhcalia spodiopygia, Peale. 

[Klang, Langat, both in Salangore.] 

171 his. — Gecinus vittatusy Vieill, 

[Tonka Is. and Kussoom.] 

184. — Tiga javanensisj Ljxtng. 

^onka Is. and Elang.J 

197. — XantholtBma hamacephala, P. L. S. Mull. 

[Tonka Is. and Kussoom.] 

284 ter. — Cinnyris fiammaaillaris, Bljf. 

[Tonk Is. and Eussoom.] 

273 quat, — Pericrocotus flam?nifer, Hume. 

[Tonka Is., Singapore Is.] 

387 A. — Trichastoma rostratumy Bly. 

fElang.] 



OF tAs halat peninsula, second notice. 161 

This species woald probably be more correctly classed as a 
Malaccpternm, It has a longer tail than Trichastoma^ and like all 
the Malacopteruma is a tree bird, while the Trichastomas are 
ground birds. 

396 ter D. — Setaria albogularie, Bly. 

[Klang.] 

592. — Calobatee melanope, Pall. 

[£Iang, Din^ding Is.] 

593. — Budytee cinereoeapilla, Savi. 
660. — Corvus macrorhynchuSy WagL 

[Dingding.] 

689 eeap. — Sturnia sturnina^ PalL 

[Tonka, Makoca.] 

701 bis. — Amadina leucogaetra^ Bly. 

[Tonka, Klang.] 

In the list a star was wrongly prefixed to this species. 
776 6m. — Osmotreron fulvicollisy WagL 

[Tonka, Kuasoom, Dingding, Elang.J 

780. — Carpopliaga cBnea, Lin, 

[Knasoom.] 

791 ter, — Macropygia assimilisj Hume^ 

[Sot springs at Ulu Langat] 

845. — GharadnuB fulvuSy Gm* 

[Tonka, Klang.] 

884 bis. — Tringa nificolliit PalL 

[Tonka.] 

920. — Dissura episcopa, Bodd. 

[Tonka.] 

We entered this species with a note of interrogation, but we 
have procured specimens in the north. 

930 bis. — Ardea leucoptera, Bodd. 

We entered this in the first list as 930A., and printed it in 
Romany but a bird in breedin;^ plumage obtained in Tonka Is., 
together with one in non-breeding plumage^ shows that while 
the latter is clearly leucoptera, Bodd., the former is prasinoscelis 
of Swiuhoej at least I can discover no difference between them. 



162 THE BIRDS OF THE WESTERN HALF 

This beings so, our list of the birds of India must be altered, 
and under 9^ bis, /eucop^^ra^Bodd., substituted for prottiioMeiit, 
Swinhoe. 

^ii.^^Dendroeygna javanica, Boraf. 

[KoHOom.] 

991. — Sterna sumaircmaj Raffl. 

[Tonkt.l 

NoUa on, and corrections to, the First List. 



It maj be well to note that, although there is probably no 
doubt that they do occur, we have never yet, in any part of the 
Peninsula, come across specimens of either Otogyps calvus or 
Oyps indicus. 

Note, that in the first list the two names, 31. — Ajuila pennata, 
and 82. — Neopus malaiensis, ouji^ht both to have been printed in 
italics, as both occur elsewhere in the British dominions. 

We mentioned in our list that Davison felt sure that he 
had seen 40. — Pandion halioMus, Lin., along the coast. Since 
then a fine specimen has been shot at Singapore, which is in the 
Singapore Museum. 

No. 128. — For amaurcpterus read amauroptera. 

There ought not td^have been a star prefixed to 135 bis iJ.«-« 
Aleedo euryzona, Tem., as we iiave never yet met with a King- 
fisher of this type in the Malay Peninsula. 

450 A. — ^Griniger theoides, Hume. 

We obtained a male and female of this species, both precisely 
like the type, at Elang. The species seems a very distinct one, 
and as it is not confined, as we thought it might be, to Johore 
and the eastern side of the Peninsula^ it seems strange that it 
should hitherto have escaped notice ; yet I can find no descrip- 
tion at all answering to it. 

451 quint -4.— Euptilosus euptilosus, Jard. and Selb., 111. Om., 
New Ser., pi. 3, 1836. 

The authors by the way call this Bracht/pus euptilosus. 

I entertain no doubt that the specimen here figured was one 
of Criniger tristis, Blyth. (Ibis, 1865, p. 47.) 

We have specimens in which the rump feathers are dis- 
arranged, presenting precisely the appearance depicted in ihe 
plate. The dimensions and color of the plate^ and the des- 
eription, so far as it goes, agree perfectly with tristis. The sole 
point which might lead to a doubt of this identification is, that 



OF THB MALAY PENlKSUtA. 8K00ND NOTIOE. 163 

Jardine, in his ddBcriptioOi iails to notice the white marks on the 
tips of the three outer tail feathers, and that the tail is so turn- 
ed that these are not seen in the plate. I do not> however, 
think that any one who compares the plate and description with 
a good series of irigtis will doubt that euptUaaus equals tristU. 
The former dates from 1836, the latter from 1865, and the 
species should, therefore, now stand, I think, as 451 quint— 
Criniger euptilosus, Jard. and Sett.j and this will remove one of 
the doubtful species from our list. 

452 oet A. — ^Izus finsehi, Salvad. 

This name ought not to have been printed in italics in the 
first list, since, so far as we know, this species occurs nowhere 
within the British dominions except in the Malay Peninsula. 

This species is colored above precisely like Ixua brunneua, but 
it is a rather smaller bird. The bill is smaller, the throat and 
abdomen are much whiter and much less brown, and whereas 
the wing-lining underneath the shoulder of the wing is a sort 
of brownish buff in brunneuB^ it is in finschi a pale yellowish 
color. 

452 dee A. — lole olivacea, Bty. 
In our list, ante p. 62, this is misprinted as Ixue olivaeeue. 

463 bis A, — Phyllomia icteroeephalus, Leas. 
Wrongly printed in the list as 463 ier A. 

631 A.-^Zoaterops auriventer, Hume. 

In Vol. YL, page 519, 1 noticed a specimen of a Zoateropa 
obtained near Tavoy, for which I proposed the name auriventer. 
Afterwards I obtained five similar specimens from the Malay 
Peninsula, and in Vol. VII., p. 452, 1 pointed out that Hartlaub 
had described this species from specimens from Java and 
Sumatra under Temminck's manuscript name of UUeralia, and 
I therefore proposed the suppression of my name, and adopted 
Temminck's name. I now find that this latter had been long 
pre-occupied by Latham for an Australian congener, and my 
name of auriventer must, therefore, apparently stand for the 
species. 

686. — Aeridotherea fuacuay WagL 

1 am still of opinion that if Cantor got a real J. /uscusj it 
must have been a caged bird, but it has since occurred to me 
that A. siameams is very likely to occur in the Malay Penin- 
sula. 

A. O. H. 



164 



lIotM on the ^i&x^cnim of some iarmese ^piris, 

|tff. III.* 



By Eugenb W. Oatks, C.E. 



118.— Harpactes erythrocephalus, Gould. (ll6.)t 

On the 8th May, a female of this species flew from the top 
of a dead trunk of a tree, about 20 feet hiorh^ as T was passing 
through the forest at the Eutagan Bungalow, twelve miles from 
Pegu. A man, on being sent up, reported that there were three 
eggs resting on the bare wood in a cavity at the top of the 
stump. In about a quarter of an hour the bird returned and 
began sitting. I started her off and shot her. The eggs were 
then brought down to me. 

In shape, the eggs are nearly spherical, and in texture, the 
shell is smooth to the touch and tolerably glossy. The color of 
all is a pale buff or cafi-au-laiL They are in fact of precisely 
the same color as the eggs of H. oreskios, with which Lieutenant 
Bingham has lately kindly favored me. In size and shape ihey, 
however, differ very conspicuously, the dimensions of the three 
egcr^ of hodgsoni being respectively I'l by '98 ; 1*08 by 100 ; 
and 1-1 by I'Ol. 

Dr. Jerdon and Mr. Hodgson record the eggs of this species 
as white, and more recently Mr. Gammie has also found them 
of the same color. I cannot help thinking that a mistake in 
identification has been made in all these cases.^ H. fasciatus, as 
Lieutenant Bingham informs me, lays buff-colored eggs, and it 
seems out of all reason that theTrogon of the Himalayas should 
lay white eggs. ("Nests and Eggs," p. 99.) 

119.— Seriloplius lunatus, Oould. (IZQbia.) 

Mr. Davison had the eggs of this species brought to him in 
Tenasserim by his Burman Shikaree, and their color was white. 
The eggs I procured myself were 8potted,§ and, as will be seen 
from the description below, almost identical in color with eggs 
of Gwylamusjavanicusj as described by Mr. Hume (S. F., Y., 
p. 456.) 

• Vids "Stray Feathew," Vol. V.,p. 141, and Vol. VII., p. 40. 

f The namben foUowing tho names are the f^eneral list numbers. 

t No ; no mistake. Sereral nests with nearly white egffs have been found of this 
species ; some eggs oifateiaiua are quite as nearly pure in^te ; even in oreslrioc, some 
eggs show only a trace of the ivory tinge. I have never seen any Indian Trogon's 
egg, that I should call '* buff." Ivory or creamy white, or very pale atf4 au itUi^ is 
all I could say for the deepest colored I have seen. — A. O. H. 

§ All these Broadbills lay several types of eggs, some plain, some spotted, a« do 
the XiDg-erow8.-^A. O. H. 



K0TE8 ON TBS NIDIFICATION OF SOME BURMESE BIRDS. 165 

I found a nest of this species a few miles from Pegu at the 
commencement of May. It was empty. On the 12th I revi- 
sited it, and took four eggs^ which were all fresh, although the 
old bird was sitting. 

The nest was suspended from the branch of a small shrub in 
dense evergreen jungle. The nest itself is a ball about six 
inches in diameter exteriorly^ with a circular opening two inches 
wide exactly in the centre. The entrance is protected by a rude 
porch. The materials are chiefly coarse grass, and the outer 
bark of elephant grass and weeds bound together by fine, black, 
bair-like roots. The exterior of the nest is adorned with numer- 
ous yellow cocoons. Towards the bottom of the nest the mate- 
rials become very coarse and are loosely put together, the ends 
straggling down a foot or more, forming a long tail. The total 
length is nearly two feet. The interior of the nest is beauti- 
fully and firmly lined with broad leaves of elephant or thatch 
grass, and a few green leaves are spread over the egg cavity. 
Altogether the nest is one of the most elaborate I have seen, 
differing in nothing but size from some of the many nests of 
Arachnechthra flammaxillaris that I have found. 

The eggs are tolerably glossy, excessively smooth, and blunt 
at the smaller end. The ground color is white, tinged with 
pink, and the whole egg is speckled and spotted with underlying 
spots of purple and surface spots of rusty brown, more so at the 
thick end than elsewhere. Tbey measure from *d3 to 1 inch in 
length by -68 to -70 in breadth. 

120.— Gecinus occipitalis, Fig. (172.) 

This bird lays four eggs as a rule, but in one instance I found 
only three in one nest. 

It is extremely common in all large forests, and breeds from 
the 1st May to the end of June throughout Pegu. 

Its mode of nidi6cation appears to be well-known. ('' Nests 
and Eggs," p. 125.) 

121.~Tiga javanensis, Ljung. (184.) 

On the 7th May I got three eggs, quite fresh, from a hole 
of a tree. The hole appeared to have been a natural cavity, but 
the entrance had been enlarged and made circular. The nest 
was at no great height from the ground. 

The three eggs are pure white and very glossy and smooth. 
They are extremely pointed at one end. They measure 1*1 by 
•77^ 1-07 by -71 and 1-09 by -75. 



166 NOTJCS ON THB KIOIFIOATION OF 

122.— -Megatoma hodgsoni, Bonap. (192.) 

I have found numerous nest holes of this bird, but nerer the 
eggs. 

On the 8th May I discovered two fully-fledged youno; birds 
in a hole of a horizontal branch of a tree about 10 feet from the 
ground. The entrance to the nest was on the upper side of the 
branch. The branches selected are^ I think, always dead ones. 
(« Nests and Eggs/' p. 129.) 

123.— Tepfarodornis pondicerianus, Qm. (265.) 

Nest with three fresh eggs on the 8rd March near Pegu. 
(« Nests and Eggs/' p. 176.) 

124.— Pericrocotus peregrinns, Lin. (276.) 

In Lower Pegu eggs of this bird may be found from the end 
of April to the middle of June. (^^ Nests and Eggs/' p. 276.) 

125.— Ghaptia anea, Vieill. (282.) 

I procured one nest on the 23rd April. It was placed at the 
tip of an outer branch of a jack tree^ and attention was drawn to 
it by the vigorous attacks the parents made on passing 
birds. 

The nest was suspended in a fork. The outside diameter is 
V and inside S'^ : total depth 2^'% and the egg cup is about 
1^^ deep. The nest is composed of fine grass, strips of plantaia 
bark and other vegetable fibres closely woven together. The 
edges and the interior are chiefly of delicate branchlets of the 
finer weeds and grasses. It is overlaid at the edges, where it is 
attached to the branches^ with cobwebs, and a few fragments of 
moss are stuck on at various points. 

There were two fresh eggs. The ground color is a pale sal- 
mon fawn, and the shell is covered with darker spots and marks 
of the same. They are only very slightly glossy. The two 
eggs measure '85 by '62. (^' Nests and Eggs,'' p. 192.) 

126.— Dissemurns grandis,^ Gould. (284.) 

I have taken the eggs of this species on all dates, from the 
30th April to the 16th June. 

The nest is placed in forks of the outer branches of trees at 
all heights from 20 to 70 feet, and in all cases they are very 
difficult to take without breaking the eggs. 

* Foflsibly 286.— 2>. paradi$tui is meant, as this is I leam tha common spedss in 
lower Pegu, where Mr. Oates has been of late years. But grandU oertainlj ooeurt 
also in Norihem Pegu. However, Mr. Oates will doubtless define the areas of 
distribution, of the two species in his promised "New List of the Bird* of Pegu*" 



80M1B BUBMB8B BIRDS. NO. III. 167 

The nest is a cnuUe^ and the whole of it lies belo v the fork to 
which it is attached. It is made entirely of small branches of 
weeds and creepers, finer as they approach the interior. The 
egff cnp is generally, bnt not always, lined with dry grass. 

The ontside dimiBnsions are 6'^ in diameter and 3'*^ deep. The 
interior measnres 4'^ by V^. In one. nest the sides are bound to 
the fork by cotton thread in addition to the usual weeds and 
creepers. 

The eggs have very little gloss, and differ among themselves a 
good deal in color. In one clutch the ground color is white, 
spotted and blotched, not very thickly^ with neutral tint and 
inky purple, chiefly at the larger end. Other eggs are pinkish 
salmon^ and the shell is pretty thickly covered with pale neutral 
tint and orange brown spots and dashes. 

They vary in size from 1*2 to 1*06 in length, and '85 to *8 in 
breadth. (*•' Nests and Eggs," p. 193.) 

127.— Chibia hottentotta, Lin. (286.) 

In the first week of May I took several nests of this bird, but 
in all cases the nests were situated in such dangerous places that 
most of the eggs got broken. There were three in each nest. 

The position of the nest and the nest itself are so much like 
those of 27. grandisjnst described, that no separate description is 
necessary. Comparing many nests of both species together, the 
*only difference appears to be that the nests of the Hair-crested 
Drongo are slightly larger on the whole. 

The only two eggs saved measure 1*10 by *8 and 1*11 by *81 ; 
they are slightly glossy, dull white, minutely and thickly freck- 
led and spotted with reddish brown and pale underlying marks 
of neutral tint. 

I may add that at the commencement of May all the eggs 
were much incubated. {" Nests and Eggs,'' p. 194.) 

128.~Alsocoinas pimiceus, Tick. (782.) 

Z7th July. — Eyeikpadein. — Nest in a fork of a horizontal 
lamboo bough, about 10 feet from the ground, composed of a 
few twigs woven carelessly together. Male bird sitting. One 
egg quite fresh. Color, white, very glossy. Size, 1*47 by 1*15. 
Probably only one egg is laid. 

129.— Ezcalfactoria chinensis, Lin. (831.) 

A nest found on the 14tb July was a mere pad of grass, placed 
in a clump of coarse grass. It contained five fresh eggs. They 
are slightly glossy and rather rounded. The ground color is 
olive brown, and the shell is speckled with a few minute reddish 

22 



168 FURTHER NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENASSERIM. 

brown spots. They meastire from 1*0 to '95 in length, by *77 to 
*7 in breadth. C< Nests and I^gs/' p. 553.) 

130.— Podiceps minor, Gm.{d15.) 

I took a nest with fi*esh eggs on the £5th Jnly. It is a com- 
mon bird throughout Pegu. ('' Nests and Eggs/' p. 646.) 



In the Birds of Tenasserim, S. F.^ YI., 258^ I stated that, nntil 
further specimens of the Tenasserim Gampsorhynchua were ob- 
tained, or until specimens of the Himalayan bird^ corresponding 
with my Tenasserim type, were procured^ I thought it most pru- 
dent to retain Gampsorhynohtjs torquatuSi nobisy (Pr. A.S. fiL, 
1874, p. 107, and S. P., IL, 446,) as distinct 

Further ezperienoe has quite justified this view. Mr. Dar- 
ling procured an enormous series of this species at Thoungyah, 
on the south-eastern flanks of Mooleyit in Tenasserim^ and with 
twenty specimens of each species before me I am in a position 
to assert now the entire distinctness of the two species, torquatna 
and rufiilus. 

It is only the very oldest birds of both species that could be 
confounded; in these, however, clear distinctions exist The bills 
in TufultAS are brown, in torguatM white, with only more or less 
of a dark line on the culmen ; all the tail feathers are conspicu- 
ously tipped with white in torqucUm^ in ru/ulus they are more 
narrowly tipped with pale rufous. The outer webs of the ear- 
lier primaries in torquatus are nearly white, whereas they are 
pale greyish olive in rufuluB. In the oldest birds, too, of targua- 
tuSj there seems to be always a patch or two of a bright fiumgi'- 
nous buff on the lower surface, such as is not seen even in the 
youngest bird of rufulua ; lastly, the white does not extend so 
far on to the interscapulary region in tarqutUus as it does in 
rufulusj except in the very oldest oirds. No one could for a mo- 
ment doubt the distinctness of the species, the white bills, the 
white tippings to the tail, the richer buff of the under surface, 
the whiter margins to the outer primarieSi all hold good at every 
stage, but in addition to this, the upper surface is everywhere a 
richer and deeper color, and the young bird, instead of having 
the heads red, as in ru/ulusy have them and the nape the same 
color as the back, but of a deeper and darker shade, and this 
color extends round the neck nearly, but not quite, meeting in 
front, and as the white of maturity beginning at the forehead 
and creeping backwards towards the nape, extingubhes most of 



FUaTHBR KOTES OM THE BIBDS OF tKNASSICHIIC. 169 

iliig dark oolor, it still leatoa the lower pot tion of it as a torque^ 
as in the type specimen* 

It probably takes two or three years before all traces of the 
imtnattire plnmftge disappear, since tfaree^fonrths of onr speci- 
mens shew more or less of this torque. 

An nnacconntable typographical mistake occufred in the 
ori^al description, in which it is st&iM that '' the rest of the 
upper mandible pnrplish«brown." This was not so i^eeorded in 
regard to tlie type by Davisony and is not a fact In erery 
case the entire bill has been greyish homy or fleshy white, with 
in some cases a dusky line on the enlmen. The legs and feet 
hare also been greyish white, or slaty whke, or fleshy white, 
with a bine tinge. The irides pale to bright gt>lden< 

NnmerottS specimens measnred in the flesh showed that the 
females were slightly larger than the males. The species inclnd*- 
Ing both sexes varies as follows :-^ 

Length, 9*4 to 10*2 ; expanse, 11*25 to 12-7 ; wing, 3*7 to 
4*1 ; tail from vent, 4*6 to 5*0 ; tarsus, 1*05 to 1*2 ; bill from 
gape, 0*9 to 1*0 ; weighty 1*3 to 2 ozs., the average being 

1*75 028. 



412.— In the Birds of Tenasserim, S. P., YL, 291, t noted 
that Davison never met with more than one single specimen of 
412. — Garrulaa pectoralis ; tins he got at Meetan. Darling, how- 
ever, found it plentiful in July and August about Kankary it, and 
preserved many specimens. The Tenasserim bird is not separ- 
able from the Himalayan one, but differs, as does the Tenasserim 
moniligery in having the tail tippings onliraceous^ and it also dif- 
fers from the Himalayan bird in having the ferruginous chestnut 
of the flanks replaced by bufi^^ and in having the ruFous nuchal 
half collar paler and less pronounced. The bills too are^ I think^ 
somewhat slenderer. 



706. — Passer indicus. — In the birds of Tenasserim, pp. 406 
and 520, we mentioned that, while this species was common at 
Rangoon, we had only met during all onr years of collecting with 
one single specimen in Tenasserim, and this at Moulmein, where 
the bird might well have come over on board some of the craft 
hourly plying between Rangoon and this place. 

Subseqaent, however, to the issue of the volume referred to^ 
Davison, on the 10th December 1878, when up at Needong on the 
Attaran^ about 50 miles inland south-east from Moulmein, met 
with an enormous flock of the common sparrow, clustered in 
hundreds, I may says thousands, in a dense clump of bulrushes 
many miles from any human habitation. He shot eight or nine 



170 THl^INFLUJUrOB OF RAINFALL ON THI^ DISTBIBUTION 

\yith a single dhot oat of this flock^but never saw them again 
any where. 

« 

. In a list of the birds collected by Captain Bri^gs^ at that time 
Deputy Commissioner of Tavoy^ published by Gould, P. Z. S., 
1859, 149, I find ittekkled Zanelostomua (Taccocua) Atrkee, 
I can scarcely believe that Gould's identification was in this case 
correct, but still it is necessary to note the fact. 

I notice further that this same species is included by Gould in 
the birds collected at Bangkok by Schomburgh. It occurs to 
me that owing to the similarity of the color of the bills and of 
the under parts, Mr. Gould, at a time when these birds were less 
well-known, confounded ZancloBtomus javanieus, Horsfield, which 
we procured at Tavoy with sirkee of J. £. Gray. Anyhow, at 
present^ I consider the occurrence of this latter species alike at 
Tavoy and Bangkok as requiring confirmation. Possibly in some 
later paper which I have not come across Mr. Gould may have 
himself corrected this. 



I also find a specimen of Lanius eolluroides (^ypoleucua) 
corded from Tavoy, in this same list. We have not yet ourselves 
met with it further south than Amherst and Moulmein. Also 
from Tavoy a specimen of Casarca leucoptera^ a bird we have 
never succeeded in finding at all in Tenasserim, (perhaps we were 
not then acquainted with its habits of haunting the depths of the 
forest), but we have since met with it just south of Tenasserim 
near Kussoom in the Malay Peninsula. 

A. 0. H. 



^ht Mv^ntntt of ^ainfatt an the iistrilrntitn of IRtjgra- 

tors WiRim and Wiisdir itrds. 

By G. Vidal, Esq., C.S. 

I ■ ■ ■ I , 

In Vol. YII., the editor has^ in an able article, called ^' Birds 
of a Drought,'^ shown by the exhaustive processi bow a largo 
number of species had been banished from a particular tract, 
(the neighbourhood of Jodhpur) after a season of abnormally 
light rainfall. Ini the district from •which I write — ^the South 
^odkan<^a precisely similar result has been observable, as 
regs^rds migratory shore birds and wild fowl, after a year of 
exceptionally heavy rainfall. The subject is one of great 
interest, and I ventilate it in the hope that some one may be 
able to suggest the true explanation of what at first sight 
^eems a contradiction of nature^s laws. 



or UIGSATOBT WADXRS AND WATEB BIRDS. 171 

I am t^ot able to give an exhaustive list of all the species 
whicb| although absent this season, have been regular visitants 
in preceding ones ; but having known the district for six years, 
and having collected vigorously for two season, I will attempt to 
contrast as accurately as I can the past with the preceding season. 

The tract I refer to is a narrow strip of lowland lying be- 
tween the Western Ghats and the sea, and extending from 
Banket, or Fort Victoria on the north, to Batuagiri on the 
south, in length about seventy miles, and with a breadth vary* 
ing from thirty-five to forty-five miles. The whole country is 
rugged and broken, more open and undulating towards the 
Ghats, and subsiding near the coast into a series of plateaus 
capped with weather-stained laterite, and intersected by deeply* 
scoured ravines and valleys. 

There are three principal rivers — the Savitri, the Vashishtl 
and the Shastri — which are tidal and navigable for some twenty 
miles or more into the interior, besides innumerable smaller 
creeks, bays and back waters. The estuaries and tidal sections 
of the larger rivers and creeks are fringed with extensive mud 
flats, salt marshes, and mangrove swamps, with here and there 
patches of reclaimed rice land. 

The average rainfall for the last twenty-eight years has been, 
as recorded at Batnagiri on the coast, 101*49 inches, and the 
fall for 1878 was 168*66, being by many inches the highest on 
record. Generally speaking, the rainfall increases gradually 
from the coast to the Sahyadri range, the only exception 
to this rule being one or two isolated hills of considerable ele- 
vation near the coast, which show a higher average than 
stations at the foot of the Ghats. 

. The relative humidity of the district is shown by the 
meteorological returns, as might bo expected to be greater than 
that of any other tract, excepting other parts of uxe Konkan. 
in the Bombay Presidency. 

In ordinary years the South Konkan is visited during the 
cold weather by a considerable variety of waders and aquatic 
birds. The numerous lagoons and swamps, the mud banks of 
the rivers, and the large inundated area of paddy fields ofiering 
to birds of these orders irresistible attractions, and a seemingly 
inexhaustible supply of tempting food. In particular a favour- 
ite ground may be mentioned at the junction of the Yashishti 
and Tagburi rivers. Here, year after year, are seen large flocks 
of Widgeon, often five hundred or more together, and a 
sprinkling of other ducks, besides countless Egrets, Herons, 
Cormorants, Snake Birds, Ibis, Plovers and Sandpipers. On one 
occasion I have obtained on this ground in one morning. Cotton 
Teal {Nettapus coromanddiatm8)j Whistling Teal {Dendrocygna 



172 THE IKFLtTSKOB OF BAtKFALL OIT THB DISTBIBtlTION 

jaoaniea), Oadwall {Chaulela$mu8 $tteperu»), Pintail {Dafiia 
acuta) f Widgeon (Mareca pentlope)^ Common Teal (QuerquedU' 
la erecca), and Gargpaney Teal (Qu&rqiiedula drcia). I visited 
this gronnd on three occasions this season, in November, 
December and January^ in the full expectation of having mora 
than ordinarily good sport. Bat notwithstanding the abnor- 
mal rainfall^ not a single Widgeon was to be seen. On the first 
two occasions no duck of any description were foand, but 
by January a small flock of three or foor EuropeMi Teal had 
made their appearance^ and had the whole ground to them- 
selves. Similarly vnth the waders, there was a very marked 
diminution in the number of E^ets and Herons. Here and 
there at long intervals a solitary Wliite Beron, conspicuous in his 
loneliness, moped on the banks, disconsolate. Oreenshank, Bed* 
shankj Golden Plover and Sand Plover, usually plentiful^ were 
nowhere, and even the common little Sandpiper^ the very com- 
monest species in the district, was so sparingly seen as to be 
almost a rarity. Even the Cormorants were aflfected by the 
general desolation, and the White Ibis, who generally oome in 
moderately large flocks, were represented by a few unhappy* 
looking individuals, who hid their diminished heads in the 
reeds, and looked as if they were sorry they had come. It 
was as if an annual ^ jatra' had been stopped by Imperial 
edict, and the few who had braved the prohibition and reached 
the trysting place were afraid to show themselves* So with 
the snipe. In 1877, after a rainfall 87*91 inches«-HK>nsiderably 
below the average — we had a splendid snipe year. Common 
and Pintails were equally abundant throughout the district* 
In 1878, after a fall of 168*66 inches, nearly double that of the 
preceding year, we have had, as has been the general remark, 
an exceptionally poor year. Flamingoes, who bad rieited 
Batnagiri in 1677, put in no appearance in 1878. 

In February and March 1877, I was camped for some six 
weeks at the mouth of a small tidal creek, at a village called 
Kelsi. I obtained or saw the following species of ^ore and 
water birds, cold-weather visitants only in this locality : — 

Golden Plover {Charadriu8 fulvus) plentiful; Sand Plover 
{jE^uditia m&ngolicuB) very plentiful ; Oyster Catcher {Hmtnar' 
topus ostrdUgua) scarce; Pintail Snipe {GeUlinago Mthenura) 
plentiful; Common Snipe {Oallinago gallinaria) plentifol ; Jack 
Snipe (Oallinago gallinula) scarce; Curlew {NufMnius lineatia) 
common; Whimbrel (Numeniua pliaopus) common; Spotted 
Sandpiper {Rhyacophila glareola) scarce ; Green Sandpiper (2b- 
ianua ochropus) scarce ; Common Sandpiper ( TAngmdes hyp<h> 
leucus) abundant ; Greenshank ( Tatanua gloUU) plentiful ; Red- 
shank {Totanu9 ealidtis) plentiful ; Stilt {Himantopus eandidus) 



OF MIGBATORT WADSRS AND WATBB BIRDS. 173 

rare; White-Becked Stork {Du8ura episeopa) Bcarce; Grey 
Heron (Jrdea dnerea) scarce ; Purple Heron (Ardea purpttrea) 
scarce ; Lesser White Heron {Herodiaa terra) common ; Little 
Egret {Berodias garzeita) abundant ; Ashy Egret (Demiegr$tia 
gularit) common; Shoveller {SpcUula clypeaia) one small flock ; 
Common Teal {QuerquedtJa creecd) one or two considerable 
flocks ; Little Cormorant iPhalacnjcorax pygmtzus) common ; 
and Snake Birds {Plottu melanogcuter) common. 

I have omitted from the above list the common permament 
residents, such as the Green Bittern and Pond Heron, Cattle 
Esreis, Bails and Waterhens. 

I re-visited the same place in February 1879, spending about 
a fortnight there. The change was most marked. The follow- 
ing species recorded in the previous year, I missed altogether 
from their accustomed haunts : — 

Golden Plover, Lesser Sand Plover, Jack Snipe^ Curlew, 
Whimbrel, Stilt, Purple Heron, Shoveller, and Common Teal ; a 
few Golden Plover, Sand Plover and a very few Teal have, how- 
ever, been got during the season in other localities. Common and 
Pintail Snipe, Ghreenshank, Redshank, the three Pipers, Grey 
Herons, White Herons, Little Egrets, Ashy Egrets, Cormorants, 
and Snake Birds were all quite scarce. I saw one solitary and wily 
Oyster Catcher, who fell a victim to a choke barrel at a long 
range. Ill-natured people might perhaps account for this dearth 
of birds by the fact that I had made too good use of my time 
at this particular place during the preceding year. To this I 
answer that, excluding Snipe and Golden Plover, my collection 
of the previous year from this spot numbered only eighty speci- 
mens, including numerous raptores, insessares and rasores. Be- 
sides the same diminution has been observed by myself and 
others throughout the district. 

Another fact worth mentioning occurs to me : In 1877, 
during the cold weather, very large flocks of the Ashy Bingdove 
(Turtur rUaria) made their appearance in the northern portion 
of the district Not being permanent residents, or ordinary 
TisitoTS, their advent from the country above the Ghats was a 
marked event. This year, as far as I can ascertain, not a 
single bird was seen. On the other hand, the migratory warblers 
were well represented, and the Bosy Pastor, or Towari bird, Tiho 
doesn't usually come in force, preferring the fat plains of the 
Decean, was exceptionally abundant. 

What is the true solution of this state of things ? Was it that 
the rainfall of the year being everywhere proportionately heavy, 
and the general area of inundatea land consequently greater, 
onr shore and water birds, finding suitable feeding grounds 
there, were detained farther north, and bad no necessity to 



174 



THS STABLINGS OF IKDIA. 



continue their migration southward ? I incline to this view my* 
self^ but shall be glad to hear any other solution of the question. 

Batnagibi, July Ut, 1879. 



No less than five well-marked and readilj-distinguishable 
species of Starlings occur within the limits of our Indian Em- 
pire, and it may be well to put on record a few brief notes in 
regard to these. 

The coloration in all the species is distinct^ and they differ 
moreover in size, in the amount of spotting normally assumed^ 
and in other ways. The following table will convey some idea 
of thiS| it being understood that the birds are described, by a 
person standing with his face to the light, holding the birds in 
front of him a^nt the level of his waist, with the tails towards 
him^ and with the heads pointing forwards and inclined down- 
wards :— 



XFtme 

Amount of 
■potting in 
adults. 

Head 

Intencap u - 
lary region. 

Soapulars, 
lower back 
and rump. 

Hetallio por- 
tions of 86- 
oondaries 
and 00- 
Torta. 

^Diroat 



Braast 



Abdonaan ••• 



8, ffulgoHt, 
var, indieui* 

4-86 to 63 

Much 

Purple 
Green 

Ditto 



DittoaUttle 
blue here 
and there. 



Puiple 
Green 



Generally 
bluish. 



9 

etna. 

6*0 to 6-8 

Agooddeal 

Green 
Pnoe purple 

Ditta 



purplish cop- 
pery bronae. 



Slightly broni- 
M green. 

Purplish pace 



Broase, with 
more or lass 
of a greenish 
tinge. 



8 

5. nohiliar 

40 to 6*26 

Very little to 
none. 

Purple 
Bronie green 



Green, shaded 
with pur 
plish blue. 

Puce purple, 

bronaed. 



Deep purple 

Bronaed 
green. 

Coppery pur. 
pie. 



4 
S, minor 

4*25 to 4*6 

Veiy little to 
none. 



Green 

Bedderpnoe 
purple. 

Ditto 



Bronaed 
green. 



Dark green 



Bronaed pur< 
pie. 

Brmisy green 



6 

8. fiitofia. 

4*6 to 4-7S 
Kona. 

Bluer purple. 

Purplish 
bronae. 

Bronae green. 



Green, slights 
ly bronaed. 



Bluish porplflb 



Blaok» with * 
bronay ahada. 

Black, with 

scarcely any 

reflectiona. 



THE 8TABUNG8 OF INDIA. 175 

1.— S. mdgaria. — ^This is tbe Indian form of our common Eng- 
lish Starlinfi^^ having^^ as a rnle, a somewhat longer and less 
spatulate biu^ and being possibly ratiier more brightly colored, 
bat not in my opinion entitled to specific separation from the 
European bira. This species is common (mostly as a cold 
season visitant) in Beloochistan, Affghanistan^ Cashmere (where 
it breeds), the entire Punjab, Sindh, Bajpootaua, North- West 
Provinces and Oudh, spreading still further south and east 
into Bengal and the Central Provinces, bat exactly how far in 
each direction I have not ascertained. 

This species is almost always profusely spotted, and never so 
&r as my experience goes — ^and I have 50 specimens before me 
at the present moment— loses the spottings on the upper surface, 
and nine out of ten birds are profusely spotted on the lower as 
well as the upper surface. 

2. — S, purpurcucens, — I take this bird to be Gould's species. 
It has the whole upper parts, excluding the head, a pace purple, 
very different indeed from the green of wdgaris^ and it has the 
head green, while vulgaris has this purple. No doubt Gould 
gives the wing as 5|, whereas with us the wing varies from 
5 to 5*3. This is a rare bird in India, comparatively speaking, 
and I have only obtained it in various parts of the Punjab, and 
in Dehra, and Etawah of the North- West Provinces, never in 
Sindh or Rajpootana. 

Besides the difference in color, it is on the whole a less spot- 
ted bird than the previous species. 

8. — S. nobilioTj nobis; N. Sp. — ^This, again, is a very distinct 
and hnndsome species, perhaps the handsomest of all. The 
majority of adults have only a little spotting, small arrow head 
white spots, on the interscapulary region ; old adults entirely 
want this. 

Compared with the Sardinian Starling, its very varied colors, 
pnce purple, purplish bronze green, and bronzy green, separate 
it at once. 

From niiensj its larger size, totally different color of the back 
and mantle equally separate it. 

It IB the Starling of Kandahar and its neighbourhood, and I 
daresay of Gabul generally ; and I have one specimen procured 
at Murdan just on the frontiers of Cabul — a young bird, and 
showing far more spotting than any Cabul specimen. 

4.— S. msnor.— This is a lovely little species, most resemb- 
ling purpurcacensj but differing in the much smaller size, the 
lesser amount of spotting in the adult, the redder purple of the 
back, and the color of the metallic portions of the wings, which 
are bronzed green in minWy and a purplish coppery bronze in 
purpurcaeena* 

23 



176 NOTES ON THB LIST OF THK BIRDS OF INDIA. 

We kave a large seriea of botii speoies^ comparatively rare 
thongh they Bte, bat with two exceptions all my specimMis of 
the presMit species were obtainea ia Sind, where it breeds 
freely on the B. Narra. These two exceptions were obtained 
at Loyah in the Etawah district. 

5. — 8. nitens. — The adnlts of this species are always entirely 
spotless. My specimens are all from Cashmere and Attock, 
but I have one specimen obtained in the Kamaon Babhnr. 

It is very desirable to ascertain accurately the range of these 
several species, and I hope that the table above given will en- 
able all my readers to discriminate these several species, and 
tiins help me to determine exactly the range of each. 

I daresay that at first sight nuny people will suppose that I 
am needlessly making species, but all that is necessary is to ex- 
amine a large series of each form. Whoever does so will, I am 
sore, admit ihat it is impossible to nnite any one of these five 
forms. They are all perfectly distuict, and no intermediate 
form whatsoever appears to oceur, and there is, therefore, no 
alternative, it seems to me, to keeping each as a distinct 
species. 



By W. T. Blanfobd. 

I HAVB a few alterations and emendations to suggest in the 
list of the " Birds of India." Of the great value of this list, there 
can be no question ; it supplies a most important desideratum 
to every working ornithologist, and will save many a wearisome 
half hour which would without it be spent upon indices. It is 
very much like the treatment proverbially deprecated in 
the case of a '' gift horse" to raise objections to the list itself, 
but I hope 1 may be pardoned if I call attention to one or 
two points in conneoUoo with it, which «re, I think, worth 
discussing. 

In the first place, to begin at the very beginnings is it quite 
correct to call this catalogue ^ A List ojf the Birds of India''? 
I bad some discussion in former years on this subject with 
variods English Naturalists^ who^ as I thought and still think, 
need the term India in an excessively loose and amtugoous 
manner, to imply the whole of Sooth- Western Asia. No doubt 
there is ample anthority for such an employment of the term ; 
the whole of the Dutch possessions in the Malay Archipelago 
are still known as Netherlands India ; there may still be atlases 
extant, in which Burmah, Siam, and the neighbouring countries 



NOTES OK THE UST OF TRB BIKDS OF INDIA. 177 

are eollectively desigoftted ^' India beyond the (haigeSt*^ or 
'* Tranagangetio India ;*' and in Gtermau maps the countriet east 
of ilie Bay of Ben^fal appear aa '^ YoroerindieD.*' Hence, 
when Dr. Solater distinguianed the various xoological rejgions of 
the earth's snrfaoei be applied the term '' Imikn r^on*^ to all 
Sonth-Eastem Asia, with thetalandaaafar as *^ WaHaee's Line." 
To this some years ago I objected that India Proper^ the Hin- 
dostan of BngUsh mapa, though not of natives of India, has a 
ianna and flora differing in most important particnburs from 
tliose foond in other parts of the ao-called Indian region, 
and having, in some respectSj a dose eonneotton with the 
animals and plants found in Africa; and that^ consequently, 
a false impression of the &nna of India was conveyed by 
applying the name to the whole region. I pointed out that 
very erroneous ideas aa to the fauna of India Proper are wide- 
ly prevalent in consequence of Baropean naturalists not ap- 
preciating the distittctioQ between the animals Ibnnd to the 
west, and those occurring to the east of the Bay of Bengal, and 
I urged that the term India should be restricted to the land to 
whidi it was originally applied, the peninsula inhabited by 
the Hindoos, 

I believe that it is right to insist upon this restriction of the 
term India in works on Natupal History, because there is no 
other word that can be used. Hindsstan^ as already remarked, 
although commonly employed in England, has a different sig- 
nification in India. I would restriet the term India rigidly to 
the countries west of a meridian passing through the northern 
extremity of the Bay of Bengal, and ^ill such lists, as that 
given in St&ay FeathibSi '^ List of the Birds of British India 
and its Dependencies,^' if, as I believe, that fairly comprises the 
region firom which the species named are derived* 

The matter may seem trivial, but really it is not so. The 
question of geographical distribution ia one of the most im- 
portant at the present day in the whole range of biological 
science. It is almost impossible fior Anglo-Indians to conceive 
the ignorance that exist amongst a large proportioa of European 
naturalists on the subject,^ and the only way to reform is a clear 
definition of geographical names. 

The next point to which I would call attention is the number- 
ing of the list. I am doubtless a heietio, but still heretics are 
useful in their way, if only to shew the wide gulph between 
themselves and orthodox believers, and I do not believe that 
the numbeus are of the least use to Indian ornithologists 
generally. Oive a fresh series to the list, and if those old 
numbers of Jeidon's are so important, that Indian ornithology 
cannot progress without them in some form or other, insert them 



178 HOTBS ON THB LIST OF THE BIRDS OY INDIA. 

Ill bracketA ; but why Scop$ lalU diould be 74 octj and loU viri^ 
deseensj 452 dee; Zoeterope lateraliSf 631 Ay and Z. auetem, 6S1 
quint, is one of thoee matters which I have never anite nnder- 
gtood. Of course, I know, that these are the numbers of Mr. 
Hume's own list, and of the specimens in his mnseumj bat 
this iS| after all, a private matter ; and, although the numbers 
may have a meaning to Mr. Hume personally, they offer no 
advantage to other Indian ornithologists, whereas serial num- 
bers would be useful as marking the present state of Indian 
ornithology. If it be thought that these numbers, with their 
rather numerous affixes, have been employed throughout in 
'^ Stray Feathvrs,'' and that on account of changes in the 
specific or generic names the species might, in a few cases, be 
supposed to be different were uie numbers omitted, the reply 
is that, as references are given to all the important desoriptionsy 
and if I am not mistaken, to all places where changes of name, 
if adopted, are discussed, the numbers are superauous in the 
list. 

In the present state of Indian ornithology, without for a mo- 
ment wishing to depreciate Jerdon, whose work indeed has been 
to many, as to myself, the foundation of any accurate knowledge 
of ornithology, I think the sooner we shake off all vestiges of 
Jerdon's classification the better. Jerdon's classification, as I 
have repeatedly pointed out, was grossly inaccurate, and was 
immeasurably inferior to Blyth's, although the latter appeared 
13 years earlier in his '^ Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum 
of the Asiatic Society/' So long as everything is made to fit 
into Jerdon's system, a false classification is encouraged. 

I think, too, that the real importance of this list is diminished 
by the adherence to Jerdon's numbers. The area is not Jerdon's 
India, but a widely expanded tract, in which vast additions have 
been made to the west, north, and east, and even to the south- 
ward, the very important ascession of Uie Geylonese forms has 
been incorporated. A glance at the names anywhere will 
shew the changes that have taken place. Why then attempt the 
Procrustean task of compressing the whole ornithology of the 
Indian Empire within the meagre limits of Jerdon's numbers ? 
The present list, if it is worth anything, — and I think it is worth 
a great deal — ^marks a new point of departure for the avifauna 
of the British possessions in Southern Asia ; surely such a list 
is worthy of a series of original numbers. 

Descending to particulars, I do not quite understand why 
certain Central Asiatic species are included in the list. These 
species are, so far as I have observed ( I may very probably 
have omitted some instances) Faleo hendersoni (10 bis), SasAeohi 
hendersoni (492 bis), Podoeee humilis (679 bis), MontiffingiUa 



K0TK8 ON THE LIST OF THB BIBDS OF INDIA. 179 

ilanfardi (752 qnint), and Monii/ringiila mandellii, (752 sex) • 
On the names of two of three species^ I shall have something 
to saj presently, but taking the question of distribntion first, 
I do not remember any of these species being annonnoed from 
localities which can, by any possible reading of the term, be 
described as Indian. Neither FcUeo hendersord nor Saxioola 
kendersoni has, so far as I am aware, been found living south of 
the Knenlnn, and the birds of Eastern Tnrkistan are certainly 
not generally included in the list For instance Padoeea heri" 
dersoni and P. biddulphi are omitted. Podoees humilia has 
been obtained both in Turkistan and in Eastern Tibet, whilst 
MoniifringiUa hlanfordi and M, mandellii have only been found 
hitherto in the latter. Neither Eastern Turkistan nor Eastern 
Tibet are in any sense of the term dependencies of British 
India. 

The remaining points refer to matters of nomenclature, and 
I will take them one by one. There are a number of species, 
the names of which are, of course^ open to question, and in 
many instances the validity of forms admitted to specific rank 
in this list, has been disputed. I shall only notice the few 
instances in which I have had good opportunities of forming 
a judgment 

20, 20 6i«, 20 ter. — tSiorohiercue. — If the genus Heterorhfn- 
ehuB is retained instead of Sphenoeieiloj Hierax must be em- 
ployed for the pigmy falcons. Sphenodehla and MicroAieraa were 
both instituted for the same purpose, to replace names which 
had been previously used for other genera, but had become 
synonyms tor the groups to which they were first applied, an 
earlier name in each case having priority, (see S. F., V.,p« 238.) 
Personally, I think the very strong recommendation of tne Code 
of zoological nomenclature, that a generic name once used 
should be inapplicable a second time, at all events within the 
limits of the same class, should be generally enforced, as it is 
by most, if not all, ornithologists in England ; but in this, as 
in one or two other cases, we need fresh legislation. Moreover^ 
I think that, in case of the species of one genus, this rule 
should certainly be absolute ; it is not easy to hunt up all 
names of genera, (although it is child's play now compared 
with what it was a few years ago), but there is not much diffi- 
culty in ascertaining all the specific names that have been pre- 
viously given, at all events, amongst birds. Luckily, we have 
not in ornithology to deal with genera like Helia with 3,500 
species, or Amrnonitea with nearly as many. 

I Quite admit, however, that by the strict rules of the Code, 
Mr. bume is justified in using names like Heterorhynchua. 
The name Hierax (or rather lerax) was originally applied by 



180 NOTES OM THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

Leacli to the Common Sparrow Hawk, and thus became a 
synonym of Aeeipiier. The same name Hieraa was again nsed 
by Vigors for the pigmy falcon, bnt as the generic name bad 
been previously employed, Mr. Sharpe, in 1874, substituted 
Microhieraxn Thus if names like BeterorkynchuB are retained, 
it is clear that Hierar should also be preserved. ' 

56 ier. — Milvus affinis. — Mr. Gnmey now (/4m, 1879, p. 76) 
considers the smaller Indian Kite inseparable from it. pavinda. 
He also notices the manner in which the three kites, M. mela-' 
noiisy M. aovinda and At. affinU^ pass into each other-*a point to 
which 1 shall have to recur presently. 

60 biB. — Strix deroepttorffi.-^Strix roepHorffi would surely be 
better. It is not usual to add a prefix like, de or van to a 
specific name, unless the affix has beoome part . of the surname 
as in Delessert. 

Ill bis. — Gaprvrnulgua unmtd. — I greatly doubt if this can 
be kept apart from C. europcBUs. The case is not an ordinary 
one of geographical races, but there are several birds, of which 
the forms living in comparatively damp climates are darker- 
coloured and somewhat more rufous, whilst the varieties found 
in dry regions are lighter and greyer. Sitta tyriaoa and 8. 
iephronotay the two varieties of CerthUauda desertorum and the 
Ghnkars of the Himalaya and of Sind or Persia, will serve as 
examples^ and I have called attention to several others in the 
Zoology of Persia. I may, of course, be mistaken, as I have 
not had an opportunity of comparing C. unwini with Central 
Asiatic forms of C, europcsus^ but if, as I think, the two agree 
they are connected by intermediate varieties with typical (7. 
suTopcBus. Moreoveri the distinction is, I think, solcdy due to 
the climate, and it is quite possible that 0. unmni^ if carried 
alive to Europe and kept in a damper climate with less sun- 
light, might, on moulting, become C europoMS. 

149, 149 bis. — Paiaamis tmrpureuSf according to Mr. Hume, 
if I understand rightly, is tne Indian or western race ; P. qa- 
noeephalus the Burmese or eastern form. Captain Lsgge, in 
the Birds of Ceylon, has shewn that the Indian Parroquet is the 
true P. cyanoeephaluSj of Linnseus, and that the Burmese form 
is P. rosa, I have not gone much into the matters, but so 
far as I have, I think Captain Legge is correct. 

818. — Siphia tricolor. — I was under the impressicm that this 
supposed species was acknowledged to be merely the female of 
fS. leueomdanura. If so, the name should be in italics. That the 
two forms are the two sexes of one bird is distinctly Mr, Man- 
delli's view, and both Mr. Brooks and Mr. Sharpe ooncnr, the 
latter having lately figured both birds as male and female ia 
the 4th voiume of the &itish Museum Catalo£rae. 



N0TB8 OK THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF IMDU. 181 

85 1^ 351 Ns. — No reasons bave been assigned for ihe separa- 
tion of the genus Cyanocineltu from Montieolaj and I doubt if any 
sufficient exist. The facts that Mr. G. B. Gray classed the two 
as separate mb^enerat and that he left one sub-genus without a 
name does not prove the two to have any daims to generio 
separation. 

399 bis. — Pellomeum nipalenaisj Hodgs. — ^Where is this 
species described ? I have never been able to find a published 
description. I rather think the name occurs, but without any 
description, in the first edition of the British Museum Catalogue 
of Mr. Hodgson's collections. No such name occurs in the 
second edition, and in the first the term appears^ if it occurs^ 
as a synonym. I cannot verify this, as the only copy of the 
Catalogue in Calcutta has been borrowed by a distinguished 
naturalist who has omitted to return it, and is deaf to all appealsj 
and the mere existence of the name in M. S.^ or the publication 
of a name without a description, is insufficient even to prove 
what the species is. In 8. F., I., 293^ Mr. Hume says that 
Mr. Hodgson figured and described P. mandellii as P. mpo- 
leniiSf but gives no reference. I believe that neither figure 
nor description was ever published, and if so, the correct name 
for the species is P, tnandellii. 

^S9. '^Alcippepoiooq;>halaj Jerdon; and 457. — Braehypodiusp(h 
ioeepAalus.^^With reference to the remarks on p. 79, the follow- 
ing facts may throw some light upon this name. Swainson used 
the term Poieepkaltts (sic) for a genus of parrots, and he subse-* 
qnently applied the same term, altered to Poioeephalua, to a 
Gull and a Flycatcher, as a specific appellation. The Flycatcher 
was No. 295—Oulieieapa eeyhnensis. Jerdon's Grey-headed 
Flycatchers, called by him Cryptclopha cinereoeapilla, Yieill., in 
his '^ Birds of India,'* but entered in his previous Catalogue of 
South Indian Birds as Cryptolopha poiocephalaj Swainson. I 
do not think there can be much doubt that Jerdon took the 
names of the Ahippe and BrachypodiuB from Swainson's term 
for the Grey-headed Flycatcher, and it is worthy of notice that 
in the ^' Birds of India " the same epithet '^ grey-headed " is 
applied to both the Flycatchers and the Braekypoditia, Whether 
Jerdon understood poiooep/udus to mean grey-headed or not is 
not, I thinks of much importance; but, of course, with all the 
Indian birds mentioned, the term phseocephalua would be much 
more appropriate than poKocephahu. 

Swainson's generio name P&icephalua was published in* 
1837. In Gray's ^'Genera of Birds'' the name appeared 
as Poiooephatus. Strickland, in a critique on Gray's ^^ Genem," 
published in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for 
1841, YoL VII., p. 34, corrected the spelling to Pcsooephalua, 



182 KOTKS ON THE LIST OF THR BIRDS OF INDIA. 

and the same term is marked in the '^ Index Universalis " of 
Agassiz's '^ Nomenolator " with an asterisk^ to sig^nify that the 
name has been correctly spelt. Now both Strickland and 
Agassiz were good dassioal scholars, and I think their view 
may be accepted. 

The subject of Greek compounds is one npon which I should 
certainly not have the temerity to express an opinion. However^ 
1 have consulted one of the best classical authorities in India, 
and he tells me that the Greek word iroiot, an equivalent 
of the Latin qualisj and meaning^ ^^ of some kind/' might be 
compounded with leefaXi], and that the resulting term would 
signify some peculiar qualification of the head. In short, 
as I understand it, the term should be written pcBOcephala, and 
considered nearly equivalent to the Latin word capitalist I 
think we may fairly accept this view. 

461 to 462 ter^ — Molpastea.-^The same remark applies-to 
this genus as to Cyanocinclus. Neither genus has been defined, 
nor any reason shewn for the distinction of the species compris- 
ed under the name from other genera. Precisely as in the case 
of Cyanocinclus, Pt/cnonotua pygaua and its allies, are classed in 
Gray's Hand List in a separate sub-generic section, but this is 
not a reason for making a new genus for the reception of these 
species. The type of Pycnonotiu of Kuhl (/&t#, 1826, p. 973,) is 
Turdus capensis of LinncBuSf and some of the species are certain- 
ly very close to the Indian form, but there may be some struc- 
tural distinction with which I am not acquainted. 

491 InB.'^Saxieola JdngL — I consider that S. ehryaapygia, 
DeFiLj was founded on a specimen of this bird with worn plu- 
mage. The original specimen was shot in August, and was pro- 
bably about to moult or moulting. At this time, as I know 
from seeing many skins of SaxieoUs shot in summer, the plu- 
mage is so much worn that the colour of the basal portion of 
the feathers shews through, and under these circumstances 
Saaicola kingi might very well be described as leaden-ashy. 

It is probable that all Mr. Hume's specimens have been shot 
in winter, when the bird is earthy brown. The plumage, how- 
ever, I think becomes decidedly greyer in summer. I have a 
specimen shot in March, much greyer than the skins obtained in 
tne cold season, and in the monograph of Saxicola Mr. Dresser 
and I described the birds from my Persian skins as greyish 
earthy brown. There is an absured misprint in this description, 
the bill and legs being put as white instead of bkck. 

The other distinctions pointed out by Mr. Hume, 8. F., VII., 
p. 59, between S, kingi and the original description of 8. ehry$o» 
pygta, do not appear to me of much importance. Any one hav- 
ing much expenenoe in descriptions of birds' plumage knowa 



HOTn OH THV LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 183 

that SQclr temos as ^' brownish asbj '' are nsed by different obser- 
vers in a widelj-yarying acceptation. I shoald not myself 
describe the rump and upper tail-coverts of S. kingi as brij^ht 
rufous fawn, and I have specimens lyin;^ before me with the last 
secondaries (the tertiaries of a few omithologistSj though not of 
most writers) broadly margined with rufous. In the colouration 
of the tail, although most specimens agree with Mr. Hume's 
remark, some perfectly coincide with DeFilippi's description* 

As to the neighbourhood of Demavend not having been- 
explored) this is not of much consequence. I shot A kingi my-- 
self only 150 miles farther south^ and as no non-migratory 
Sagieola has ever yet been found in the Palaearctio region, it is* 
very safe to conclude that S. ehryaopygia is not a permanent 
Feeident of the Blburz mountains in northern Persia. If 8. 
chrywpygia be not: & kmgij what is it ? No other species has 
been discovered to which DeFilippi's description can possibly 
apply. I admit that the description is not very good, but I can- 
not see any sufficient reason for rejeoting the identification. 

492 hts^^^Saxicola AenderscnL — It is by no means clear as yet 
what this speciesis. Mr. Dresser and I examined some speci- 
mens of S. fnario with ^' dull smoky blackish, grey/' S. F.^ 11.^ ' 
p. 327 ; inner margins to the quills and the other diffidrences are- 
in characters not unfrequently variable amongst Saaicolce^. The* 
white or grey colour of the cap depends on season. A careful 
description of 8. hendersoni in. breeding plumage is required 
before the species can be admitted. It is extremely improbable 
that any Soiiew^a exists in Tnrkistan that does not frequent 
India or Southern Persia in the winter. 

643i— i^ariM atkituani.^1 shewed in 1872, J. A. S. B.^ XII., 
pt. i, p. 57, that this species was in all probability the young of 
Lopopiane^ beavani. As, despite all the enormous collections' 
of bird skins that, have been made in Sikkim since that time^ 
this species has never been found again. I think there can be 
no donbt my suggestion was correct Mr.* Mandelli tells me- 
he qnite concurs with me: 

752 se^B^-^MontifinngiUa mandelliur-^l understood it to be 
admitted that this is Ongchospiza' taczanawskiiy Prjevalskij the 
kUer name hawng priority. 

ISS.'^CHoeofys penieiUata.^^1. cannot tidtnit on the evidence 
before me that 0. hngirottris and 0, penioUlata must be united. 
The distinction in this case is not merely a shade of colour as in 
Caprimulgui europaeus and G. unmnij bnt a different distribu- 
tion of the colours in the plumage. In O, longirostrie the 
black marks on the side of the neck are separated from the black 
breast by an intermediate white bar ; in 0. penicilkUa the black 
areas are muted. This character is naturally much more cou- 

24 



184 NOTES ON THE LIST OF THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 

Bpicnons in fresh gpecimens than in skins. So far as I have seen or 
heard, all birds from Persia and Western Asia a^ree with 0. 
penieillata, all Himalayan and Eastern Central Asiatic birds 
with 0. longirastria. I may be mistaken, as I have not a good 
series to consnlt at present, but this is the case as I understand 
it, and Mr. Hume unites the two forms because he has seen 
intermediate varieties from Eastern Turkistan. 

Now^ if the existence of intermediate varieties be a sufficient 
reason for the union of two ^^ species/' why are Crocopus phani- 
eopterus, C. chlorigaster and C. viridifrona, Coracias indiea and 
C afinUj Malacocercus terrieolarj M. griseus, M. nudabarieui 
and M. somervillii^ Pycnonotu8 f'or Molpastea) pyganu and 
jP. hcBmorrhotu, Thamnobia ftUieata and T. eambayensis, and a 
host of other species, not united ? Even Oallus ferrugtMUi 
must be joined to 6. sonnerati, for hybrids having an interme* 
diate character are on record. 

Unfortunately this opens up a much larger question than I 
care to discuss at present. My own view which, I believe, 
differs materially from Mr. Hume's, is, that the intermediate 
forms are more or less hybrids ; whether descended from a pre- 
* existing stock, or making a phase of the passage from one 
species to another, or whether solely due to the breeding together 
of the two races after they have become distinct, is immaterial. 
I also consider that whether such forms as Coracias indiea and 
C, a finis be regarded as species, sub-species, or varieties is 
merely a matter of convenience. But what I urge is^ that a 
distinction, if constant throughout a large area, as is I believe 
the case with OtoeoryB hngirosirii and O. penieilkUa — ^be it un- 
derstood I write under correction, and the distinction may not 
be so constant as I suppose, — ^is a biological fact of some impor- 
tance, and as such should be recognized in the nomendature, and 
that it is better to call each bird by a separate name. 

There is one more point worthy of notice. The small short- 
billed form, which I called 0. slweaij was considered by Dresser 
undistinguishable from a variety of 0, alpestris, and from the 
specimens Dresner showed me I must say there were good 
reasons for his opinion. 0. elweaiy I think, clearly passed into 
O. langirostris. In this case 0. longiroatria passed into both 
0, pemeUlata and O. alpestris ; and, if this be considered to 
prove the identity of these forms, all must retain the name of 
0. alpestris. To call the Himalayan bird O. penicillata is to 
place it on one of the horns of the dilemma ; if intermediate 
varieties prove identity^ the species is the same as 0.* alpeitriij 
if not, the form is not the same as 0. pentGillata. I would re- 
tain the name O. longirosiria. 



185 



iejrts it irtn ilHttlarrs d^riMsm 0)[ the list 4 ih 



SoMK few remarks from me seem called for by Mr. Blanford's 
valuable note. 

I quite agree with him that the short title adopted by me 
for my list of the birds of the ludian Empire is not strictly 
accurate. 

The work from which that list was compiled, and which has 
been so long in hand, has always stood (vide S. F., L, 49) as a 
^^ Conspectus of the Avifauna of India and its Depen- 



DSNCIR8." 



In my ^' Game Birds/* I have used the words " India, Bnrmah 
and Ceylon/' Ceylon not being a dependency of India. It would 
have been, no doubt, more correct had I used this latter form 
for the title of my list ; but even then this would, strictly 
construed, have excluded Assam, and having maturely consi- 
dered the question, I thought that, for a rough tentative list, 
the short term " India" would answer all practical purposes. 

I know so little of the literature of other branches of 
Natural History that I am in no position to deny the incon- 
ceivable Ignorance, that Mr. Blanford asserts to exist amongst 
a large proportion of European naturalists on the subject 
geographical distribution, but I confess that where birds are 
concerned, I find that my European and American correspon- 
dents—and these are now numerous — realize pretty distinctly 
the main zoographical provinces of our empire, and I doubt 
much whether my poor list will, by its curt title (explained 
moreover in the Preface) mislead any one or tend to perpe- 
tuate error. If it should do so, I can only express my sorrow 
and cry peccavi. 

My larger list I have called a '^ List of the Birds of the British 
Empire in the East and its Dependencies ; " but as it will not 
include Aden^ nor any place east of Singapore^ this likewise will 
not be strictly correct, and I confess that I despair of being able 
to work out any reasonably brief title that shall be at the 
same time exhaustive and strictly accurate.'^ 

• Perhaps the best term is that which is used bj Mr. Blandford, p. 17S, ** British 
Possessions in Southern Asia ;" but as I shall exclude Aden and Baiah Brooks' por- 
tion of Borneo (which I suppose is a British possession) and shall include Ceylon 
nnd the Maldives, this too will be inaccurate. Moreover Oilghit, Budakshan,' 
Wakhan, Nepal, ^., are not British possessions and are searoelv in Southern Asia ; 
the major portion of the western half of the Malaj Peninsula, though dependent on 
oor ruJe, is not a British possession. ''British Possessions and Dependencies in 
Sonthem Asia" might do but for Aden and Sarawak. But I confess mj inabilityto 
hit upon any reallv appropriate and accurate name for the tract with which I have 
to deal, and I shall be grateful if Mr. Blanford or any one elie ran suggest one. 



186 BBPLT TO MB. BL&NFOBD's CBITICISMS 

Then we come to the numbering of the list I quite agree 
that this is clumsy^ and that a fresh numbering is dedrable, 
but that involves a re^arrangement^ and it is desirable that it 
should, when adopted, be of such a nature as to need no very 
material alterations and additions. 

But whilst the ablest authorities are by no means agreed 
as to. the most suitable classification and arrangement of 
families and genera, and whilst every week adds some species 
to our list, I do not feel myself in a position to undertake 
usefully a re-numbering of the 1^900 species with which t have 
to deal. 

If I live, this will all come in time ; if I do not, better that 
the task be left for some successor, who will be in a better 
positiou to do the work. 

As it is there is this to be said for the old re-numbering. It 
agrees, so far as he goes, with Jerdon's, in the sole existing 
Manual of the Birds of Indiai and it is that according to which 
almost every private collection in India is arranged^ It is the 
numbering adopted thronghout the eight volumes of Stray 
Feathers, and which is known to nearly a hundred people out 
here who are in one way or another helping me in my work. 

It did not seem to me expedient to alter this in a rough od- 
interim list, merely designed to serve a temporary purpose 
until my more complete list is ready. To change everything 
now, merely to change it again three or four years hence, 
seemed to m« to be undesirable. I am sorry if, as 
Mr. Blanford says, this adherence to the old numbering has 
diminished the real importance of this list (though I confess my 
inability to conceive how it can have affected this either way) ; 
but at any rate I never intended that it should, or dreamt 
that it could^ be taken as a new point of departure for Indian 
ornithology. I claim that for the establishment of Stray 
Feathers, but certainly not for this humble list. 

And now to descend, as Mr. Blanford says, to particulars. 
And first as to the species which he considers should not have 
been included, being Central Asian species. 

Faleo hendersonihss certainly occurred in the Punjab. Colonel 
Belme Baddiffe has seen it with falconers there, and so have I. 
Only a few years ago the Bajah of Putialla had one which 
had certainly not come from Central Asia. 

Saxicola hendereoni we have from the Nubra Valley^ inside 
the usually accepted Cashmere (i.«., Ladak) limits. 

Fodoeee humilie has not only been sent from so near tha 
borders of Sikhim and Tibet that it was not easy to exclude 
it, but from somewhere in the northern part of Gnrhwal, and as 
far as I can ascertain well within our geographical limits. 



OF TH£ LIST OF THE BIBDS OF IKDU. 187 

JUanii/ringUla blanfordi and mandellii bad possibly no 
title to be included, bnt sereral specimens of the former, and 
one of the latter^ bore on the covers and tickets ^^ borders ol 
native Sikhim and Tibet/' and were thns catalogued, and my 
list was prepared from my larger list, and tiiis catalogue at 
Calcutta. Referring to tiie specimens, I find that none of the 
covers so labelled are in Mr. Mandelli's handwriting, and it is, 
therefore, possible that in making new eovers and adding 
tickets (Mr. Mandelli used not to ticket his birds only to 
write the localities on the covers) some of my museum 
establishment may have made a mistake. If so, it is to say 
the least curious that out of a number received and catalogued 
ai the same time, some should have been entered as *^ Tibet" 
only, and others as ^* borders of Bikhim and Tibet." Mr. 
Mandelli will probably remember whether he was or was not 
told at the time he got these specimens that some were from 
Tibet and some from the borders of this and Sikhim, Pending 
his decision, 1 doubt my baboos having made auy such 
interpolation. 

I entirely agree with Mr. Stanford as to the name 1/tVo- 
Merax. I ought not to have employed it. I shall revert 
ijo Bierax. 

As for Strix deroepitorffi^ when 1 gave the name, it might 
have been better to have dropped the ^ de" but there is no 
rale on the subject ; practically in India the gentleman after 
whom I named it has had the '^ cis" so soldered on to his 
namsj that had I called it *^roepHorffi'* many would have 
failed to recognize whose labours (and they have been con- 
siderable) in Natural History it was intended to commemorate, 
and) ate resUy having once so named the bird, I did not see the 
proprietv of altering the name when merely compiling a list. 

Whetner Cavrimulffus untrini should be kept distinct 
from europaus^ is of course a matter of opinion. I can only 
say, that with the large series I now mive of both, it seems 
to xne more convenient to do so. 

As regards the names PalcBomis purpureus and eyanoeephaluB, 
which Mr. Blanford says Captain Legge has shown to be wrongly 
applied by me, I have only to remark that I have not yet myself 
worked this out indpendently, bnt until I can do this, I adhere 
to the Marquess of Tweeddale's distinct enunciation, (Birds of 
Burmah, J. A. S. B., 1875, Pt. II, extra number, p. 56) that 
cyanoeephaluB applies to the Burmese race, and that purpureua 
must be adopted for the Indian race. I verified the Marquess 
of Tweeddale's very elaborate statement at the time, and I 
thought he was right. Before I reject his view and adopt 
Captain Legge's, the latter must show clearly wherein the 



188 BXPLT TO MR. BLANFORD^S 0RITICI8MS 

Marquess was in error. He may have been wron^, but I failed 
to detect this when I examined all the original authorities 
referred to by him which I have not by me to do now. 

Siphia tricolor. — I am quite aware that this species mtqf 
probably prove to be only the female of lueofnelanttray and no 
doubt females of iliis latter continually do duty as tricolor ; 
but I am by no means certain that the true tricolor^ that 
originally figured by Hodgson is not nevertheless distinct,* 
and hence I preferred not to print the latter as yet in italics, 
though I duly prefixed a note of interrogation to show that 
the question involved a doubt. 

This is not the place to discuss a question involving ibe 
arrangement of a group like the Thrushes. I can only say 
that in my opinion the grounds for separating Cyanocinclus are 
quite as strong as those for separating Monticola and Petrophila^ 
genera both commonly accepted. But all this is a mere 
matter of opinion. Thus Mr. Dresser suppresses Atenila and 
unites it with TurduSj and he might, with equal justice, suppress 
most of the genera into which the Thrushes are commonly 
divided. Were he to do this, I for one should not be prepared 
to dispute his action, but if you keep Petrophila, Monlieola^ 
^c, you certainly require a Cyanodnclus. 

I begin to believe that Mr. Blanford's name, Pellomeum 
mandelli, must stand, and Mr. Hodgson's name, P. rnpaUnsiSj 
fall. From a pencil mark attached to the plate I inferred 
that Hodgson had published this name ; and I still believe 
that he muse have done so, but as I cannot discover wherey the 
publication of anything beyond the name took place I shall 
ultimately, if I cannot find it out, drop Hodgson's name. . For 
the present it seemed best to retain it. 

Jerdon's pciocephalm may probably, as pointed out by Mr. 
Blauford, have been taken from Swainson's, and it is possible 
theoretically that this latter might have been compounded 
as Mr. Blanford's classical friend suggests. It would be an 
unusual and novel, and I may add not commendable, or very 
rational compound. But the fact is, the explanation will not 
hold water; the type of Swainson's genus is P. senegalerms^ 
LeVaill., pi. 116, and that represents ** Le Perroquet h tSte 
griu^^ showing dearly enough that bv his poicepluda^ Swain- 
son, like Jerdon, meant ^^ grey headed*' and not ^^ some kind 
of headed." The word, who ever coined it, Swainson or 
Jerdon, is a blunder, a sort of Alice-in-wonderland portmanteau 
reminiscence of poliocephalus and pluBocephalus, and can only 
legitimately be treated as a nonsense word, and spelt as the 
originators spelt it, poioeephalui. 

* I belieye, that if diitinet, Hodgson himtelf eonfuiod the two. 



OF THE LIST 07 THE BIRDS OF INDIA. 189 

It otn hardlj be jastly said that the genus Molpastei has 
never been defined when I have twice ennmerated all the 
species it contains. These are not to my notion oongenerio 
with Pyenonotus eapentis. 

As to the identity of Sameola kingi and chrt/aopygia, I 
have fully discussed the question in the passage referred 
to in the list. The former name is certain, the latter very 
doubtful to my mind ; I should not be in the least surprised 
to see the true ehtysofygia, corresponding accurately with 
DeFilippi's description turn up any day. In the meantime, 
following the general rule, I have retained the certain namCi 
and have set aside the uncertain one. Perhaps I am in error, 
but it is not of much consequence either way. 

Saxicola henderBoni.-^'ilLt. Blanford says that a careful desr 
cription of the breeding plumage of this species will be 
required before the species can be admitted. I fondly thought 
that the description I gave of the breeding plumage was a 
careful one. I am not usually careless in sucn matters, and 
I confess I see nothing to add now. 

I agree that Farus atkinsoni should be entered as doubtful, 
and that a note of interrogation should be prefixed to it. 

I myself first poiuted out to Mr. Blanford that Moniifrinr 
gilla mandellii was synonymous with Onyehospiza taczantno^ 
Mij but I am not so sure of the priority of the latter. My 
name appeared before the tranBlaiion of Prjevalski^s work 
appeared in Bowley's Miscellany, but I have vainly endea- 
voured to ascertain when the Russian original was actually 
publiihed,^ If Mr. Blandford can find this out at home, this 
will settle not only this, but three or four other similar cases. 

I will not go into the Otocorys question. It is long since 
I have dealt with any of this very difficult group, and it 
would take a week's study of the huge series, which I have 
gradually collected from various parts of Asia, to enable me 
to form any definite and independent opinion. 

But I may say that so far as Mr. Blanford argues that 
where a clear distinction is constant throughout a large area, 
it is a biological fact of some importance, and should be 
recognized in the nomenclature, by bestowing on each form 
a separate specific name, I am now much inclined to go 
vnth him, and it is on this very ground that I have kept 
CaprimulguM unwini separate ; but in each particular case it 
will still remain a matter of opinion, whether the distinction 
is sufficiently apparent and constant, and does characterize 

^ I JiMT from the Continent that the publioation of this ornithological portion, for 
■ome reaaon hung fire, ao that it appeared Tery little if at ail earlier than tae transla- 
tion ; bat I cannot understand this, as I always belisTed that the whole book (Trmti^ 
mtd Ufat, Si9t.J wis intended to issue at once. 



190 VOTBS ON SOKE T£NASSBBIM BIBDflb 

a safficiendy marked area, to render tbe variation of iiiiy 
appreciable biological importance, and whether this be so or 
not in the case of Otoeorys penciUata and longiro9trt8j I cannot 
now pretend to say. Had Mr. Blanford decided that it was so 
after a study of tbe series we now have here, I for one should 
have gladly accepted his verdict. 

A. 0. H. 



l^fttes on some ^tuismn, iirbs. 



By Lieut. C. T. Bingham. 



2.— OtogypB ealvns, Scop. 

I have seen this Vulture at various places from ?ahpoon 
fo Meeawuddy. In December 1878 I noticed one seated on 
a large stick nest placed high up on an inaccessible tree near 
Thaiibia on the Zamee River. 

3 &ts.— G]rp8 fblvescens^* Hume. 
4.— Gyps indunUi Sco'p. 

I am not quite certain, but think I have seen both thesa 
Vultures amon^ a lot of Pseudogypi bengtUensis round a dead 
elephant near Eaukaryit on the Houndraw River. 

5.— Psendogyps bengalensis, Om. 

The Common Vulture, of the country.. In November 1877 
I found a nest placed high up on a Nyoung bin {FieuSy sp.?). 
containing two unfledged young. This was near Nautch on 
the Attaran River, 8 miles from Moulmein.: 

23 bk.r^Aatar poliopsiSi Hume. 

I saw fi pair of these birds strike alternately at a young 
puppy dog on the race course at Moulmeiu, and they only 
made off on my throwing my stick at them. The puppy 
was cut somewhat about the back and neck^ but was more 
frightened than hurt. Z could not make out what made tbe 
biras attack him. 

28.— Aqtiila clanga^ Pall 

In July 1879, on the borders of a quin w marsh near 
Eamaulai on the east bank of the Salween Jliver^ I came 
on a pair of large black-looking Eagles, seated on the branch 
of a dead tree, well out in the water. I had just come 

• Thif would be new to our list, bat I cannot admit it until spedmeni are pro- 
cwed«-*->Bi>. 



KOTBS ON SOME TRNASgRfUM BIRf>S. 191 

eighteen miles of a weary up-hill and down-dale march, was 
wet through to the skin, for it had been raining the whole 
day without ceasing, and tired, cold and hungry, did not at 
all feel inclined to go after birds. Still I made one attempt 
to get up within shooting distance of the Eagles, but they 
were too wary, and flew off to the other side of the quin 
where I left them. Next day they were nowhere to be seen. 
I presume they were of the above species. 

41.— Polioaetus ichthyaetus, Eorsf. 

In January 1877, I found a pair of these birds breeding 
near the village of Oolai on the Attaran. The nest, which 
contained one unfledged young one, was placed on the lowest 
fork of a small Kamjin tree about sixty feet From the ground. 

The Karen whom I sent up reported that it was made of 
sticks and twigs^ and unlined. The parent birds sat on a 
neighbouring tree and looked on^ but offered no opposition to 
the climber. 

53.— Circus xnelanolencus, Penn. 

In January 1877, I noticed several pairs of this Harrier, 
beating some paddy fields near .Oolai, on the Attaran. I did 
not then secure any specimens, but later got one^ a male, in the 
black and white plumage, near Moulmein. 

56.— Milvus govinda,* Sykes. 

Common in the cold and hot weather at Moulmein, and at 
Eankaryit on the Houndraw. This is not the smaller Kite 
iafinis) which also occurs. Towards the beginning of the rains, 
t.«., the end of May, I found them (gomnda) migrating in 
small flocks at Kaukaryit, going apparently westwards. 

58.— Baza lophotes, Cuv. 

I have only once seen this striking looking bird, and that 
was a solitary specimen, seated with crest well erect, as described 
bv Mr. DavisoUj on a tree in the compound of the forest 
bungalow at Kaukaryit. Of course, I had no gun in my hand, 
and while I was frantically calling to my servant for the same, 
the bird took itself off. 

60. — Striz javanica, Om. 

Rare in Tenasserim certainly. I have seen only two. The 
first was in the possession of some Burmese boys, who refused 
to sell it; it seemed very tame, feeding out of their hands. 

The second was a sick and dying specimen, in beautiful 
plumage, though captured alive in the compound of the 

* New to the list, I hope specimeni have been preserved. — Ed. 

25 



192 K0TE8 ON SOME TBNA88ERIM BIRDS. 

Deputy Conservator of Forests, Dr. Slym's house. He 
kindly sent it over to me : and as the bird would not Bat I 
poisoned it with cyanide of potassium and prepared the skin. 
Unfortunately, however, it was left for the nicj^ht on the top of a 
book-shelfy and a vile rat gnawed off both feet. 
Both specimens were captured at Moulmein. 

84— Hirondo fllifera, Steph. 

I identified, but failed to secure, specimens of this beantifnl 
Swallow at Kaman^la rapids on tlie Thonn^yeen River. In 
July 1879 I found them common about the paddy fields near 
Kamaulai on the Salween, and secured a few specimens. 

I only noticed them for a day or two, and then they passed 
on westward. Wings of the three specimens obtained measure 
4*12, 4*40, and 4*60 respectively. 

? 85— Hirimdo erythropygia, (?) Sykes. 

It is doubtfully that I enter three specimens of a Swallow 
obtained at Kaukaryit in the beginning of May, under the 
above name. 

There were large flocks of them evidently migrating, but 
Very wary, never letting me come up closer than 50 or 60 
yards. 

87.— Cotyle ripaxia, Lin. 
89.— Cotyle sinensis, J. E. 6r. 

Both these Sand Martins are common in the cold weather round 
Moulmein. 

102 &is.— Cypsellus infiunatns, Sclat. 

Occurs wherever the palm tree (BorasBua flabelliformis^ 
has been planted. In April 1878, I climbed up one of these 
and found four nests, identical with those I have taken of its 
near ally, C. batasnensia, in India, and placed in the same posi- 
tion on the under side of the frond of the palm. Unfortunately 
I was too early for eggs. 

104.— Dendrochelidon coronata, Tick. 

I procured two specimens at Laidawgyee on the upper por- 
tion of the Thoungyeen River. 

U8.— Merops philippinus, Lin. 

In March 1877, 1 found large parties of this Bee-eater breed- 
ing iu the sandy banks of the Salween at Shwaygoon. It is 



NOTKS ON SOME TENA88BBIH BIRDS. 193 

not nncommon, and breeds at Kaukaryit on the Houndraw. I 
observed a pair or two there as late as June 29th. 

122 6{^.— Nyctiornis amictns, Tem. 

I shot two specimens of this bird in dense everg^reen forest 
on the Zamee River. I also seeurecl three ont of a party of 
seven (probnbly a family) at Monlmein in September 1878. 

126. — ^Eurystomus orientalis, Lin. 

I srot one specimen on the Gwoongyee Chonn^, a feeder of 
the Zamee River, on the 15th February. I noticed two others 
also, but failed to secure them. 

130.— Halcyon pileata, Bodd. 

In April 1877, I found this bird not uncommon on the 
Yonnzaleen River near Pahpoon. Thinking it common all over 
the country, I did not secure any specimens at the time. I see 
it has not been recorded from the north of the province before. 

132 ter. — Carcineutes pulchellus, Boraf. 

Fairly common iu the Thoungyeen jungles. A regular forest 
Kingfisher. 

133. — ^Ceyx tridactyla, Pall. 

I have three or four times come suddenly on this bird in 
the dense ever^een forests between Kaukaryit and Meeawnddy. 
I have hitherto, however, failed to get a specimen. 

137.— Oeryle guttata, Vig. 

Two or three pairs of this large Black and White Kingfisher 
frequented the rocky portions of the Golee Choung, one of 
the sonrces of the Thoungyeen River, in September 1877 ; but 
they were so wary that I failed to get even a shot at one. 

138. — ^Psarisomus dalhoasiaBi Jam. 

I procured several specimens of this lovely Broadbill at 
Tonnjah, half way between Kaukaryit and Meeawuddy, in April 
1878. They were breeding then, and I discovered no less than 
six nests on one tree, but all un-get-at-able^ the tree being 
covered with sharp, strong curved thorns, on hexagonal bases. 
In July 1879, I shot one at Koosaik in dense evergreen jungle, 
low down on the Thoungyeen River near its junction with the 
Sal ween. 



191 NOTES ON 80MIC TENAS8KRIM BIRDH. 

144 bis.— OcjceroB tickellisB, Blif. 

This species was not nncommon in the Kyoon Chonng Reserve 
liigh up on the Zamee Biver^ a^ain between Meeawaddj and 
Kankaryity and I saw a flock once in July 1879 between YunbiDe 
on the Salween River and Koosaik on the Thoungyeen. Every- 
where^ however^ it keeps to the tops of the very highest trees^ 
and completely oat of the range of an ordinary shot gun. 

146 &M.~Bh]rticero8 undnlatiiS) Shaw. 

I noticed this Hornbill first in the Kyoon Chonng Reserve on 
the Zamee River, a place which seemed to abound with Horn- 
bills of various species. It kept in parties of twos and threes. 
Lower down on the Zamee River^ at the mouth of the Gwoon- 
gyee Ghoung, Mr. Aplin, Assistant Conservator of Forests, shot a 
fine male and kindly gave it to me. It measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 4200; expanse, 65*00; wiug, 2035; tail, 1510; tar- 
sus, 800 ; bill from g»pe, 7*20. 

Irides yellow ; gular skin deep saffron color, with an imperfect 
dark band. 

169 /er.— Thriponaz feddeni, Bktnf. 

I procured tliis handsome Woodpecker at Thaubia on tlie 
Zamee, and noticed it more than once at various places on the 
Wimgeo River ; and on the Thoungyeen, at Laidawgyee, Kyon- 
khet, Oukra, and Maigla. I procured four specimens, but the 
unfortunate upsetting of a raft over the rapids of Kamangla on 
the Thoungyeen, lost me the collection of three mouths, made 
in forests little visited. 

195 i»^.— Megalaima incognita^ Hume. 

Not uncommon in the Thoungyeen forests. I have also one 
specimen from the Kyoon (Jhouug Reserve on the Zamee River. 

223.— Arachnothera magna, Sodgs. 

I have three specimens, all from the Thoungyeen forests. 
One procured, 25th September 1877, as far south and east as 
the mouth of the Maigla Choung, one of the sources of the 
Thoungyeen. 

225 ^er.— JEthopyga cara, Hume. 

One specimen shot as far north as Koosaik on Thoungyeen 
River near its mouth, on the 20th July 1879. 



K0TIC8 ON 80MR TENA8SBRIH BIRDS. 195 

236.*-Dic8Bum cruentatum, Lin. 

I procured this species as far north as Pabpocn^ and again 
at Eoosaik. 

236 &M.— Dic8Bum trigonistigma, Scop. 

At Koosaik, in Julj, I fonnd a creeper in flower close to mv 
camp, and obtained several birds on it ; among others one speci- 
men of this, but so simttered tliat the head and most of the 
feathers of one wing came clean off in attempting to skin it 

346 fer.— Anfhocincla phayrei, Bly. 

I shot one, a male, in the Meplaj Reserve on the Thonngjeen 
River. At the same time I saw the female, and I suspect 
they had a nest there, but 1 failed to find it. 

350 6i^.— Zoothera marginatai Bly. 

One specimen procured in Angnst 1877, in the low hills to 
the east of the Thoungyeeu River in Yabine. A second shot 
SSth March 1879, near the village of Yoko Meplay Ghoung, 
Thonngyeen River, a male, measured in the flesh : — 

Length, 11-20; expanse, 17*30; wing, 5*62; tail, 2*70; tarsus, 
1-30 ; bill from gnpe, 1*78. 



465.— Phyllornis aurifirons, Tem. 

Dr. Jerdon says that the female ^^ wants the golden fore- 
head.'' It may be so with Indian birds. Here male and 
female alike possess it. I have ascertained this beyond a 
doubt. 

669 5i9.— Gamilus leucotis, Eume. 

This Jay is not uncommon between Kaukaryit and Meeawud- 
dy, and on the Meplay Ghoung. 

I am not quite certain, but I think I heard its very peculiar 
chuckling note in the Kyoong Chonng Reserve on the Zamee 
River. I failed, however, to see or secure a specimen. 

706.— Passer indicnSi Jard. and Selb. 

I have noticed a few stragglers of this at Moulmein. At 
Rangoon, in December 187(>, I noticed that it was common. 
Those seen at Moulmein may have been introduced by the 
shipping. One rare straggler reached me at Kaukaryit on the 
floundraw, and, though I waged war against the species in India, 
I made a pet of this one, and used to feed him daily for nearly 
a month, when he disappeared. Though solitary and an exile. 



1 96 NOTBS OK SOME TXKA88BB1M BIRDS. 

lie liad lost none of his native check, and after the first few 
da j8 used to . perch composed! j on the corner of my tahle 
while I was having my breakfast, and regale me with his 
opinion on things in general. 

782— Alsocomus pimiceas. Tick. 

I first noticed this bird in March 1877, when I stopped a 
Karen who was carrying three Pigeons, half-plucked, in his 
hand, to look at them, and found they were all three of this 
species. Subsequently 1 saw them pretty frequently in ones or 
twos near to that same man's village in the Sinzaway Reserve, 
but never was fortunate enough to secure any, the fact being 
that thinking it was probably common all over Tenasserim, I 
did not take any particular pains to shoot them. I left ttie 
Sinzaway Reserve in May 1877, and have never been there 
since ; nor have I had the luck to even see one from that time 
to this, though I have been all over the Zamee, Wmjeo, 
Tkoungyeen, and Houndraw jungles. 

The call of this Pigeon is a soft mew, not unlike that of 
Carpopliaga cmea^ only not half so loud or booming. 

842.— Glareola orientalis, Leach. 

One specimen shot at Kaukaryit out of a small party on the 
5th April 1878. 

867.— Scolopax rnsticola, Lin. 

On the 28th April 1879, I flushed an undoubted Wookcock, 
among some willows on the bank of the Gyne River. Unfor- 
tunately I had no gun in my hand. I don't think J could have 
made a mistake, as I was familiar with the bird in my boyhood. 

870.— Qallinago sthenura, Kuhl. 
871.— Gallinago galliiiaria» Om. 

It is very strange that at the beginning of the Snipe season 
one gets only the former of these two birds, and at the end 
chiefly the latter, with only one or two perhaps of the former. 

G. Bthenura comes in about the middle of August around 
Moulmein. A register kept by Captain Dodd, the Master Attend- 
ant of Moulmein, a keen sportsman, showed the 17th August 
as the earliest date on which he has shot his first Snipe, during 
the last seven or eight years. 



2S0IAUTI8 HIATIOULA, Lin. 197 

In 1878, he and I procured four couple between us on the 
17th Angnst. The largest bag I have seen was 27 couple, but I 
have igard of 100 couple (?) to one gun. 

The Pin-tail flies slower, and rises more lazilj than the 
Fan-tail. 

G. gaUinaria comes in about the end of September. ' I 
note that the first I shot near Moulmein were a couple on the 
23rd September 1878. 

933. — ^Ardetta cumamomea, Om. 

F^smoZtf. -^Procured in the Sinzaway Reserve, 12th April 
1877. 



849 6w,— J^ejgiaUtia hiatktila, %xxi. 



In a collection of birds made bj Mr. W. N. Chill, near 
Sultanpur in the Goorgaon District, I found a small Plover 
killed on the 28th November 1878, which is clearlj referable 
to the present species. 

This is the firat authentic instance^ I believe, of the occurrence 
of this species within our limits* 

This species occurs throughout Europe, in Asia Minor, Pales- 
tine! on the Caucasus, in the Caspian region, in Western Tur- 
kistan, and in Siberia, where Middendorff found it breeding 
in the extreme north on the Taimyr, nearly in the 74° K. Lat. 
Pere David procured a single specimen near Pekin. 

It is a regular winter visitant to North-East Africa, and appears 
as a straggler in various other parts of Africa to the extreme 
south. Mr. Gould records a specimen from Australia. 

Mr. Gray, in his Hand List, includes Persia in its habitat, 
but neither Blanford nor St. John met with it there ; and, though 
its occurrence in India renders its appearance in Persia highly 
probable, this fact still requires confirmation. 

This species was formerly included in my Catalogue of the 
Birds of India, on the strength of BIyth's remarkR, IbU^ 
1867, page 165, that two specimens in Mr. Hodgson's collection, 
named by Mr. Gray Charadritts plaeiday were, in his opinion, 
nothing but j^gialitis hiaticula. But after Swinhoe had des- 
cribed his jEgialitia hartingiiy P. Z. S., 1870, page 136, and 
I bad described my Eudromias tenuirostris, S. F., I., page 17, 
Mr. Harting, in the Ibis for July 1878, showed that both these 
species were identical with Charadrius plaeidusy Gray, and 
that Biyth was in error in identifying this with JBgialitia hia' 
ticula^ which latter species accordingly, losing its sole claim to 



198 iEOTALITIS HIATICULA, Lin. 

occnrrpnce within oiir limitR, had to be erased from the lisfc 
oC our Avifauim (vide S. F., I., 495). 

The occnrrence of this species in India beiu<^ now, however, 
established beyond all doubt, it becomes necessary to describe 
it, and ]>oint out how it may be readily distinguished from 
other allied forms which have hitherto been known to occur in 
India. 

It may be well to premise that Sultanpur, in the neighbour- 
hood of which this specimen was procured, is in Northern India, 
iind about 30 miles south of Delhi. 

In breeding plumage this species can be distinguislied at a 
glance. The legs, feet and bill orange yellow ; the tip of the 
bill and the claws black ; chin, throat and a collar round the 
neck white ; a broad black band across the breast continued as 
a narrow black collar behind the white one. The whole an- 
terior portion of the head, lores, cheeks, ear-coverts black, with 
a white band across the forehead from eye to eye, and another 
white band over the posterior portion of the eye and ear-coverts ; 
crown, occiput, and rest of upper parts of a greyish earth 
brown, darker on the earlier primaries and the whole of the 
lower parts below the olack breast band ; wing-lining and 
axillaries pure white. The outer tail feather on each side pure 
white ; the rest, except the central ones, tipped white, and with a 
dark brown subterminal band. 

But it is not in this plumage that we are likely to meet with 
the bird, nor, I apprehend, are we likely to get many adults. 
It will probably be mostly birds of the year that will be met 
with, and these are by no means so easy to discriminate. 

I have no measurements recorded in the flesh, but I have a 
nnmber of European specimens as well as this Indian one, and the 
following appear to be about the dimensions. The birds I may 
note vary a good deal in size, according possibly to age or sex : — 

Length, 70 to 80 ; wing, 496 to 5*55 ; tarsus, 92 to M ; 
tail, from insertion of feathers into the os coccygi%^ 2*4 to 
2-75 ; bill at front, from frontal bone to tip, 0-68 to 78. 

In the young the legs and feet appear to have been a duller 
homy yellow ; the bill dark horny brown, yellowish at the 
base of the lower mandible. 

As regards the color of the legs, therefore, it resembles dubia, 
and as regards the bill minnta {vide S. P., VIL, 299, 300), but 
the bill is much coarser and larger than in either species, and 
the legs also are coarser, the feet much larger, and the wings 
of course very mttch longer. 

A band over the base of the bill and through the lores to the 
eye greyish brown ; a band under the eye and over the ear- 
coveiis dark brown ; forehead dingy brownish or bu£Py white ; 



MQlAWnS HIATICULAy Lin. 199 

chin, throat and a collar ronnd the back of the neckj white ; 
crown, occiput and nape above the white collar, a greyish or 
earthy brown, mach the same color as in dubia ; a broad, dark 
brown band on the breast, more or less interrupted towards the 
centre ; a blackish brown band running from this round thu 
back of the neck immediately below the white collar ; entire 
mantle, rump, upper tail-coverts and central tail feathers like 
the crown, and much as in dubia. In the youngest birds with 
an excessively narrow whitish margin to the tips of the feathers 
with a darker hair line inside this, but in somewhat more ad- 
vanced birds, like the Indian specimen before me, scarcely a 
trace of this remains. 

The centre tail feathers darker brown towards the tips. 

The primaries somewhat darker, as are in a less degree their 
coverts and the secondaries. The secondary greater coverts 
tipped with pure white, forming a distinct transverse white 
band ; traces of this white tipping on the primary greater 
coverts. The fifth and succeeding primaries with a white 

f)atch on the outer webs forming in the half-closed wing a 
ongitudinal white stripe. The if hole of the lower parts below 
the breast band, including the outer tail feather on each side, the 
wing lining and axillaries, pure white. The rest of the tail 
feathers, except the central ones, more or less broadly tipped 
white, and with a more or less broad, blackish brown subtermi- 
nal band. 

Now this may seem very like diAia or minuta in certain 
.stages of plumage, and the birds are very like in youug and 
iion-br«eding plumage, but indei)endent of the much coarser 
bill and larger size of the present species, already alluded to, 
dubia and minuta both want the conspicuous white transverse 
bands formed by the tips of the secondary coverts, and the 
longitudinal band formed by the white patch on the outer webs 
of the fifth and succeeding primaries in hiatieula. Moreover 
in dubia and minuta there is always a blackish brown 
spot about the middle of the inner web of the outer tail feather, 
which feather appears to be always white in hiatieula. Again, 
in dubia and minuta^ the whole of the shaft of the first primary, 
except at the extreme tip, is white, while the whole of the shafts 
of all the rest of the primaries is brown, whereas in hiatieula^ 
the shafts of all the primaries are similar, and have nearly 
the basal halves dark brown, and the rest, except the extreme 
tips, pure white. If these differences are borne in mind^ 
it will be impossible to confound hiatieula with either dubia or 
mtnuto. 

If, now, we compare this species with caniiana and mongola^ 
we find that both these have the same transverse and longitudi- 

26 



SOO AQIALmS HUTIOULA, Litf. 

ml white wing bands that charaoterise hiatioilay but both of 
these haw the shaft of the first mrimavy white or whitish to 
the base, while in hiatieula nearly the basal half of the shaft 
of the first primary is deep brown. Then both species have tbj 
legs dilsky g^reenish or plumbeous^ while in kUxtieula eten the 
yonng birds appear to have the legs yellow, though it may be 
dingy. 

Again, cantianuB is smaller and has a wing neveri I think^ 
exceeding 4*6 ; and moreover eantianui has the two outer feathers 
on each side all but pure white and without any black spot 
on them, and the whole tail wants the -conspicuous subterminai 
blackish band which characterise the lateral tail feathers of 
dubia and hiatieula ; moreover eaniiana entirely wants the more 
or less pronounced (according to age and season) black band 
behind the white nuchal collar, which black band is more or 
less traceable in even quite immature Iiiatictda. 

In tnauffola the wing runs up to 5*1, but then mongclm 
never has any white nuchal collar, and has a much larger bill 
age for age, and it never has any black on the breast or round 
the back of the neck ; and, though even its outermost tail 
feather is shaded on the inner web towards the tip with grey 
brown, the entire tail wants the conspicuous blackish brown 
subterminai band, characteristic of hiatieula^ dubia^ Ac. 

I know that these little Plovers are diflScult to discriminate, 
but if the above remarks are carefully borne in mind, it wiH 
be impossible to confound hiatieula^ even in its immature state^ 
with the corresponding stage of either mongolaj eantiana^ 
dubia or minuta, and as for geoffroyi, that is so much larger 
with a tarsus 1*5 to 1*6 and dusky greenish, and a bill nearly 
an inch in length, that this cannot be mistaken for hiatieiUa. 

As for both anatica and vereda they, too, are much longer- 
legged birds, with the tarsi 1*5 in the one and 1*8 in the other, 
and with no white on the wing, so that I think that any of my 
readers, who may chance to meet with hiatieula in future, 
ought to have no difficulty in identifying it. 

There is indeed another species, ^gMitis nigrifiymif of whioh 
Jerdon obtained a single specimen at the Pulioat Lake, near 
Madras ; but this appears to be always characterized by the 
more or less maroon or chestnut color of the scapulars, and the 
arrangement of the black and white about the head is qnit^ 
difierent to that of any of our other species^ It has been fully 
described, S. F., VII., 489. 

Lastly, there is a tiny species, JEgiaUtU p&rani, known to 
occur in Borneo, Java, &c., and which very probably occum 
both in the Malay Peninsula and in Southern Tenasserim, 
but which has not yet been recorded from either of these iocs- 



OBSIORNIS TBMMUiCKI, J. K Ova^ 201 

litiM. This species ig mqch like dubioy but the wing^ is only 
about 8'75 iu length* It has no black band over the base of 
the bill, only a black line from the gape to the eye, and from 
behind the eye backwards. The CDtire forehead is broadly pure 
whitOj and this white continues unbroken over the eye, and 
backwards over the ear-covertS| whereas in dubia the black 
of the anterior part of the crown comes right down to the eye 
and divides the white of the forehead from the white band over 
the posterior portion of the eye and ear-coverts. Lastly, the 
black on the anterior portion of the crown is very much 
narrower than in dMa, and runs at once into the brown of the 
crown instead of being divided from tbia by a narrow greyish 
white band as in dvibia.^ 

A, 0. H. 



■■ 



Hajob 0. H. T. Mabshall has recently received through 
Major Charles Cock, from Lieut. Stevens, a Oeriomia brought 
from the Mishmi Hills at the extreme east of Assam, which, 
though it differs in some minor particulars from Elliof s plate,t 
and his and other meagre descriptions available, is yet I 
believe referable to C temmineki of Gray. 
' There is no certainty of course that the Mishmis, who 
brought down this specimen, procured it in their own hills, 
but were is good reason to believe that they did so. Hitherto 
the species has been known from Central China, from near 
Hankow to the Eastern Hills of Setchuen, but these latter 
extend to within probably 200 miles of the Mishmi Hills, and, 
though believed to be divided from them by at least two 
profound river valleys, there is nothing primd facie to lead us 
to disbelieye in this south-western extension of the bird's range4 

Ceriomis temmineki is most like Ceriomie aatyra^ but may 
be distinguished at once by having the interscapulary regiorr, 

I !■ ■■■ l-l«l«l < t i .1 III 111! »llll II I I 

* Iliete lemarki refer to p^nmi in tpiing «od iiimmer plnnuige. In winter plumage 
it has bMn fhu described : — 

"light brown iJboTe, with m mfoni tinge on the sides of the head ; n narrow band of 
white rone aexoss the forehead and orer to the top of the eje; it then toms rufous and 
eo passes orer the ear-eoverts. The loral streak is light reddish brown. The nuchal 
white ring is indistinotly indicated, being marked with light mfoun, which is also the 
colour of the bieast-pateh, and runs faintly across the breast. The rest of the under 
parts are white i and the wiiin and the tail hare the same markinn as in the adult." 

f Pairfd and Oustalet also figure this species, but little can be learned from iktit, 
plate^ and their dseeription too is anything but fhll. 

X Sinoe this was wntien I see that the specimens of this speoies, obserred bj Hr 
Bennett In Mr. Beale^s Ariary at Bfaeao, had beenprocured in Yunao, the north- 
western portions of which almost meet the Mishmi Hills, so that there can bf no 
reason to doubt that this bird did reallj oome, as supposed, from these latter. 



202 OERIORNIS TEHMINCET, /. E. Gray. 

Bcapalars, back, rump and npper-tail coverts the eame rich 
maroon red as the lower part of the back of the neck, thickly 
dotted with circular or oval pearly grey or greyish white 
spots, more or less completely encircled by a narrowish black 
band. Also by having the breast and under parts all thickly 
set with huge, oval, pearly grey spots, occupying more than 
half the visible terminal portions of the feathers, spots not 
surrounded by a black line as are the much smaller ones on 
the breast of satyra. 

The following are the dimensions taken from this Mishmi 
skin, which is that of an adult male : — Length, about 23*0 ; wing, 
10'3 ; tail from the os coccygia^ 9*0 ; tarsus, 3*2 ; mid toe and 
claw, 3*0; bill from gape, TS. 

-The bird is, therefore, much about the same size as satyra. 
The colors of the soft parts I quote from Pere David : — '^ Irides 
chestnut ; bill white ; culmen and base brownish ; legs and feet 
of a rosy flesh color, inclining to red ; horns of a bluish green, 
indigo blue at the base ; naked skin round the eye indigo blue, 
with the lores and eyebrows green ; gular apron^ indigo blue, 
passing to greenish blue on the edges, which are ornamented 
.with square patches of purplish red.'' (Qould figures these 
patches as oval and crimson.) 

The forehead and anterior portion of the crown, (the central 
feathers of which are elongated and form the anterior portions 
of the crest), the sides of the head, including the ear-coverts 
and a band round the margin of the gular skin, black ; the 
posterior portion of the crown and occiput, (the feathers of 
which are elongated and form the central and posterior por- 
tions of the crest) and the feathers of the upper part of the 
neck all round immediately adjoining the black already referred 
to, a sort of orange yellow at their bases, becoming a ferru- 
ginous maroon towards the tips. 

The upper part of the back of the neck, interscapulary 
region, scapulars, back, rump and all but the longest row of 
upper tail- coverts a rather dull maroon red, the feathers with 
numerous small circular or oval greyish white to pearly grey 
spots, surrounded by a black band, more or less imperfect in 
some, and showing here and there, where the feathers are slight- 
ly disturbed, a tonorue-shaped black band running up from this 
black frame which encircles the spot, and with a zig-zaggy 
whitish line inside the margin of this tongue. The longest 
upper tail-coverts are grey brown, washed towards their margins 
with rusty maroon. In the next row of tail-coverts above 
these the greyish white spots are very much larger than in the 



• The Miihioee bird is $a%d to hare had the wattlef yellow. 



CKBiORNis TKMMiKOKr, /. E. Oray. ^03' 

tmaller npper taiincoTerts, and almost jantirelj want the black 
encircling band. 

• The tail is black, the basal three-fourths or more, profnsely 
Tariegated with irregnlar, transverse, zig-zaggj* bars, of a 
warm bnfF color, more or less ferrnginous on the lateral tail 
feathers ; the exterior tail feathers of all are fully two inches 
shorter than the rest, and are only blackish brown and show ai 
dull imperfect rufous buff tipping ; a faint trace of the same on 
the next pair ; the primaries and their greater coverts and the 
secondaries are black variegated like the tail ; the markings 
on the secondaries being, however^ paler and yellower; the 
winglet, the two longest feathers of which are longer than the 
primary greater coverts^ and have the outer webs a uniform 
rich ferruginous orange buff, form a conspicuous longitudinal 
band on the anterior portion of the wing — a feature common to 
Ceriomia aatyra ; the shoulder of the wing a sort of orange 
maroon ; the tertiaries and the rest of the coverts much like 
the back, except that the pearly grey spots are larger, and 
that the feathers are here and there variegated with zig-zaggy 
irregular spots, patches or bars, of yellowish white to ferru« 
ginous buffi set in black, which, however^ are only conspicuous 
on the tertiaries ; the edge of the wing and the smaller lower 
wing-coverts orange buff, the feathers washed at the tips witli 
maroon. 

The breast and entire lower parts, except the tibial plumes 
and the longest lower tail-coverts, mingled rich maroon and 
delicate French grey ; the feathers of the breast and upper 
abdomen being maroon^ with a huge terminal oval grey spot, 
which, in all the feathers of the breast, goes quite, or almost 
quite, to the end of the feather, while, in the feathers of the lower 
abdomen and flanks, there is a perceptible, though narrow, 
maroon fringe left beyond the grey spot^ and in the lesser and 
median lower tail-coverts this fringe is so much more developed 
that the grey spots are only subterminal ; the longest lower 
tail-coverts are blackish brown, with a rufous ferruginous shaft 
and traces of imperfect bars of the same color, and washed 
towards the margins and tips with rusty maroon. On the 
sides of the body opposite the breast, and again in places on the 
flanks, traces of the basal portions of the feathers, black, 
variegated with irregular zig-zaggy transverse bars of white, or 
huffy white, are visible where the feathers are disturbed ; 
whether they would be so in life I cannot say. The tibial 
plumes are orange ferruginous, tinged with maroon. 

Mr. Elliot's plate, beautiful as it is, completely hides the 
anterior portion of the wing. I cannot, therefore, be certain 
that the true temmincki exhibits the peculiar coloration of the 



iOi ▲ OONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNlTHOLOaT OF NBPAL. 

-wingtet ftbave referred to^ nor is it Bhown in Oould'^ equally 
beautifat picture, nor is it referred to in any single descnption 
to which I have access ; but this probably is a mere oversigrht. 
Again, in Mr. Elliot's picture, the whole of the feathers of the 
lower surface are represented as having very broad maroon 
borders extending beyond the grey, or, as he represents them, 
almost tohUe spots ; but Mr. Gould figures these spots correctly 
pearly grey, and represents them with extremely narrow^ ter- 
minal fringes, so toat on the whole I have no doubt that our 
present bird is identical with the Chinese one. 
. X hfive seen no specimen of tlie female, but figures show 
that she is very similar in marking to tliose of satyraj but 
altogether paler colored and greyer. 

. This species must now be included, I suppose, in our list of 
the Birds of the Indian Empire. 



% AonttibitUaQ U i\t 4BrnU|[olo0t of Sicyal* 

By J. SouLLT. 



Thb following notes on some Birds of Nepal were made 
daring the course of a residence of two years in that country* 
I was induced to collect the birds hereafter recorded, and to note 
the localities from whence they were obtainedj because I found 
that, although Mr. Hodgson had collected probably every spa* 
cies known to occur in the State, there was hardlv any inform- 
ation on record about the particular stations of those species in 
a country characterised by the utmost diversity of physical 
configuration, elevation above sea level, and climate. 

In the British Museum Catalogues of Mr. Hodgson^s collec- 
tions, the distributioQ of the birds obtained by that naturalist is 
not attempted : the usual remark which there follows the syno- 
nymy of each species is ^^ Inhab-Nepal ;" though, no doubt^ 
occasionally '^Northern Snowy Region'' or ^^ Lower Hills'' are 
specified. 

. In his essay on the Physical Geography of the Himalayas, Mr« 
Hodgson gave a sketch of the principal genera of birds charac- 
teristic of his Northern, Central, and Lower Regions of Nepal ; 
and in the notices of birds described by him as new, he indicated 
the localities from which they had been procured, but these refer 
to very few species, and moreover occur in publications now 
verjT difficult of access. After all I found it impossible U^ 
arrive at any certain, conclusion about the species inhabiting the 
Nepal Valley, for instance, without actually making a collection 
there. 



A OONTBIB0TION TO THE ORMITHOLOOT OF KBPAIi. 205 

I will now give a brief acoonnt of the part of Nepal wliei^ 
my birds were obtained, as this is a tieoeasary introduction to 
my detailed list of species. 

I. 

The State of Nepal, as is well known, extends for abont 500 
miles in length, from Knmaou ou the west, to Sikbim on the east, 
and has an average breadth of about 100 miles. The total. area 
of the country is about 54,000 square miles, and the number of 
its inhabitants is . probably not more than 3^000,000, although 
estimated by the Nepalese themselves at over 5,000,000. Withr 
in this territory the name Sepal is only applied to the great val- 
ley in which Kathmandn, the present capital of tlie country, is 
situated ; but as the natives have no name to signify the whole 
territories of the Maharaj Adhiraj of Nepal, to which the title 
of Nepal has been applied by all English writers, I have fbnnd 
it necessary to distinguish the valley of Kathmandu as ih^ 
Nepal Faliejf or Valley of Nepatj while the word Nepal alone I 
use to designate the whole country. 

The only portion of Nepal which I have traversed consists of 
the main road from SegowU to Kathmandu, the great Valley of 
Nepal, and a small tract of country round the latter, including 
the Nawakot District. These parts have been very fully desr 
cribed by many writers, especially by Father Giuseppe, Eirk* 
patrio, Bochanau^Hamiltou, Hodgson, Smith and Wright 
from the writings of these authorities, aided bv my personal 
<rf)servation, I have compiled the following slight sketch of the 
country to which my observations refer. 

On leaving Segowli, a small cantonment in the Chumparun 
district, the Sikrana river is crossed, and from thence there is a 
fair driving road for twelve miles to Hurdea. Four miles be* 
yond Hurdea the Buksaul stream is crossed, and Nepal Terri- 
tory is entered at sixteen miles from Segowli, the road running 
a little east of north. Still proceeding northwards, the road for 
some ten miles beyond Ruksaul is a mere cart tract through a 
country differing in no respect from that of Chumparun gener 
rally : level land, richly cultivated, with hamlets dotted abou^ and 
adorned with many -fine topes of trees and clumps of bamboa 
This represents the tract of country hereafter referred to as the 
plains of Nepal ; it is separated from the adjoining British 
territory by a purely artificial line. 

Four or five miles of road, further on, takes ns to the edge of 
the S&l forest, past Semrabasa ; the latter is a small village on the 
border of the forest about the same height above sea level as. Se^ 
gowlL The strip thus crossed is the true Torat, which, in winter 
at least, differs very .little ii^^appearaace from the plains propei:* 



'206 A GONTfiIBI][TION TO THX OBKITHOLOOY OF NKPAL, 

It iBj perhaps, a little lower, less oultivated aad more intersected 
with small streams ; and small swamps are met with in it here 
and there. During the rains this tract is a waste overgrown 
with long grass; water-conrses are frequent and cntnp the road« 
and it then differs conspicuously from the adjoining plains in 
being so highly malarious that only certain races, such as 
Dhangars, who are inured to the climate, can then live there 
with impunity. Whenever the Tarai is mentioned in the fol- 
lowing pages^ the word is used in a restricted sense to designate 
only this swampy tract immediately below and south of the 
S&l forest. 

About thirty miles northwards of Segowli, then, we are on 
the edge of the great S&l forest, which rises suddenly, and with 
a straight outline stretches east and west as far as the eye can 
see, on ground a little raised above the Tarai strip. From 
Bemrabasa there is a straight road through the dense forest for 
ten miles to Bichiakoh. This portion is the Jh&ri or Bhaver of 
the natives, and forms the slightly ascending slope from the 
Tarai to the Sandstone Ridge. With the exception of a small 
stream (dry in the cold weather) which crosses the road about 
three miles south of Bichiakoh, this forest region is quite 
waterless ; but it is as malarious as the Tarai during the hot 
weather and rains. The forest is composed mainly of Sftl 
(Sharea robtista), with a few Simal or Silk Cotton trees 
{Bombax sp,) interspersed, and a comparatively slight under- 
growth of grass and scrub. 

Bichiakoh, at the southern base of the Sandstone Range, 
consists of a few huts and a substantial rest-house built on the 
banks of a small stream having a shingly bed. Two or three 
miles west of Bichiakoh, I came across a small but very deep 
lake in the heart of the forest ; it was tenanted in winter by 
great numbers of swimming birds. From Bichiakoh the road 
lies along the broad bed of the stream above mentioned, for 
eight miles, to the summit of the Ghuriaghati or Sandstone 
Range. The banks of the torrent bed are at first composed of 
light grey sand gradually increasing in height ; a little beyond 
Bichiakoh the sand is overlaid by conglomerate, which tlien at 
first rapidly increases in depth and forms high cliffs on each 
aide of tlie road. The pebbles in this conglomerate section are 
largest high up, near the surface of the slope which is pretty 
thickly clothed with Pinut longifolia and other trees. As the 
Pass is neared the ascent becomes steep, and at the summit of 
the range the road runs through a narrow gorge, probably 
artificial, from which the name of Churiaghati is derived. 

A slight descent from the Ghuriaghati takes us again into a 
shingly torreQt bed, and on quitting this, the road runs through 



A CONTRIBnTIOM TO THE OaNITHOLOGT OF KEPAIi. 207 

4l pleaaant Sftt foreatj on gently undulating ground^ to Seftonra, 
five miles from the crest of the Sandstone Bange. This l)un 
(Dboon) or M&ri of Hetoara is a oharaoteristio example of 
these well-known sab- Himalayan valleys ; lengthways its direc-^ 
tion is nearly east and west, its breadth is about six miles, it 
slopes gently from either side towards the centre, and is 
traversed lengthwise by the streams of the Kurru and Bapti. 
During the hot weathei^ and rains the Hetoura Mari is as 
malarions as the Bhfiver. 

The ridge which flanks Hetoura on the north is cut up in 

various directions by narrow glens, whose sides are thickly 

eovered with forest. The Bapti flows down one of these glens, 

and along the banks of this stream lies the road onward towards 

the Nepal Valley for the next ten miles or so. A little above 

Hetonra, the Samri, a flne large stream during the rains, joins 

the Rapti nearly at right angles. There is a steady, but 

gradual, ascent up the gorge of the Rapti for about eight miles 

to the hamlet and rest-house of Nimboatar. The scenery along 

the greater part of this road is as picturesque as one would 

wish to see : the clear waters of the Bapti tumbling down in 

their winding course, and the lofty walls of the glen richly 

elothed with beautiful forest, form a most charming view. At 

every turn of the road fresh beauties greet the eye of the 

traveller, and the excellence of the road, and of the bridges 

over the river, help the enjoyment of the scene materially. 

At Nimboatar, where the glen widens out, there are large* 
boulders in the bed of the stream against which the waters 
dash and foam, forming during the rains a grand torrent. 
Altogether the glen of Nimboatar is worthy of comparison 
with some parts of the Sind Valley in Kashmir — perhaps the 
highest praise that can be bestowed on scenery of this kind.' 
As usual, the hill-sides, having a northern exposure, are more 
densely covered with forest than those on the opposite side. 
• From Nimboatar to Bhimphedi the distance by road is about 
six miles, there being a regular ascent the whole way. Along 
the road there are some of the finest Simal {Bombeus) trees I 
kaye ever seen ; their great height is only fully realized when 
one tries to shoot one of the many birds that feed on their flowers 
in December. The scenery here is inferior to the lower part 
of the road ; the valley has now widened out a good deal ; there 
is a considerable amount of cultivation in parts, and isolated 
hamlets make their appearance as Bhimphedi is neared. 

Bhimphedi is a fair*sized village, the honses being built of 
ted bricks as is usual in Nepal. It stands at the head of the 
valley we have traversed since leaving Hetoura, immediately 
under the steep Sissagarhi Bidge — which here has ui east and 

27 



208 A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 

west directipiii and cloees the northern end of the Bapti glen. 
The tract of country which intervenes between the plains and 
the Sissa^rhi Range represents Mr. Hodgsou^s division of 
'^ Lower Begion" of Nepal — a region about thirty miles in 
breadth, varying in elevation from the level of the plains to 
4^000 feet above the sea, and highly malarious during the hot 
weather and rains. 

Some English writers speak of the *' Tarai^' as terminating 
at Bhimphedi. This is no doubt an error ; the natives of the 
country do not confound the true Tarai, the Bhaver, Don and 
lower bills under one general term. 

The ascent of the Sissagarhi hill from Bhimphedi is very 
steep, and the path is rugged, passing in parts over loose 
shingly ground. About 1,600 feet above Bhimphedi is 
the Fort and rest-house of Sissagarhi or Chissapani, the latter 
name being derived from a spring of cold water above the Fort. 
From this point there is a fine view of the wooded hills east 
and west of the Bapti Valley. A further ascent of some 500 
feet takes us to the Pass over the Sissagarhi Range— not less 
than 2,000 feet above the village of Bhimphedi ; here the ridge 
is well covered with oak trees. 

From the Sissagarhi Pass to Tambeh Khani, the descent is 
longer, but not nearly so steep as on the southern or Bhimphedi 
side ; the road lies mainly through a fiue forest of oaks and 
chestnuts, but near the foot of the hill it passes over rough 
stony ground and boulders. 

At the north base of the Sissagarhi Ridge a clear rapid 
stream is crossed, whose bed is encumbered with very large 
boulders. During the rains there is a very fine torrent at this 
part, and a little above a picturesque lateral cascade falls in from 
the left bank of the river. From this point the road follows 
the windings of the stream up to Markhu, about seven miles 
from Sissagarhi. The river has to be crossed at least a dozen 
times, and its banks are formed of steep bare rock, in places 
narrowing to a gorge with perpendicular walls. 

Markhu is a small village, situated at the base of the Ek 
Danta hill, where the Ohittaug strearoi flowing along the eastern 
side of the hill, falls into the Markhu river. The latter river, 
which above the village of Markhu flows along the western side 
of Ek Danta, is of fair size, and has a wide shingly bed. About 
a mile above the village it has very large boulders along its 
banks as well as in its bed. 

On leaving Markhu^ we at once ascend Ek Danta hill^ here 
a bare undulating plateau interposed between the Chitlang 
Valley and the Markhu glen. It is the end of a spur, which 
runs out from the Ohandragtri Bidge, and bounds the Chitlang 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OP NEPAL. 209 

Valley on the north-west. There are two roads over Ek Danta ; 
one, to the left, mns across the highest part of the hill ; the 
other, to the ri^ht^ follows the gorge of the Ghitlang stream, 
and is a very narrow path, cut in the steep brow of the *hilly 
some hundreds of feet immediately above the river. The side 
of the gorge, opposite to the road^ is also very steep, and is well 
clothed with vegetation, while the Ek Danta side is com- 
paratively bare ; at one point the stream falls in a fine cascade. 

Having cleared the Ek Danta hill we enter a long valley 
which runs down from the Chandragiri Ridge between two low 
spurs ; the sides of the valley are undulating and grassy^ the 
hill-slope having a northern exposure beiog pretty thickly 
•grown with bush jungle. This is the valley of Chitlang ; from 
its highest part at the south base of Chandragiri, a small stream 
runs down from that mountain along the centre of the valley, 
which curves gradually southwards. Ghitlang is higher than 
the Nepal Valley, and is well cultivated ; it is only at the head 
of the valley, wnere the Chandragiri Bidge blocks it to the north, 
that the hills are well wooded. 

From Chitlang there is an easy ascent to the Pass over the 
Chandragiri Ridge ; and through an opening of the forest which 
covers tiie crest of this ridge, we obtain a fine view of the 
valley of Nepal which lies immediately below. 

As seen from Chandragiri the valley appears to be a level 
plain, irregularly oval in shape, and completely girt round 
with mountains ; and if our view be obtained about the middle 
of July say, the plain is covered with a brilliant green carpet* 
ing of rice fields. 

The populousness of this plain in the heart of the mountains 
is at once attested by the great number of red brick houses 
dotted over its surface : besides the three cities of Kathmandu 
(^ith its finely-shaped white monument, which forms a striking, 
but not an appropriate, feature in the landscape), Patau, and 
Bhatg^on, there are villages, temples, and homesteads innume- 
rable. The Nepal Valley has been aptly termed a miniature of 
Kashmir ; for the purpose of our present bird's-eye view its 
small size is all in its favour, for we are enabled to take in all 
the details of a complete picture ; and the scene from the top 
of Chandragiri is superior to the hazy view obtained of the 
Kashmir V^ley from the Banihal or Baramulla hills. 

The descent from Chandragiri to the valley is very steep and 
rough, the path in parts running down the rock-strewn bed of 
an old torrent. The whole slope is densely covered with most 
luxuriant forest At the base of the ridge stands the village 
of Thankot, on a long gently sloping alluvial fan. The distance 
from Marlihu to Thankot is about nine miles by road. From 



210 A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOQT OF NEPALi 

Tbaokot there is a good driving road aloog the valley for seven 
inilea to Kathmandu. About a mile north of the city we enter 
jblie Residency j^rouads, and here we will rest after oar travels 
and make a brief survey of the Nepal Valley. 
' The Valley of Nepal has been compared in shape to an oval 
and to a lozenge; but it is very irregular in form^ as the hills 
which surround it Send down short spurs into its open part in 
various directions, so that it may be described as consisting of 
a long central part lying nearly east and west, with many 
lateral off-shoots from this, which run up to the base of the 
limiting hills between the spurs above-mentioned. Its greatest 
length is about twenty miles, and its greatest breadth, from 
south to north, about fifteen miles ; but, owing to its peculiar^ 
shape, the total area of tolerably level ground found in the 
valley is probably under 200 square miles. Although by the 
road we traversed, Kathmanau is over ninety miles from 
Segowli, yet the valley is distant not more than thirty miles 
from the plains in a direct line. The position of Kathmandu 
is given as in Lat. 27'' 42' N., and Long. 85* 36' E. Its eleva* 
tion above the sea is about 4,500 feet. 

The prominent peaks of the hills round the valley are Devikoty 
or Mahadeo Pokhri to the east, Sheopuri and Kakani on the 
northern side, Nagarjun on the north-west, Chandragiri, Champa 
Pevf, and Pharphing on the west and south-west, and Pbul- 
ohank on the south-east. The highest of these is Phulcbank, 
9,720 feet, and the others vary from about 6,000 to a little over 
7,500 feet. 

The Nepal Valley is well watered, but all its. streams are of 
small size, as their watershed is strictly confined to the hills 
immediately surrounding the valley. Many of the streams 
are small mountain torrents, often dried up in the hot weather, 
which flow down regular alluvial fans, in the jaws of the small 
ravines or hollows of the hill sides* The two principal streams 
are the Bagmati and the Bishnumati. The Bishnumati rises 
from the south side of Sheopuri, and flowing southwards passes 
along the west face of Kathmandu and joins the Bagmati a 
little south of the city. The stream is always shallow, and its 
channel, though tolerably wide, is for the most part hardly 
lower than the adjoining cultivated land. 

The Bagmati has its origin on the northern side of the 
Sheopuri Peak. At the north base of Sheopuri it winds to the 
east, and then flowing southwards through a gorge in the hills, 
it enters the valley at about the middle of its northern side. 
The general direction of the Bagmati through the valley is to 
the south, and after passing through a narrow rocky cleft at 
Pashpatinath it receives the waters of numerous small streams^ 



Ji CONTRIBUTION TO THR ORNITHOLOQT OF NVPAlu 211 

Unci rona alon^ tbe south side of Kathmanda, between tliai; city 
and Patan, to the point where tbe Bishuumati joins it. Opposite 
Katbmandu the stream has a very wide channel, but even 
daring tbe rains it can there be waded knee-deep. South of 
Kathinandu, the Ba^mati^ having increased to a respectable 
Stream, flows to the south-west, and at Choubal passes by a 
narrow rocky gorge through the point of the Kirtipur Ridge 
«^a spur which runs down from Chandragiri. Beyond Choubal 
.the stream is confined by high banks, and at the south-west 
comer of the valley it makes its exit through a rocky gorge 
carrying the whole drainage of the Ilepal Valley. 

The surface of the valley is by no means level, and all over 
the country we find flat uplands, called Tar^ which are separat- 
ed in various directions by broad flat valleys, of which the 
local name is Khola. The sides of the Tars are often precipi- 
tous, but are commouly artificially terraced for cultivation ; the 
difference in elevation between the uplands and hollows varies 
from about 30 to 100 feet. 

Through every klkola there flows, a small stream, but perhaps 
the greater number of these are dried up in the hot weather. 
Beds of an impure peat frequently form a part of the TVir^, 
and a layer of fine bluish-grey day occurs extensively in them. 
This stiff clay, being almost impermeable to water, it results 
that, during the rains, the water absorbed by the surface of 
the uplands sinks as far as the clay stratum, and there, at the 
side of the 7'ar, trickles out and runs down to the khola below. 
After heavy rain the water pours out of the Tar cliffs, in some 
parts, in small spouts ; and generally speaking, the sides of 
the TcTB are very damp, and small swampy spots are not 
unfrequent at their base, here and there, throughout the 
ivalley. 

Scattered over the central part of the valley are a number 
of small emiueuces thickly covered with tree forest. These 
wooded knolls are often formed of isolated masses of rook 
<;ropping up through the alluvial deposits; but in other oases 
they are simply small isolated Tars covered with trees. Of 
these little hills there are about a dozen principal ones, here<» 
after often alluded to as the '^ Central Woods" ; on the summit 
of nearly every one of them there is a temple. The Besi-^ 
dency ground, on an upland, with a fine belt of Pinua lonpifolia 
and other trees, is included in the *' Central Woods'' ; of the 
others it will suffice to enumerate Simbunath, Bani Jangal^ 
Pashpati, Nil Barafai, Sanku, and Champagaon. 

The native history of Nepal records that the valley was once 
a lake; and every European writer on the country, from 
Father Giuseppe to Dr. Wrighti has more or less confidently 



212 A CONTRIBUTION TO THR ORNITHOLOGY OF NBPAU 

nsBerted that t)ii8 nuint have been the case; one author, iuJee<1^ 
has speculated ou the probable appearance of the valley when it 
was covered by a lake, with the knolls of Simbunath and Pash- 
pati peeping as small islands above the surface of the waters. 
But Mr. Medlicott, the only authority on such matters who 
has written on the Geology of Nepal, is by no means satisfied 
that the deposits in the valley are really lacustrine. In his 
very interesting " Note on the Geology of Nepal," published 
in the records of the Geological Survey of India, No. 4 of 1875, 
Mr. Medlicott arrives at the conclusion that the valley is a trae 
rock basin, but that, while the deposits which it contains are 
on the whole analogous to the Karewalit of Kashmir (which, 
I apprehend, are admittedly lacustrine), there is not suBScient 
evidence to settle the question of their alluvial or lacustrine 
origin. He points out that the beds of peat and the layers 
of blue-grey clay, before mentioned, rather point to an allu- 
.vial formation ; and justly remarks that there is now no lake 
in the valley, however small, to snggest a once more extensive 
one. Although there is no sort of lake in the place, there are 
a few artificial tanks in the valley, none of which, however, 
are of any considerable size. 

. The climate of the valley is, on the whole, very fine. The 
highest temperature in the shade is probably not over 90% 
and the minimum, under like conditions, not lower than 25^. 
The average mean temperature is said to be about 60^ ; and 
the average annnal raiufall is about 58 inches. 

Owing to the manner in which the valley is sheltered by its 
belt of bills, storms of wind are not at all frequent ; but they 
occasionally occur, and do some damage by uprooting large 
trees, &c. The prevailing winds are from the west and north- 
west during the winter and hot weather, and from the 
south-east during the rains. Thunderstorms, accompanied by 
hail, are rather common at certain seasons ; and lightnings 
often does damage to buildings and causes some loss of life. 

The hot weather lasts from the middle of April to the middle 
of June ; the maximum temperature in the shade being in 
April about 84^, in May 90^ and in June 85^ During this 
season the heat is not oppressive, gentle westerly winds usually 
prevail, and punkahs are never required. 

The rainy season sets in about the middle of June and lasts 
until the first week of October. The rains are usually ushered 
in with a few sharp thunderstorms, and during their prevalence 
the usual winds which blow are from the south-east; the 
greatest rainfall occurs in August. 

In July, August and September the highest temperature 
reached in the shade is about 87% 86^ and 84"" respectively ; 



A^ CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF ^RFkh. 213 

thronghout this period the weather in the yalley is less pleasant 
than during anjr other portion of the year : for nearly the whole 
aurfaoe of the valley is then covered with wet rice fields, and 
this condition, combined with the comparatively high tempera- 
tare during the rains, renders the air very damp and steamy. 

From the middle of October to the end of March the 
weather is delightful; in December, January and February 
hoar frost is common , and small pools of water have their 
surface frozen during the night. In January the highest 
temperature in the shade is not more than 60'', and the mini- 
mum temperature is often as low as 25**. Snow very rarely 
falls in the central part of the valley, but the hills surrounding 
it are, now and then, covered in parts with snow. From 
February to the end of April there are a few occasional 
showers of rain ; bxt these are, as a rule, slight in amount. 

The valley is very fertile, and, with the exception of the 
small area occupied by the central woods, every part of its 
surface is cultivated. Owiug to the denseness of its population, 
which is certainly not less than 400^000^ only food-stuffs are 
allowed to be grown in the valley ; the land is covered with 
crops of one sort or another throughout the year^ nearly, and 
in almost every field there is a cottage. In the low marsh v 
lands near the streams transplanted rice is grown ; the rice is 
sown in May, transplanted when the rainy season begins, about 
the middle of June, and is cut from the end of October to the 
middle of November. Land not so easily flooded as the above 
bears wheat in the cold season, fft/ah or upland rice in the spring, 
followed by some kiud of pulse. In the well-irrigated up- 
lands the wheat crop is followed by mustard, buckwheat or 
field vegetables, and these again by transplanted rice. In the 
dry lands the wheat is succeeded by Indian corn. The ffyah 
or upland rice is sown about the latter half of April and the 
Indian corn in May ; both are cut at the beginning of Septem- 
ber. Potatoes are planted iu January and February, and dug 
in May and June. 

All round the valley, at the foot of the hills, the feature is 
sloping grassy ground, higher than the central part, with 
small rouuded spurs running down from the main hills. In 
this part of the valley small streams and springs are of constant 
occurrence, and patches of scrub jungle and of small tree 
forest abound. Of places at the foot of the hills where birds 
were often collected, the following may be mcDtioned : Thankot 
at the base of Chandragiri ; Hatti jangal, further to the south- 
ward ; Godaveri immediutely below Phnlchank ; Sanga, at the 
south-east corner of the valley ; Nilkant, below the Sheopuri 
Peak ; and Balaji, under Na^arjun. 



214 A COKTBIB0TION TO THB OBKITHOLOGT Or KXPAL. 

• • • • 

Of the hills which encircle the valley the lower ones have 
their summits formed of rounded grassy knolls, with a good 
deal of bush jungle in the small nullahs which intenrene between 
these : such is the character of Jahar Powah and Kakani 
Powah. The higher hills^ Chandragiri, Sheopuri^ Fhnlcbank 
are covered with a noble g^arniture of trees. These forests are 
most rich in bird life, and to any ornithologist who may visit 
the Nepal Valley I especially recommend Sheopuri. There, 
camped in a grassy glade on the crest of the hill, he may 
wander through the grand forest day after day, to find the 
huge gnarled trees with their branches covered with mosses, 
ferns and orchids, the dense undergrowth of bushes, and the 
splendid rhododendrons giving shelter to birds in wonderful 
profusion of species and individuals. 

Immediately beyond the hills of the Nepal Valley, on th6 
east and south-east, are two fertile and well-cultivated valleys, 
Ban^pa and Panouti, whose streams fall into the Kosi ; and on 
the western side are the- deep Dhuni and Kolpu Valleys, much 
lower and hotter than Kathmandu. Nawakot, which lies north- 
west of the valley, merits more detailed description. 

Before quitting the Nepal Valley I must not omit to mention 
the fine sight which is obtained from it during the greater 
portion of the cold weather. I refer to the view of the snows. 
Probably none of our Himalayan stations can furnish such an 
extensive and magnificent prospect of the snowy range as is to 
be seen from the neighbourhood of «Kathmandu. On a clear 
day, and especially from the crests of the surrounding hills, 
an uninterrupted view of the snow-clad chain can be seen over 
some 120 degrees of the horizon, including Doulagiri, Gosain 
Than, Mount Everest and Kinchinjunga. From the Residency 
grounds even, during the clear weather of the winter months, 
the sunset efiects on the snows present a picture never to be 
forgotten: the bright golden glow of the peaks gradually 
shading into the most delicate rose colour ; then a cold grey 
for a minute or two, which gives way to an after-glow tinge 
of the most delicate pink ; and as this again fades away, the 
mighty walls of snow settle into a pale grey shade cruelly 
suggestive of the most extreme cold. 

In position, as well as in elevation, the Nepal Valley forms 
a characteristic portion of Mr. Hodgson's ^^ Central Region,'' 
which he defined as a tract of country equidistant from the 
plains and the snows, and having an elevation of from 4,000 
to 10,000 feet. We have now to visit a part of Nepal (the 
Nawakot district) which, although further north and nearer to 
the snows than the Great Valley, is so much lower and hotter 
than the latter, that it must be considered ta belong to the lower 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 215 

region^ — ^a view quite coDfirmed by its vegetatioa and avi- 
fauna* 

Nawakot is the name of a small iow^n and district^ about 
twenty-two miles by road and sixteen miles in a direct line, 
north-west of Kathmandu on the main road from the valley of 
Nepal to Oorkha. The road to Nawakot starts from the north- 
west comer of the Great Valley and passes across the Kakani hill. 
The path lies at first over very rough ground, and, constantlv 
rising and sinking, runs along the side of the hill^ which is in 
this part quite bare of trees. From the pass on the crest of 
the hill a fine view is obtained of the snows ; immediately below 
at the northern base of the Eakani Bid^e flows the Sindhuria 
river, and further out the Likhu and Sadi rivers in their straths, 
the streams all running in a general westerly direction. 

From the crest of the hill there is a steady descent to 
Chutrali Powah, which is about twelve or thirteen miles from 
Kathmandu. Here the fact that we have reached a much 
lower level than the Nepal Valley is made evident by the 
considerably higher temperature of the air^ and by the appear- 
ance of trees, such as the Banian, not found in the great valley. 
From Chutrali Powah one gets a most picturesque view of 
the Nawakot district^ which may be called roughly triancrular 
in shape. The base of the triangle is formed by a lofty ran (re 
of hills to the norths whose lower slopes are principally covered 
with a forest of Finns longifolia. The western side of the 
district is limited by the Trisul Ganga flowing down from the 
northern hill-barrier to a little west of south; to the r\o\\i 
the district is bounded on the east by the ends of the spurs 
which separate the Tadi, Likhu and Sindhuria rivers; while on 
ihe southern side is the Kakani or Burmandi Ridge which 
separates Nawakot from the Nepal Valley* The apex of the 
triangle is at Devighat, on the south-west, where the Tadi river 
falls into the Trisul Ganga. From Dhaibung or Jibjibia, the 
most prominent peak of the hills to the north of Nawakot 
a spur runs down in a south-westerly direction between the 
Trisul Ganga and Tadi rivers. The town of Nawakot is situated 
on the crest of this spur at the northern extremity of the 
district, and its lofty red brick Durbar is conspicuous from 
Chutrali Powah. The Nawakot spur has its soil of a marked 
red colour, and nearly the whole of its slope towards the Tadi 
river is covered with a forest of S&I trees. 

From Chutrali Powah there is a steep descent to the bed of the 
Sindhuria stream, the path being bordered on each side by 
the most luxuriant vegetation. From the base of the Bur- 
mandi hill the road lies along the glen of the Sindhuria to the 
junction of that stream with the Tadi. About four miles above 

28 



216 A CONTRIBXTTION TO THE OBKITHOLOOY OF NKPAL. 

this point the Tadi receives the waters of the Likhu stream, and 
four miles lower down the Tadi itself joins the Trisul Gan^^ 

The vales of the Sindhuria, Likhu and Tadi vary in width 
from about 300 yards to half a mile. They are locally known 
by the name of BiaHy and are swampy rice beds only a few 
feet above the level of the streams, the latter beings very 
shallow in winter. These portions of the Nawakot district are 
fully 2,200 feet lower than Eathmandu^ and are highly mala- 
rious during the hot weather and rains. 

The spur on which Nawakot stands gradually decreases in 
height south of the town^ and about a mile and a half below 
Nawakot it spreads into a level plain which occupies nearly 
the whole space between the Tadi and Trisul Ganga, as far aa 
the junction of these rivers at Davighat. At the point where 
Nawakot town is built the spur is from 800 to 1,000 feet above 
the level of the Trisul Ganga, and its tip at Devighat is less 
than 100 feet above the river. The surface of Uiis tract is 
covered with trees and fine orchards. 

Lying between the western slope of the Nawakot spar and 
the Trisul Ganga, from Davighat to below the town^ is a tract 
of land considerably elevated above the river, and analogons to 
the Tars of the Nepal Valley. All along this upland for five 
miles from Devighat to a point below Nawakot town, as well as 
on the level part of the Nawakot spur^ are fine mangoe orchards, 
banian trees^ simals^ plantains, pine-apples and guavas, all an* 
known in the great valley ; while the slope of the spur is oovered 
with S&l trees ( also foreign to the Nepal Valley) whioh are 
here reduced to mere bushes by constant defoliation, the leaves 
being regularly carried to Kathmandu to be used as plates. 

The town of Nawakot is built in a hollow on the crest of the 
spur before mentioned, and is well sheltered by trees. The 
ridge is steep on both sides of the town, and the latter cannot 
be seen from below either from the Trisul Gan^a or the Tadi side. 
The slope towards the Tadi, where the trees are not injared, 
is covered with a fine 8&1 forest. 

The Trisul Ganga is a great river, quite unlike any of the 
streams we have hitherto met in Nepal. It is spanned about 
four miles from the town of Nawakot by a Sanga or saspen- 
sion bridge, which is most jealously guarded. No European 
is allowed to cross this bridge which here marks the most 
northerly point to which the curious obstructiveness of the 
Nepalese officials restricts the travels of all Englishmen. 

II. 

The following list of three hundred species of birds is foonded 
on a collection of nearly two thousand specimens which I made 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGT OF NBPAL. 217 

in Nepal. Mr. Hame very kindly allowed me to compare my 
collection in his museum, and the result of this oomparison 
will be found noted with reference to many of the species 
enumerated ; but I am alone responsible for the identifications 
and for the views put forward in this paper. 

1.— Vultur monadms, Zin. 

This Vulture is seldom seen in the valley of Nepal, and is 
decidedly the least common of the six species of Vultures 
which occur there. It was only identified with certainty on 
one occasion, when it was seen feeding on the carcase of an 
elephant at Thankot, in December, in company with ealtma, 
ftdveseeru and bengaUnsis. 

2. — Otogyps calvuSi Scop. 

1. Lengthy 81*5; expanse, 87*5; wing, 230; tail, 10*6; 
tarsus, 4'0 ; bill from gape, 2*9 ; bill from anterior margin of 
cere, straight, 1'93; length of cere, Tl; depth of closed bill 
at cere, 1*3 ; width of bill at gape, 2*0 ; mid-toe, 3*6 ; its claw, 
straight, 1*0; weight, lllbs. 

Upper mandible and tip of lower greenish dusky ; base of 
lower mandible dusky greyish horny ; cere, gape, orbital skin 
and skin at base of lower mandible pale yellowish fleshy ; head, 
neck, and lappets fleshy, with a slight tinge of greenish about 
the throat and crop— the lappets 8*0 in length and 1*2 at 
broadest part ; bare thigh patch fleshy ; feet reddish fleshy ; 
claws homy black. 

2. MaU. — Length, 82*5; expanse, 88*0; wing, 23*6; tail, 
11*3 ; tarsus, 4*1 ; bill from gape, 2*9 ; bill from cere,'l*9 ; length 
of cere, 1*05; depth of closed bill at cere, 1*36 ; width at gape, 
2'15; mid-toe, 3*7; its claw, straight, 1*05; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*5 ; weight, 91bs, 5'5ozs. 

In this specimen the long scapulars vary in color from ashy 
grey to whitish, and have blackish brown tips. This condi- 
tion possibly indicates a tendency to albinism. 

This species is common in the valley, and a permanent resi* 
dent ; next to Pseudogyps bengaUmU it is the Vulture most 
abundant there. It is tolerably common in winter in the 
Markhu Valley, the S&l forest, the Tarai and adjoining plains, 
being the only Vulture then noticed in those parts. In the 
valley the bird is usually seen along the banks of the rivers, 
especially near the burning ghats, and it can always be dis- 
tinguished from other species of Vulture by its richly-colored 
head and feet, and by the snowy-white patch on the breast. 
It is generally found single or in pairs, and is apparently much 
more bold and courageous than the Vultures ; and is, for its 



218 A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY 01* NEPAL* 

size, very powerfal, being able to rise straight from the gromid 
hy a few strokes of the wing. 

8 &i^.— Gyps fiilvescens, Hume. 

Female. — Length, 42*0; expanse, 105*0; wing, 28*0; tail, 
18-6; tarsus, 4*3 ; bill from gape, 3*0 ; bill from cere, 2*04 ; length 
of cere, 1*14; depth of bill at cere, 1*3 ; width at gape, 1*65; 
gonys, 1*25 ; mid-toe, 4*4; its claw, straight^ 1*25; closed 
wings short of tail, 3*3; weight, 15lbs. 

Bill dusky ; irides dark brown ; feet blackish ; daws black. 

A fine specimen, darker and much more richly coloured than 
the type of fulveeeene. Head and neck well clothed with down ; 
ruff of long pointed feathers pale rufous brown, centred whitish ; 
above a rather pale brown ; the rump brownish rufous, and all 
the feathers pale centred; greater coverts, secondaries, and 
tertiaries dusky, the first bronzed and lighter on the outer 
webs ; primaries and tail feathers brownish black ; beneath a 
paler and more rufous brown than the upper parts ; all the 
feathers very narrowly centred with white ; crop closely covered 
with shining wood-brown feathers ; third primary longest. 

This fine Vulture was found in the valley in about the same 
numbers as G, Aimalayensin, and, like the latter, was only 
noticed during the winter months. The only specimen seen 
was shot in the Residency grounds in November ; this bird 
was singularly, clean and free from the usual vulturine odour. 

3 /^.— Gyps hixnalayensiSi Hume. 

Length, 45*7; expanse, 109*5; wing, 300; tail, 16*0; 
tarsus, 4*25; bill from gape, 3*1; bill from anterior margin 
of cere, straight, 2*05; width at gape, 1*70; length of cere, 
1*1 ; depth at cere, 1*3 ; raid-toe, 4*3 ; its claw, straight, 1*25 ; 
wings short of tail, 3*4 ; weight, ISlbs. 7*5ozs. 

A young bird, above rich deep brown ; all the feathers very 
broadly tipped with pale yellowish ; no white patch on the back ; 
upper coverts nearly all pale fulvous ; below the feathers lighter 
brown than the back, and all very broadly centred with falvooa 
white ; fourth primary quill longest. 

Bill pale greenish horny, brownish in front of nostrils, and 
the margin of the upper mandible dusky from festoon to tip ; 
cheeks and chin pale brownish grey; round the lower half 
of the eye bluish or purplish ; skin of neck, where exposed, 
pale sea green ; irides fine hazel brown ; cere dusky ; feet 
greenish grey ; claws pale greyish horny to pale horny brown. 

This huge Vulture is found in small numbers in the valley 
of Nepal, but in winter only. The specimen noted above waa 



A OONTBIBTTTION TO THE OBNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 219 

ihot flying with a loose charge of B. 6., near the Besidency 
(l^nnds in Febrnarj. 

4 ier.—Qj^B tenuirostriSi JSodgs. 

Lengihy 38*5 ; expanse, 89*5 ; wing, 23*4 ; tail, 10*7 ; tarsns, 
8*9 ; bill from gape, 2*85 ; bill from anterior margin of cere, 
straight, 1*78 ; length of cere, 1*1 ; depth of closed bill at cere, 
1*03 ; width at gape, 1*85 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5 ; 
mid-toe, 4*0; its claw, straight, 1*2; weight, 12Ibs 7oz8. 

Colmen yellowish grey horny ; rest of bill dusky brownish 
faornj ; cere horny black ; irides deep brown ; skin of head 
and neck dark muddy ; scales of tarsi and toes black ; the 
interspaces dusky ; claws horny black ; head narrow, neck 
long and slender, both very bare ; ruff of entire pointed feathers 
earthy brown, paling at the tips ; whole mantle with the feathers 
conspicuously pale centred. 

I have carefully compared this specimen with examples of 
(?• indieus from Bengal and with S. palleseena of Hume, and I 
entertain no doubt that my bird is quite distinct from both. 
6t/pa tenuiroaMa is darker than pallescens, and of much the 
same colour as specimens of indietia from the 24-Pergunnahs; 
but it is distinguishable at a glance from both these forms 
by its much more slender and less powerful bill. As to the 
distinctness of indicua from palleaeena, 1 thought from an 
examination of some specimens in Mr. Hume's collection, that 
the latter was merely a paler western form, and not entitled 
to specific rank. The Bengal bird, however, has the neck 
more bare, and Mr. Hume has pointed out other differences 
an Stray Fjbathebs, Vol. YII, p. 166. 

The Himalayan Thin*billed Vulture is tolerably common in 
the valley, and often associates with Paeudogypa bengalenaia. 
I shot the specimen above described in the Residency grounds 
in October ; the bird was perched high up on a Eucalyptus 
tree, on a branch that bent and swayed under its weight 

6.— Pseudogyps bengalensis, Gm. 

Two malea. — Length, 32*6 to 83*0 ; expanse, 88 to 84 ; wing, 
22*2 to 22*4; tail, 9*2 to 9*8; tarsus, 3*6 to 3*8; bill from 
{;ape, 2*6 to 2*75 ; bill from anterior margin of cere, straight, 
1*88 to 1-9 ; depth of closed bill at cere, 1*2 to 1*3 ; width at 
gape, 1*5 to 1*55 ; length of cere, 0*84 to 0*85 ; mid-toe, 3*92 
to 3*95 ; its claw, straight, 1*0; wings short of tail, 1*0 to 2*3 
weight, 91bs. Sozs. to 11 lbs. 

Three /emalea. — Length, 33*5 to 36*8 ; expanse, 85 to 87 
wing, 22*8 to 23*8 ; tail, 10 to 10*5 ; tarsus, 3*9 to 4*0 ; bill from 
gape 2*6 to 2*7 ; from anterior margin of cere, 1*8 to 1*9 



220 A OONTBIBUTIOH TO THB OBNITHOLOGT OF NBPAIi. 

depth of closed bill at cere^ 1*16 to 1*2 ; width at gape, 1*4 to 
1*5 ; cere^ 0*85 ; mid-toe^ 4*0 to 4*2 ; its claw straight, 0*95 
to 1*2 ; weighty lllbs. to lllbs. 5ozs. 

In youDg birds the bill is homy black ; cere shining black ; 
irides dark brown ; skin of head and neck leaden greenish ; 
cheeks livid ; feet dull black ; claws homy black. 

An adult male in breedioff plumage, shot on the 18lh Novem- 
ber, was qnite a handsome oird. The general colour black ; 
back, rump, and under wing-coverts white ; ruff of decomposed 
feathers pale tawny; under surface of body blackish 
brown, the feathers with pale fulvous shafts ; crop patch para 
velvety black. Immature birds, which are far more commonly 
seen than adults, are entirely without the white back, rump, 
and under wing-coverts; the general colour above is dark 
brown, the back being rather paler and with fulvous shafts to 
tlie feathers ; the crop patch warm brown ; beneath a paler and 
more rufous brown than the upper parts ; the feathers narrowly 
centred with pale fulvous or with whitish. 

The Indian White->backed Vulture is exceedingly common in 
ihe valley of Nepal, where it breeds and lives throughout the 
year. It is also fairly common in the Nawakot district in 
winter, being the only species of Vulture noticed there at that 
season. If we arrange the Vultures of the valley according 
to their numerical strength, the species will stand in the follow* 
ing order, the present bird being by far the most common, while 
mofMchtis is the rarest i-^engalenaisj calmu, tenuirostrUj Jut- 
ffiteenSf himcUcqfensU, monaehua. The Common Vnlture is 
usually seen near the banks of the Bagmati and Bishnumati 
rivers, especially in the neighbourhood of the burning ghats, 
and generally wherever a dead animal is to be found. It is 
tame and sluggish, and may often be seen tearing at a carcase 
in company with dogs and crows, the latter {Corvus tplendens) 
sometimes standing on the Vulturous back. This Vulture can 
run with the greatest ease, and can simulate death most per* 
fectly, as the following instance will show : — I once shot one of 
these birds off a pine tree, breaking one of its wings, but not 
otherwise injuring it It fell to the ground, and when I got 
near it, it was lying so perfectly still that I tliought it was 
dead. I turned it over with my foot and walked away, intend- 
ing to send a servant to pick it up afterwards. No sooner 
had I got about twenty yards from the bird then it started up 
and ran away quickly among the trees. The servant who was 
sent to look for it brought it into my garden, holding it by the 
feet, and threw it on the ground saying that it was quite dead. 
I walked away a little distance and watched ; presently the 
Vulture stood up and began to peer about cautiously. On my 



A OONTElBUnOK TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 221 

advancing to it, and striking it with the butt of my gun, it fell 
down, gave a few convulsive twitches as if in its death throes, 
and theu remained perfectly still. This time I thought there 
could be no doubt that the bird was really dead, so I left it and 
walked away to another part of the garden. In a few minutes 
my servant called out to me that the Vulture had run off. It 
had indeed got away very cleverly, and it made such good use 
of its legs that I had some difficulty in overtaking it and giving 
it a finishing shot 

On the 18th November, while walking through the Pashpati 
wood, I was startled by hearing a loud and prolonged hoarse 
roar. On going on a little further the sound was found to pro- 
ceed from a pair of P. bengalensis consummating their nuptials 
on a large horizontal branch of a tree, some thirty feet above 
the ground. The cry was very remarkable, and more like what 
some large carnivorous mammal might be expected to utter 
than any bird. 

7.— Gypaetns barbatns, Lin. 

The Bearded Vulture was only observed on one occasion, in 
winter, sailing over the bills wluch bound the valley of Nepal 
to thenorth. 

8.— Falco peregrinus^ Om. 

Female. — Length, 19*3 ; expanse, 44*75 ; wiog, 13*8 ; tail, 8*2 ; 
tarsus, 2*2 ; bill from gape, 1*35 ; bill from anterior margin of 
cere, straight, 10 ; length of cere, 0*35 ; mid toe, 2*3 ; its claw^ 
straight, 0*9 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*3; weight, 21bs. 
0*5 oz. ; depdi of closed bill at cere, 0*7 ; hind olaw, straight, 
0-97. 

Bill blue horny, paler at base ; cere and orbits light yellow ; 
irides dark brown ; feet bright lemon yellow ; claws bluish 
black. 

An adult bird, above bluish grey, barred with blackish ; the 
head blackish slaty ; a broad black cheek stripe not confluent 
with the cap ; chin, throat, and upper breast unspotted white ; 
the feathers of the lower breast with faint dark central streaks ; 
rest of lower surface with black cross bars, the belly being over- 
laid with a pale salmon tint. 

I shot the specimen above noted in the valley of Nepal on 
the 18th November. Only a few pairs of the Peregrine were 
noticed in the valley in winter, about the skirts of woods and 
near the ponds and small streams frequented by Water-fowL 
The bird was also observed in the Tarai in December. 



S22 A COHTRIBUTION TO THB OBNITHOLOGT OF NSPAi;. 

11.— Palco jugger, O. B. Gray. 

Female. — Length, 19*4 ; expanse^ 44*0 ; wing^, 14*4 ; tail| 9*3 ; 
tarsnsy 1*9 ; tarsus feathered in front, 0*7 ; bill from /j^ape, 1*2 ; 
bill from anterior margin of cere, straight 0*8 ; length of cere, 
0*25 ; mid-toe, 1*9 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*0 ; weighty 
lib. 5 ozs. 

Bill blue at base, dark horny blue at tip ; core, gape, and 
orbital skin pale plumbeous grey ; irides rich brown ; feet pale 
bluish grey ; claws homy black. 

This fine young Laggar was shot in my garden (Valley) in 
January. The Falcon had perched in a pine tree, and the first 
notice of its arrival was given by the vociferous cawing of a 
crowd of Crows (C splendena) surrounding the tree. When 
picked np the Laggar was found to have a freshly-killed Maina 
(Acridotheres triatu) firmly clutched in its claws. To the best 
of my belief this was the only occasion on which I met with 
this Falcon in IJepal^ and I imagine that it is not common in 
the valley. 

16.— *Falco chiquera, Daud. 

Three mol^^.— Length, 11*6 to 12*5; expanse, 24*7 to 25*2; 
wing, 7-9 to 8*1 ; tail, 5*7 to 5*9 ; tarsus, 1*32 to 1*5 ; bill from 
gape, 0*8 to 0*85 ; bill at front, 0*73 to 0*75 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*6 to 1*9. 

Three females.— Length, 13*8 to 13*9 ; expanse, 28*3 to 28*8 ; 
wing, 8*9 to 9'2 ; tail, 6*6 to 6*8 ; tarsus, 1*5 to 1*6 ; tarsus 
feathered in front, 0*4 to 0*5 ; bill from gape, 0*9 to 0*95 ; bill 
at front, 0*78 to 0*8 ; length of cere, 0*22 to 0*25 ; weight, 9 ozs. 

Bill bluish black at tip, greenish yellow at base ; cere, gape, 
and orbital skin briorht, slightly greenish yellow ; iris brown, dark 
in young birds, lightish in adults ; feet rich yellow ; claws black. 

This pretty Falcon is very common in the valley of Nepal, 
where it lives throughout the year, and breeds. It is usually 
found about groves and gardens, or large solitary pipal trees, 
nearly always in couples, and sometimes three or four birds 
together. Its chief prey in the valley seems to be Passer mofi- 
ianus. The Turamti breeds in Nepal from January to March. 
In the Residency grounds it usually selects the top of a pine 
tree (P. longifoUa) as the site of its nest, and the nest is nearly 
always so well concealed as to be quite invisible from below. 
The Falcon seems to be very irascible at all seasons, but while 
breeding, its peculiar shrill querulous scream may be heard at 
all hours of the day as it sallies from the tree on which its nest 
is placed to drive away all crows or kites that dare to approach 
too near to its home. 



A OONTBIBUTION TO THS OBKITHOLOGT OF NXPAXi. 228 

'17.-^0erGlmei8 tinnnn6iilxiiB| Lin. 

Three males.— Length, 13 to 13*8 ; expanse, 28 to 30*2 ; 
iring, 9*4 to 10 ; tail, 6*9 to 6*96 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; tarsus feathered 
in front, 0*6 to 0:75 ; bill from gape^ 0*8 ; bill from anterior 
margin of cere, straight, 0*56 to 0*6 ; length of cere, 0*2 to 
0*26 ; closed wings short of tail^ 0*75 to 1*4 ; weight, 5*5 to 
6'75 028. 

Female, — Length, 13*6 ; expanse, 81*0 ; wing, 10*15 ; tail, 
6'85 ; tarsus, 1*4 ; tarsus feathered in front, 0*6 ; bill from 
gape, 0'85 ; bill from anterior margin of cere, 0*56 ; length 
of cere, 0*2 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*8 ; weight, 6oz8. 

Bill bluish grey, black at tip, and the base of lower mandible, 
greenish yellow ; cere, gape and orbital skin greenish yellow ; 
irides dark brown ; feet deep yellow ; claws black. 

The Kestrel is a seasonal visitant to the valley, arriving in 
considerable numbers about October. It is common through- 
out the winter in the great valley, the Nawakot district, the 
Ghitlang and Markhu Valleys, and in the Tarai and plains of 
Nepal ; but it seems to avoid the S&l forest. Nearly all the 
birds observed were immature, and one of the specimens 
secured was noticeable for its rich coloration, the black mark* 
ings on the upper surface being very prominent abd exten- 
sive. 

21. — ^Astnr palumbarius, Lin. 

The Goshawk appears to be only a rare straggler to the 
valley in winter. It is said to be more common in the hills 
further north, and trained birds are often seen in Nepal. 

23.--Astur badins, Gm. 

The Shikra, tliough very common as a trained bird in th^ 
valley^ does not seem to occur there in the wild state in any 
considerable numbers. It was noticed only on a few occa- 
sions in the valley, and once in the Nawakot district in 
November. 

27.— Aqoila nipalensis, Hodffs. 

Thb Eagle was noticed only once in tho valley of Nepal 
during a period of two years ; the bird was not seeured, but 
it was unquestionably Aquila nipalensia of Hodgson. It is, 
I should say, a rare visitant to the valley. Mr. Hodgson, 
however, describes his A. nipalensia in '^Asiatic Researches,'' 
XVIII, Part II, pp. 13-16, and says : '^t is often seen in the 

29 



'224 4k CO^tilBTiTlO^ TO THE ORKITHOLOGT OF NBFAI& 

great valley of Nepal, and the sole specimen I have been able 
to secure was obtained there/' 

33.— Nisaetns fasciatus, Vieill. 

Female. — Lenp:th, 29*5 ; expanse, 68*0 ; wing, 21*05 ; tail, 
A3*0; tarsus, 8-9; bill from gape, 2*18; bill at front, 1*95 ; 
length of cere, 0*8 ; closed wiugs short of tail, 2*9 ; weight, 
&lbs. 9ozs. . 

Bill bluish grey, horny black at tip ; cere and gape 
rich yellow ; feet Indian yellow ; claws horny black ; irides 
rich yellowish brown. A young bird but fully grown, aboye 
dark brown, without any white on the head ; underneath pale 
jufous ; the feathers with narrow central dark stripes most 
pronounced on the throat, on the abdomen the feathers with 
dark shafts only. 

Bonelli^s Eagle is not very common in the valley. The 
only specimen preserved was shot in the Residency grounds in 
January. 

39.— Spilomis clieela, Zath. 

Male. — Length, 28*6 ; expanse, 64 ; wing, 192 ; tail, 13*1 ; 
iarsns, 4*2 ; bill from gape, 2*0 ; bill at front, 1*83 ; length 
of cere, 0*4? ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5 ; weight, 41bs. 

Bill pale leaden ; tip and anterior half of cuTmen bluish 
black ; cere, gape and orbital skin bright lemon yellow ; iris 
bright golden yellow ; tarsi ; sullied yellowish ; toes deep 
yellow ; claws black. 

The Crested Serpent Eagle is tolerably common about the 
valley of Nepal at all seasons. It was also noticed in the 
lower hills, near Sisagarhi, in winter. It chiefly affects the 
neighbourhood of woods and forests, and is as oflen seen in the 
valley itself as on the crests of the hills which encircle it 
The bird seems to feed chiefly on large insects, frogs, and 
snakes ( Tropidonotus stolatue) ; but its habits and loud plain- 
tive cry are well known. 

42.— Haliae'tuB leucoryphns, Pall 

Female. — Length, 33*0 ; expanse, 86 ; wing, 24*7 ; tail, 18"4 ; 
tarsus, 4*3 ; tarsus feathered in front, 2*3; bill from gape, 
2-73 ; bill at front, 2*37 ; depth of closed bill at margin of 
cere, 1*1 ; length of cere, 0*7 ; closed wings short of tail> 1*5 ; 
weight, 71bs« ISozs. 

Upper mandible dingy greenish homy, dusky at tip ; lower 
mandible bluish horny ; cere and gape bluish ; irides clear 
brownish yellow ; feet greyish white ; claws black. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THB OQNITHOIiOGT OF NEPAL, 225 

The Bing^tailed Fishing Eagle is not common in the valley, bat 
a few examples may generally be seen there, except during the 
winter months. The bird is usQaliy found along the coarse of 
the rivers^ or perched on the branch of a tree near marshy 
ground. It does not appear to breed in the valley. 

45.— Buteo feroZy Om. 

Male. — Length, 22*0 ; expanse, 53*5 ; wing, 16*4 ; tail, 9*5 ; 
tarsus^ 3*2 ; tarsus feathered in front, 1*8 ; bill from gape, 
1*75 ; bill from anterior margin of cere, straight^ 0*93 ; depth 
of closed bill at cere, 0*62 ; length of cere^ 0*6 ; closed wings 
short of tail^ 1*0; weight, 21bs. 4'5ozs. 

Bill bluish grey^ bluish black at tip ; cere greenish yellow ; 
gape orange yellow ; iris pure hazel brown ; feet dull deep 
yellow ; claws horny black. A youngish bird, cream colourea 
on the underpartSj with the exception of the thighs and legs, 
which are rufous brown ; there is some of this rufous colour 
also on the flanks. 

This Bnzzard is tolerably common in the valley of Nepal 
daring the winter, and in the Tarai and plains at the same 
season. It is generally seen seated on the edge of a mud cliff 
or on some low tree, aud frequently hunting over wet fields 
and along small streams. Its flight is very characteristic : 
four or five rather slow flaps of the wings, then a short sail 
with the wings rigid and outstretched^ and so on. 

47,— Buteo plumipesy Hodgs. 

F^maZtf.— Lengthy 21*2 ; expanse, 50*5 ; wing, 16*35 ; tail, 
9*7 ; tarsus, 2*75 ; tarsus feathered in front, 1*8 ; bill from 
gape, 1*53; bill from anterior margin of cere, 0*92; depth 
of closed bill at cere, 0*62 ; length of cere, 0*48 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*4 ; mid-toe, 1*65 ; its claw, straight, 0*73 ; 
inner toe, 1*06 ; its claw, 0*9 ; hind toe, 0*88 ; its claw, 0*95 ; 
weight, 2lbs. 

Bill dark blue, paler bluish grey near nostrils and at 
base of lower mandible ; cere and gape dull greenish yel* 
low ; irides hazel brown ; feet ochre yellow ; claws black. 
An adult female, above dark brown ; the feathers margined with 
rufous ; whole Uiroat and the breast rich ruicus ; upper portion 
of abdomen, flanks, thighs, and tibial plumes (the latter long 
and ample, touching the acropodia) dark rufous brown ; middle 
of belly and vent whitish. 

This handsome Buzzard is found in the valley of Nepal in 
rather smaller numbers than J5. ferox. In its habits it is rather 
more crepuscular, but otherwise resembles that species. It 
was observed only during the winter months. 



226 A CONTRIBUTION TO TdB ORNITHOLOOT OF KftPALl 

50.^Circu8 cyaneus, Lin. 

Male. — Length, 19'0 ; expanse, 44*0 ; wing, 14 ; tail, 9*5 
tarsas, 2*8 ; tarsus feathered m front, 0'9 ; bill from gape, 1*2 
bill from anterior margin of cere, 0*65 ; length of cerOi 0'45 
closed wings short of tail, 1*9 ; W6ight/13'5 ozs. 

Bill bluish black ; base of lower mandible leaden bine ; cere 
und gape greenish yellow ; margin of eyelids yellow ; irides fine 
golden yellow ; feet Indian yellow ; claws black. 

An adult bird with deep-colonred throat and breast ; upper tail- 
coverts pure white, not spotted or barred ; fourth primary 
longest ; second, third, fourth and fifth quilU emarginate on the 
outer web| the emargination of the second primary being hid- 
den by the wing-coverts ; the eyelids densely clothed with 
white down. 

The Hen-Harrier ia fairly common in the valley of Nepalj^ 
but in winter only. The specimen entered above was shot ia a 
field near the Residency grounds on the 15th March. 

51.— GireiLS macraruSi Om. 

The Pale Harrier appeared to be less numerous in the valley 
of Nepal than C eyaneus^ and like that species was only notic- 
ed in any numbers during the winter months. An adult male 
of this Harrier was observed at Manoura (in the valley) on the 
7th April, regularly quartering some cultivated fields. 

53.— Circus melancdeucnSi Penn. 

The Pied Harrier was never observed in the valley, but was 
seen on several occasions, from October to December, hunting 
over rice fields and long grass in the plains and Tarai of Nepal. 

54.— Circus »ruginosus, Lin. 

Male. — Length, 20*5 ; expanse, 46*5 ; wing, 15*3 ; tail, 9*7; 
tarsus, 8*3; tarsus feathered in front, 1*0; bill from gape, 1*4; 
bill at front, 1*23 ; depth of closed bill at anterior margin of 
cere, 0'58 ; length^of cere, 0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, (V6 ; 
weight, lib. 

Bill black, bluish at the sides and at base of lower mandible ; 
cere and gape greenish yellow ; irides brown ; feet deep, slightly 
greenish yellow ; claws black. 

The Marsh Harrier is common throughout the winter in the 
valley, the Nawakot district, and the Tara and plains of Nepal. 
The specimen preserved was shot in the valley of Nepal on the 
30th September. 



A CONTRIBUtlON TO THE 6BNITH0L0GT OF KBPAL. ^27 

5&.— Haliastnr indns, Bodd. 

Male. — Length, 18*5 ; expanse, 48 ; wing, 14*3 ; tail, 8*8 ; 
tarsuB, 1*9; tarsus feathered in front, 0*7; bill from ^apei 
1*5 ; bill at front, 1*85; closed wings short of tail, 0*9 ; weight, 
lib. 2*5ozs ; length of cere, Oiii. 

Female. — Length, 19*2 ; expanse, "50 ; wing, 15*35 ; tail, 9*15 ; 
tarsus, 2*0 ; tarsus feathered m front, 0*75 ; bill from gape, 1*4 ; 
bill at fron^ 1*23 ; closed wings short of tail, 0'6 ; weight, lib 
3*5ozs ; length of cere, 0*45. 

Bill pale greenish homy, bluish at base ; cere clear yellow ; 
gape and margins of eyelids plumbeous ; eyelids fleshy white ; 
irides golden yellow m male, yellowish brown in female; 
feet greenish yellow ; claws black. 

Mr. Hume in '^ Bough ITotes'* gives the bill of this bird as 
black, and Mr. Sharpe (Catalogue I, p 314) says that the adult 
bird has the cere and bill blackish brown. My specimens were 
fully adult, and had the bill and cere coloured as above noted. 
Both birds (shot in the valley of Nepal in August) have the black 
shaft stripes on head, neck and breast very well marked ; the 
shafts of the tail feathers, on the lower surface only, are white. 

The Brahminy Kite is very common in the plains and Tarai 
of Nepal where it may be constantly seen hunting over rice 
fields and marshy ground. In the valley of Nepal it was 
observed in March, August and September in the neighbourhood 
of tanks and hunting over rice-fields exactly after the manner 
of a Circus. It can only be considered a straggler to the Valley, 
1 think. 

66.— Mflvus govinda, Sykes. 

Five mtfbf.-^Length, 23 to 24*7 ; expanse, 56 to 61*5; wing, 
17-7 to 19*1; tail, 11*5 to 12*5 ; tarsus, 2 to 2*2 ; tarsus feather- 
ed in front, 0^ to 1*3 ; bill from gape, 1*7 to 1*8 ; bill at 
front, 1*45 to 1*55 ; closed wings from 2*2 short of end of tail 
to 0*3 beyond; weight, lib. llozs. to 21be. 

Three femalee.— Lengthy 24'd to 26; expanse, 60 to 61; 
wing, 18*7 to 19*8; tail, 12*3 to 13; tarsus, 2*15 to 2*25; 
tarsus feathered in front, 1*15; bill from gape, 1*75 to 1*9; 
bill at front, 1*53 to 1*55; closed wings short of tail, 1*6 to 
0*1 ; weight, lib. 15oz8. to 21b8. 2oz8. 

Bill black ; grey homy at base of lower mandible ; cere and 
gape greenish yellow; irides hazel to dark brown ; feet lemon 
yellow, in three specimens not mature greyish cream eolour ; 
daws black. 

Four neitlififfB shot from 2%ik April to \st May. — Length, 
22 to 23*5 ; expanse, 49*5 to 54 ; wing, 16 to 17*5 ; tail, 10 to 



228 ▲ OOKTRTBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 

11-3; tarsus, 2-1 to 2*25; bill from gape, 17 to 1*75; bill at 
front, 1*36 to 1*44 ; tarsus feathered in front, 1*0 to 1*2; closed 
-winery short of end of tail, 1*5 to 2*6. 

Bill black ; cere ligrht greenish yellow ; gape yellow ; irides 
dark brown ; feet pale greenish yellow ; claws black. 

The twelve specimens here entered were all shot in the valley. 
Three specimes, not fully mature, had the feet faintly greenish 
grey without a trace of yellow colour. Is this colour of the 
feet to be regarded as an individual peculiarity merely ? It can 
hardly be due to age solely, as four young birds just oat of 
the nest, but still unable to fly, had the feet greenish-yellow, 
only a little paler than in the adult. Unless indeed, we sup- 
pose, what is hardly probable, that the bird has the feet at 
first yellow, and that when about a year old these parts lose 
the yellow colour but regain it when the bird is fully adult 
All the specimens have a mottled white patch on the under 
surface of the primaries, and in three or four .examples this 
patch is so extensive and so nearly pure white that the birds 
may possibly be referable to M. melanotU rather than to 
ffovinda ; but as these birds are not fully adult, it is impossible 
to make sure of this point. 

The Common Kite is found in abundance in the valley 
of Nepal, the Nawakot district, and in the lower hills. Dun 
and Tarai from the valley down to the plains. It is a perma- 
nent resident in the valley, and breeds there from January to 
April. 

56 his. — MilvuB melanotis, Tem. ei Schl. 

On three or four occasions I saw a Kite in the valley which 
appeared to be considerably larger than the ordinary one, and 
was furthur distinguishable by its rather different flight, and by 
having a larger patch of white on the under surface of the 
wing. The bird, however, was always so wary and difficult of 
approach that I failed to secure a specimen. I have already noted 
under the head of M. gomnda that some immature specimens 
which I obtained might be examples of M. melanotia ; at all 
events the Large Kite, whether really distinct from gomnda 
or only a rare phase of that speciesj undoubtedly occurs in the 
valley of Nepal. 

56 ^^.— MilTus affinis, Oould. 

Two males. — Length, 22*5 to 23*5; expanse, 54*3 to 56*5 ; 
wing, 17 to 17*5 ; tail, 10*8 to 11; tarsus, 2 ; tarsus feathered 
in front, 0*9 to 1*0; bill from gape, 1*55 to 1*6; bill from 
anterior margin of cere, 1*05; length of cere, 0*48; mid-toe, 
1*6 to 1*65 ; closed wings short of tailj 1*8 to 2*L 



A COKTRIBUTION TO THE ORKITHOLOOT 07 NEPAL. 229 

Bill binish black, yellowish at base of lower mandible ; cere 
and gape rich yellow ; irides brown; feet greenish yellow; claws 
black. 

Of these two specimens one was shot in the Tarai in 
December, and the other in the valley of Nepal in February. 

This small dark Kite is rare in the valley^ but perhaps more 
common in the Tarai and plains of Nepal. It is readily dis- 
tingnished from gcvinda by having no mottled white patch 
on the lower surface of the primaries below the under wing- 
coverts ; it is also smaller, darker and more brilliantly coloured 
about the cere and gape. Young birds of this species appear 
to have a little white mottling on the lower surface of the pri- 
maries near the covertSi but this is always conspicuously less 
than in gavinda at any age. 

60.-— Strix javaiuca» Om. 

Male^ Valley^ 1th May. — Length, 14 ; expanse, 40 ; wing, 1 2*1 ; 
tail, 5*2 ; tarsus, 2*5 ; bill from gape, 1'6 ; closed wings reach 
beyond tip of tail, 0*7. 

Bill white, faintly tinged pink ; cere whitish fleshy ; iris 
blackish brown ; toes dirty whitish ; claws brownish homy, 
greyish on lower surface. 

Female^ Valley^ 26<A January. — Length, 15; expanse, 41 ; wing, 
12*25 ; tail, 5*6 ; tarsus, 2 5 ; bill from gape, 1*6 ; from anterior 
margin of cere to point of bill, straight, 0*8 ; closed wings reach 
beyond tip of tail, 1*2 ; length of cere, 0*7 ; weight, 14oz8. 

!Bill horny white, tinged pink about the nostrils, and dusky 
along margin of upper mandible ; cere, gape and basal part of 
lower mandible pale pinkish fleshy ; irides dark brown ; edges of 
eyelids black ; toes sullied whitish ; claws dark brownish 
horny. 

The Indian Screech-Owl is a permanent resident in the 
valley, but does not appear to occur there in any great num- 
bers. It is usually seen in the evenings about woods, groves 
and large gardens. One of my specimens had captured and 
eaten a Shrew (Sorex caruleseens) shortly before it was shot ; 
the bird in consequence had a strong musky odour, and this 
smell could be detected about its skin for many months 
afterwards. 

64.— Syrniom newarense, JBodgs. 

MaUj VaUeyj June. — Length, 21 ; expanse, 55 ; wing, 15*7 ; 
tail, 9*8 ; tarsus, 2*3 ; bill from gape, 1*72 ; bill at front, 
1*7 ; length of cere, I'O; depth of closed bill at anterior 
margin of cere, 0*85 ; width of bill at gape, 1*45 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 1*8, 



230 A CO^TRIBUTIOM TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF NEFAI«. 

Bill bluish at base, greeniab horny white at tip ; cere 

Elambeous; irides deep brown; claws pale grej homj at 
ase, leaden colour at tip. 

FemaUy Valley j July. — Length, 21*8 ; expansoi 54 ; wing, 15'8 ; 
tail, 9*3; tarsus, 2*7 ; bill from gape, 1*8; bill at front, 
1*73; depth of closed bill at anterior margin of cere, 0*85; 
width at gape, 1*5 ; length of cere, 0*95 ; foot — greatest length, 
4*4, greatest width, 4*76 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5 ; 
weighty 21bs. 2*5ozs, 

Bill greenish horny, bluish near base ; cere plumbeous ; 
irides deep brown ; ends of toes pale leaden ; claws dusky 
plumbeousi paler at their bases. 

JSestUnffy VaUey, 19th Jtin^.— Wing, 14*8; tail, 9*0; tarsus, 
2 '5 ; bill from gape, 1*7 ; bill at front, 1*6. Irides blackish brown. 

The Brown Wood-Owl is tolerably common in the valley of 
Nepal throughout the year, and is found in the Nawakot Dis- 
trict in winter. It is always found in the interior of woods, 
and generally in pairs. On the 7th of July I found a pair of 
these Owls at Nil Barahi, a thickly-wooded knoll sitnat^ nearly 
in the centre of the Oreat Valley. There is a deep indentation in 
the hill and wood on one side, and at the entering angle of this 
space is a level grassy plot, which is prolonged into the wood and 
lip the hill as a narrow little ravine whose banks on each side are 
rarely higher than about six feet. This ravine or nullah leads up 
to a temple on the top of the hill, and its sides are thickly 
covered with bushes, ferns and trees. About half way up the 
nullah J on a small tree, were a couple of Wood-Owls quite conceal- 
ed by the foliage, and they allowed me to approach within a 
few yards of them. I was first apprised of their whereabouts 
when they flew down one side of the nullah, very noiselessly for 
birds with such a stretch of wing and in a forest so dense. I 
shot one bird, and as it fell to the ground the loud and repeated 
snapping of its mandibles directed me to the spot where it was. 
I failed to secure the companion bird ; it could see me very 
distinctly, apparently, in the subdued light of the forest, and 
flew away (never very far) threading its way through the forest 
with the greatest ease* 

Dr. Jerdon gives the native name of this species as ^^ Newar of 
the Nepalese.'^ This is no doubt an error or a misprint. Th^ 
Newars are the true Nepalese — the aboriginal inhabitants of 
the valley — and they call this specieSi and I believe all 
other owls, *^ Bulaea.^^ 

Symixim, Sp. 

MalCj Residency groundSf JSepal Valley^ 5li December.-^ 
Length, 20 ; expanse, 49*5 ; wing, 14*4 ; tail, 9*0 ; tarsus, 2*5 ; 



A GraTRIBUTTOM TO YHB ORKlTHOLOQt OF NSPAL. Hi 

bill firom gape, 1*55 ; bill at ftontf 1*58 ; from anterior mar^n 
of cere topoi&t of bill, 0*95; width at gape, 1*32; depth of 
eloBed bin at cere, 0*75 ; len/^tfa of oere) 0*85 } closed wings dhott 
of tail, 1*0; weight, Itb 10*5o28. 

Bill bluish grey hotoy, paler at tip ; oere leaden blae ; lower 
eyelid lavender ; irides rather deep golden yellow ; extremities 
of toes blaish grey ; claws bro^vmsh black, grey bomy at 
tfaeir bases. 

An adult bird rather dark and richly coloured, but not to be 
separated from S. newareme as far as plumage goes* It is^ 
bowev«r, ooaspiouDosly 4m%Uer than that species, the bill espe- 
oiallj being much smaller — far less powerful than even in the 
nestling of newarense — and the irides golden ydlow instead 

of deep brown. 

This Owl was shot in the Kesidenoy Garden, where it was 
flying about at ten o'clock in the morning pursued by a crowd 
of crows. Its stomach contained the feathers, bill, and aome 
bones of a Maina (Aeridotheres fuscue) rolled up into a ball. 

This bird, I think, must be separated from 8. newarensey but 
it is not clear what name it should bear. Under the head of 
S. indrane€, Mr. Sharpe (Cat II., p. 282) gives the dimensions 
of five Napalese birds, of which four have the wing from 14*2 
to 14'9» and says : ^' Apparently, therefore, the last four of 
these birds ought to be called S, indraneeJ** But there seems 
to be no doubt now (cf. S. F., VL, p. 27) that true indranee is 
the bird described from Ceylon by Mr. Hume under the name 
of oiArogenfB ; and this is a species totally distinct alike from 
newarenee and the small form I have obtained. The four 
birds mentioned by Mr. Sharpe and my specimen would seem 
to deserve being separated as a snb-species of neidarense on the 
ground of their small size alone-*-my bird was little more 
tiian ono^half the weight of ati adult neitareuse ;^ and if the 
colour of the irides in the small form ia always golden yellow, 
it would be entitled to full specific rank. I Would propose the 
name of Syrnium iodfeani for this Owl. 

71.— Babo nipalensis, Hodgs. 

This spemes was only met with on one occasion in the valley. 
I was walking through thick tree forest on the top of Mount 
Sfaeopori at an elevation of over 7,000 feet, when a pair of 




14*4 ana d6*6oi«. in thifl suppoead sub-^edei. loatitaot rAoommend this differentia- 
tioa until tome more tangible distinciion can be nude out— £iH| & F« 

80 



232 A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NBPAL. 

fine Eagle Owls started from a tree not far in front of me, and 
made off with great ease through the close forest. My gun 
was unfortunately only loaded with dust shot and No. 10 at 
the moment^ and although I fired at one of the birds in dae 
course, the only obvious result was noise and smoke. 

75.— Scops lettia, Eodgs. 

Valley^ 80^A May. — Length, 8*0 ; expanse, 20 ; wing, 57 ; 
tarsus, 1*3 ; bill from gape, 0*85 ; from margin of cere to point 
of bill, 0-5. 

I only procured one specimen of this Owl (a young bird) in 
the yalley, where it does not seem to be common. In the 
Nawakot district a Scops was heard on several occasions in the 
orchards in November. It may have been this species 
or pennatus, 

76.— Oarine brama^ Temm. 

MaUj Plains of Nepal j December, — Length, 9*0; expanse, 
22 ; wing, 6*6; tail, 3*5 ; tarsus, 1 ; bill from gape, 0*85 ; anterior 
margin of cere to point of bill, 0*6; length of cere, 0*27. 

Bill pale greenish horny; irides golden yellow ; feet dingy 
greenish ; claws dusky. 

The Spotted Owlet was very common in the plains of Nepal 
adjoining the Tarai in winter. It was found principally in 
mangoe topes and clumps of trees. It was never observed 
in the valley of Nepal, and in the Nawakot district also it 
seemed to be entirely replaced by the following species. 

79.*— Glaucidium cuculoides, Vig. 

Two epecimensj Nawakot district, November, — Length, 9*5 to 
9*75 ; expanse, 20*9 to 21 ; wing, 5*8 to 5*9 ; tail, 3*5 ; tarsus, 
0*9 to 1*0 ; bill from gape, 0*85 to 0*86 ; anterior margin of 
cere to point of bill straight, 0*56 to 0*63; length of cere on 
culmen, 0*23 to 0*25 ; closed wings fall short of end of tail, 
1*8. 

Bill greenish horny ; irides bright yellow ; toes dingy 
greenish ; soles deep yellow ; claws dusky, greyish at base. 

Male, Valley^ December. — Length, 9»4 ; expanse, 20*5 ; wing, 
5*9 ; tail, 8*6 ; tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 0*85 ; from anterior 
margin of cere to point of bill, straight, 0*6 ; length of cere 
on culmen« 0*32 ; closed wings short of tail^ 1*1 ; weight, 
5'5ozs. 

Bill greenish yellow horny ; cere dusky at nostrils ; irides * 
bright amber yellow ; toes greenish yellow ; claws brownish 
black, grey horny at their bases. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF. NEPAL. 233 

This species was very oomtnon in the N«awakot district in 
winter^ frequentiogp maa^e topes and groves. A specimen was 
also shot in the Nil Barahi wool (valley of Nepal) in 
December. 

82.— Hinmdo rustica, Lin. 

Female J Valley, June.-^ltengih, 7*8; expanse, 13*2; wing^ 
4'8; tail, 4*3; tarsns^ 0'45 ; bill from gape, 65 ; bill at front, 
0*32 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*5. 

Five young birde shot in the Valley from June to August,-^ 
Length, 5*5 to 6*2 ; expanse, 12 to 12*8 ; wing, 4*35 to 4*7 ; 
tail> 2-5 to 2*9 ; tarsus, 0*4 to 0*45 ; bill from gape, 0*6 to 0*65 ; 
bill at front, 0*28 to 0*34 ; closed wings short of tail, to 0*3. 

Bill horny black ; base of lower mandible yellowish fleshy or 
yellow; gape whitish fleshy or yellow; irides blackish brown; 
feet brownish fleshy ; claws dusky. 

The Common Swallow is found in abundance in the valley 
of Nepal during seven months of the year. It arrives about 
the middle of February and migrates to the plains about the mid- 
dle of September. The earliest date on which I noticed it in 
the valley was on the 8th February, and the latest on the 13th 
September. During the winter it is very common in the Tarai 
and plains of Nepal. 

This Swallow breeds freely about the valley in April and 
May ; young birds, just able to fly, are often seen about the 
beginning of June. 

85.— Hirundo nipalensis, Hodge. 

Four males, Valley, May. — Length, 6*8 to 7*2 ; expanse, 12'4 
to 12-5 ; wing, 4*4 to 4*6 ; tail, 3*5 to 3*9 ; tarsus, 0*5 to 0*55 ; 
bill from gape, 0*5 to 0*6 ; bill at front, 0*3 to 0*33 ; closed 
win<T8 short of tall, 1*2 to 1*45 

Three females ^ Valley, April and /iiiitf.— Length, 6 9; 
expanse, 12 to 12*7 ; wing, 4*3 to 4*6 ; tail, 3*5 to 8*6 ; tarsus, 
0*55 to 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*56 ; bill at front, 0*3 to 0*35 ; 
closed win^s short of tail, 1*15 to 1*2. 

Bill black ; irides blackish brown ; feet dusky; claws black. 
A young bird shot on the 29th August measured : — Length, 
6*2 ; expanse, 12*5 ; wing, 4*4 ; tail, 3*1 ; tarsus, 0*5 ; bill from 
gape, 0*6; bill at front, 0*3 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*85 ; 

Bill, black ; base of lower mandible and gape fleshy yellow ; 
irides brownish black ; feet dusky brownish ; claws black. 

This Swallow is even more common in the valley of Nepal 
than rusHca^ and is much more familiar in its habits than that 
species, constantly flying about houses and often entering into 
the rooms. It lives in ^e valley for about eight months in 



294 A COMTBIBUTIQK TO TOB OBNITHOLOUY OF MBTAli. 

the 76ar^ migrating to lowev lerels iu winter. It wa» not im- 
oommon in the Nawakot distriot about the end of Norember. 

This species breeds in the yalley from April to the end of 
July, some birds certainly producing two broods in the season. 
The nests are made of pellets of fine lightrcolonred day, 
and are nsnallj fixed between the rafters of verandahs or 
of rooma which are little used. The abape* of the nest is a rather ^ 

irregular half-retorti the entraikee being k>ng and narrow.. The 
usual number of eggs laid i^ fbur^ and these vosil on a beautiful 
cushion of sofh feathers — often those of the Chikore, Black 
Partridge and Pigeon. The eggs ace well-known ; pure delicate 
white, in shape long oval^ smaller at one end. 

89.— Gotyle sinejisis, 7. K Or^ 

Four specimen^ FalUj/y FAruu»y iO' Jtifitf.-*»Length^ 4*0 to 
4*5; expanse, 9 7 to 10*3 ; wing, Sl-d to 3*8 ; tail, l-^^ to 1*9; 
tarsuft, (>'4 ; bill from gape^ 0'42 to 0*47 ;> closed wings shert of 
tail, 0-2 to &*6. 

Bill black ; gape pale fleshy ; irides dark brown ; feet dnsky 
brownish; daws dusky. 

MaU^ Vall^j ISth May. — Length, 4*4; expanse, 9*7 ; wing, 
S*3 ; tail, 1*8 ; tarsus, 4; bill frono: gape, 0'45 i closed wings 
short of tail, 0'15. 

Bill black; iridea dark brown; feet brown fleshy; olaws 
dusky. 

These five specimens have the rump and upper tailsN^wts 
decidedly paler than the back. 

The Bank Martin is fairly common in the valley of Nepal, 
and resides there throughout the jrear ; in winter itr is very 
noticeable^ as the Swallowa and Swifts are then absentb It was 
found in fair numbers in winter in the Nawakot distriat and 
Markhn Valley. 

The bird is usually found over w»t fields and marshy ground, 
and along the course of stceamsw It haa ita holes and breeds in 
the bank& of rivers and. in- the sides of the alluvial oliffk so 
common in the valley of NepaL 

9L— Gotyle rapestijSt. Soop. 

This. Orag Martin waa only noticed; on a few occattons, in; the 
great valley, but waa move common in the Nawakot district 
and the Markhu Valley in winter. It was always fouad over 
mountain streams having high rocky bank^^ 

lOa— Gypsellua affinia, /. JSL Or. 

Fivft- ifia/M.-^Length, 5'0 to &*2; ex])anae, 12^25 to IS; 
wing, 5 to 5*3 ; tail, 19 to 215 ; Ursus^ 0*34 to 0*85 ; bill 



A COHTRIBOTION TO THS OBKITHOLOGT OF NBPAL. 235 

from gBfe, 0*69 ix> 0*75 ; bill at fronts 0*23 to 0*26 ; closed 
win^s beyond tip of tail, 1*2 to 1*4. 

Three epeeimensj not $e:ced^ — Length, 5'Q to 5*3; expanse, 
12-e to 13 ; wing, 51 to 52 ; tail, 1-9 to 21 ; tarsus, 035 to 
0-4 ; bill from gape, 07 to 072 ; bill at front, 025 to 0-28 ; 
closed wings reach beyond end of tail, 1*2 to 1*35. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; lower eyelid leaden or 

Enrplish slaty ; £eet dusky ; the ends of the toes black ; claws 
rownish black or black. 
A young bird, unth pale edges to the caverie^ 9M September.--^ 
Length, 4*9 ; expanse, 12*25 ; wing, 4*9 ; tail, 2*0 ; tarsus, 
0*35 ; bill from gape, 0^7 ; bill at front, 0*26 ; closed wings 
beyond tail, 1*4. 

Bill black ; irides blackish brown ; feet fleshy ; claws black, 
pale at the tips. 

The Common Indian Swift is very abundant in the valley 
of Nepal during about eight months of the year, but 
migrates to warmer regions in winter. It arrives in the 
Tauey about tbe first week in Mareh, and by the lOth of that 
mofith it is found in swarms near aU the towns and villages^ 
It was noticed in the Nawakot district abovt the end of 
Norember. 

The breeding seasos seems to last from April to* July; 
and, as a rule, some dozens of nests will be foimd close 
together under the eaves of houses and between the rafters of 
covered passag^es and verandahs^; but os two oecasiot^ solitary 
nests were found. Tbe> nest aod eggs of these speciea are 
well-known. 

103.— GoUocalia nnicolor, Jerdon. 

Twot epeeimens-, Vallejt, 20/A> August, — Lengthy 5*0 tor 5*1 ; 
expanse^ 11*75; wing, 5*0; tail, 2*3 to 2-33 ; tarsm, 0*4 ; bilk 
from gape, 0*5; bill at front, 0*22 ; dbeed winga beyond end 
ift tail, 1*84 to 1*4. 

Bill black ; iridts dark brvwn ; tarsi Evid fleshy ; toes dusky ; 
daws- black. 

I have compared the above twoi speeimene wiib an^ example 
from GooQOor, Nilgjri Hills, and tbe skids correspond so closely 
that they cannot posssbly be separated. A specimen from* 
Sikhn, in Mr. Hume's museum, is much darker on the- lower 
snrfaee than my Nepal birds. 

This species was common on the hills round the Nepiaii Yalley 
ill Augustt and September, at elevations of about 6,000* feet 
and upwards. It flies with great speed, and appears* U> be » 
very silent bird. 



236 A OONTBIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGr OF MSPAL. 

107 &j«.— Gaprimulgas jotaka^ Temm and 8chl. 

Male, Valley, December. — Length, 10*75; expanse, 22*9 ; 
wing, 7*9 ; tail, 5*2 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 1*35 ; bill at 
front, 0*33 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*7 ; weight, 2*5 ozs. 

Bill dusky ; gape fleshy ; i rides deep brown ; toes purplish 
dusky ; tarsus feathered, all the tail feathers except the nropy- 
gials, with a subterminal white spot. 

This specimen is dark and Ivery richly colored, and corre- 
sponds precisely in details of plumage with specimens in 
Mr. Hume's collection, labelled jotaka ; but the wing seems small 
for that species, and it may possibly be a rather large example 
of indicuSj Lath. 

This Goatsucker does not appear to be common in the valley 
of Nepal. It was generally found in pairs in small wooded 
nullahs at the foot of the hills. 

Gaprimul^nis, Sp. 

Malef Valley J 2%th /tiZy.— Length, 10*7; expanse, 22*75; 
wing, 7*6; tail, 5*3; tarsus, 0*65; bill from gape, 1*3; bill at 
front, 0*43 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*5 ; weight, 3ozs. 

Bill dusky brown ; gape pale fleshy ; irides deep brown ; 
feet fleshy brown ; claws blackish ; tarsus feathered ; the two 
outer tail feathers on each side with a conspicuous terminal 
patch of fulvous white. 

FemaUy Valley^ 2Sth June. — Length, 10*8; expanse, 23*0; 
wing, 7*65 ; tail, 5*4 ; tarsus, 0*65 ; bill from gape, 1*3 ; bill 
at front, 0*45; closed wings shore of tail, 1*3. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible and gape fleshy ; irides 
deep brown ; feet brown fleshy ; claws blackish ; tarsus feathered ; 
no trace of white terminations to any of the tail feathers. 

I have carefully compared these two specimens with a fine 
series of the following Goatsuckers in Mr. Hume's museum, vts: 
indicusj jotaia, kelaarti^ europoeue (unmnt), atbonotatusj ma- 
erurua, andamanictie, atripenniSj aeiaticusy nuihrattensia, manti-' 
eoliu, and my Nepal birds are certainly quite distinct from 
every one of the above species. The first specimen was sexed, 
with doubt, as a female^ but I feel satisfied now that it was 
really a male. It is clearly of the same species as the second 
example, which is undoubtedly a female. This Goatsucker 
belongs to the same section as europaus^ but may be distin- 
guished at once by its general yellowish buff tint, and notably 
by the whole row of scapulars being velvet black narrowly 
edged with buff, thus giving the appearance of a row of large 
black patches down each side of the back, not seen in any 
other Indian species of Caprimutgtu. 



A C0NTBIBT7TI0N TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 237 

Besides saturcUioTj which is the same as indieua or jotaka^ and 
gymnopuB which is a synonym of monticolus, Mr. Hodgson 
appears to have named two other species of this genus from 
Nepal, ffiz., C, nipalensU (Gray, Zool. misc, p 82) and C. innota" 
ius* In his drawings he figures a large pale bird which is 
clearly albanotatusj and in another plate he represents a Goat- 
sucker very like the birds I obtained but larger (wing 8*1). I 
must refrain from giving any new name to my birds, as they 
will doubtless prove to belong to one of the species above 
mentioned, but I hope some one will examine Mr. Hodgson's 
specimens in the British museum, and let us know what Goat- 
suckers he obtained in the valley. 

This Night Jar was only noticed in the Residency grounds 
(Valley), where both my specimens were shot. I did not 
observe anything worthy of note in regard to its habits. 



117.— Merops viridis, Zin. 

Female. — Length, 7*2 ; wing, 3-55 ; tail (to outer feathers) 
2-8 ; tarsus, 0-37 ; bill from gape, 1-25 ; bill at front, 10 ; 
closed wings short of outer tail feathers, 1 '3. 

This specimen was shot in my garden in the valley of Nepal 
on the 2drd March, and it was the only example of a 
Bee-Eater ever seen in the valley in two years. The species 
was common about Hetoura, in the Dun, and in the plains 
of Nepal near the Tarai, in winter. 

123.— Goracias indica, Lin. 

Three males, — Length, 12*9 to 14 ; expanse, 25 to 26'25 ; 
wing, 7-8 to? '9; tail, 5-6 to 5-75; tarsus, 095 to 1-1; bill 
from gape, 1-73 to 1*95 ; bill at front, 107 to 1-3 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 1*85 to 2*5. 

Three females, — Length, 13 to 14 ; expanse, 24*6 to 26*1 ; 
wing, 7-3 to 7-85 ; tail, 5*4 to 5*75 ; tarsus, 0*8 to 1-05 ; bill 
from gape, 1*7 to 1*8 ; bill at front, 1*15 to 1*23 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*2 to 2*5. 

Bill black, brownish horny at base of lower mandible ; orbi- 
tal skin yellowish or orange ; feet dull greenish yellow ; claws 
black. In immature birds the iris is brownish grey. 

These specimens were obtained iu the Nepal Yalley, the 
Nawakot district, and the plains of Nepal ; all are typical 
indica^ not showing any leaning towards afinis. 

The Indian Roller is very common in the Nawakot district, 
and in the plains and Tarai of Nepal throughout the year. 
To the valley of Nepal it is merely a straggler, a few birds 
being seen there at long and irregular intervals. It was 
noticed in the valley in February, May, and September. 



238 A COHTTBIBUTION TO THB ORMITHOLOOT OF HKPAL. 

129.— Halcyon smyrnensis^ Lin. 

Five males. — Length, 10*1 to 11*35; expanse, 16'6tol7'6; 
wingy 4*65 to 4*9 ; tail, 3*2 to 3*65 ; tarsus, 0*54 to 6 ; bill 
at front, 202 to 2*25; bill from gape, 2*52 to 2*8; closed 
wings short of tail, 1*9 to 2*1 ; weight, 2*75 to 8*5ozft. 

Two females. — Length, 10*5 to 11*5; expanse, 16*6 to 17*7; 
wing, 4*8; tail, 3*4 to 8*5; tarsus, 0*6 to 0*65; bill from 
gape, 2*85 to 2*65; bill at front, 1*9 to 2*25; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*9 to 2*3 ; weight, 2*7 to 3*5ozs. 

Bill dark red, brighter at base of lower mandible, and the 
tip orange to brownish ; irides dark brown ; feet dusky 
reddish, the posterior aspect of the tarsus and the soles 
deep red ; claws brownish black, in immature birds pale homj 
at the tips. 

The Smyrna Kingfisher is common in the valley of Nepal, 
where it frequents the skirts of all the woods in the central part 
of the valley, and the neighbourhood of brooks, tanks, and 
rice fields. I can hardly doubt that it is a permanent resident 
in the valley, but 1 certainly never once noticed it during the 
months of April, May, and June (its breeding season), whero- 
as it is always very prominent during the other nine months 
of the year. It was tolerably common in the Nawakot 
district in November. This Kingfisher seems to prefer the lower 
branches of small trees for a perch, but it may be often seen 
high up on a pine or blue gum tree ; its loud harsh scream is 
uttered when it takes wing, but it has another prolonged and 
almost musical note which it gives forth from its perch. 

134.— Alcedo bengalensiSi Om. 

nine specimens. — Length, 5*85 to 6*8 ; expanse, 10 to ID'S ; 
wing, 2*76 to 3 ; tail, 1*4 to 1-63 ; tarsus, 0*3 to 0*35 ; bill 
from gape, 1*8 to 2*05 ; bill at front, 1*35 to 1*6; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*4 to 1*0. 

Bill black ; a small space at base of lower mandible brown or 
reddish brown ; irides dark brown ; gape orange red ; feet 
coral red, tinged dusky in front, — in young birds the tarsus 
and toes dusky in front ; claws black. 

This Kingfisher is common in the valley of Nepal, the Nawakot 
district, and the Markhu Valley. It is usually found along 
the course of the streams. 

186.— Ceryle rudis, Lin. 

The Pied Kingfisher was only noticed once in the Nawakot 
district in November^ hovering over a stream. 



A OONTBIBUTION TO THB 0BNITH0L0G7 OF NKPAL. 239 

147.— FtdsBornis nipalensis, Eodgs. 

Two males, Sdl,fare»ty December. — Length, 21*8 to 22; 
expanse, 26 to 26*5 ; wing, 9 to 9*05 ; tail, 12*45 to 13-5 ; 
tarans, 0*7 to 0*8 ; bill from gape, 1*05 to 1*1 ; from anterior 
margin of cere to point of bill, straight, 1*4 to 1*45 ; nostril to. 
point of bill^ 1*35; depth of closed bill at anterior margin of 
cere, 1*6 ; height of upper mandible at base, 0*85 to 0*88 -, 
length of cere on cnlmen, 0'08 ; closed wings short of tail. 8*4 
to 9. 

Bill coral red, the colour of the upper mandible deeper 
than that of the lower, and the tips of both mandibles homy 
jellow; cere and margins, of eyelids fleshy yellow ; irides pale 
yellow ; feet sullied whitish fleshy ; claws dusky horny, paler at 
their bases. . 

Femakf Bichiakohf December . — Lensrtfa, 20*5 ; expanse, 24 ; 
wing, 8*25; tail, 11*2; tarsus, 0*79; bill from gape, 1*03 ; 
from anterior margin of cere to point. of bill, 1*33 ; nostril to 
point of bill, 1*8; depth of closed bill at anterior margin of 
eere, 1*34 ; height of upper mandible at base, 0*8 ; length of 
oere on cnlmen, 0*09; closed wings short of tail, 7*3. 

Bill coral red, the lower mandible much paler than the upper, 
and the tips of both mandibles homy yellow ; cere and margins 
of eyelids yellowish fleshy ; irides pale yellow ; feet dirty whitish 
fleshy ; daws dusky horny, pale at their bases. 

These birds were shot in the S&l forest at Bichiakoh in 
December, when the sexual organs were well developed, shew- 
ing that the species was near its breeding time ; the birds were 
clearly adult. 

The male hab broad black mandibular stripe, a half collar 
on the back of the neck of bright rose pink, surmounted by a 
very distinct glaucous blue band ; the cheeks suffused with 
glaucous blue, and the base of the throat below the mandibular 
stripes dingy yellowisL 

The female has no glaucous blue about the head, no black 
mandibular stripes, and no rose demi-collar. 

Both sexes have the dark red wing spot large, about two 
inches long and nearly one inch broad« 




in Mr. Hodgson's drawings must be either unfinished or taken 
from a young male, as no blue shade is shown on the cheeks ; 
but he expressly states on the back of this plate that his bird 
was obtained from the ^^ S61 forest,'* where, in fact, the species 
I got swarms on the highway between Segowli and Eathmanda 

31 



240 ▲ CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOtOGT OF NEPAL. 

80 oflen traversed bj Mr. Hodgson and his shikaris. Bnt mf 
specimens also correspond in the most minnte particnlare with 
the so^alled P. rivalensisy Hatton. This I have ascertained 
comparison of specimens in Mr. Hume's moseum ; so that there 
can be no doubt that Hvdleims must be relegated to the limbo 
of synonyms.* 

TSo doubt opinions will vary greatly as to whether rdpalemii 
and some other forms are specifically distinct from eupatritUg 
Linn. The subject is too large to be entered on here, bnt I will 
merely note (1) that Captain Legge demurs to the statement 
that €up<Uriu8 of Ceylon i» so very much smaller than the 
other forms, {2) that a specimen from Mount Aboo is said to be 
nearer the Singhalese than the Snb-Himalayan form, (3) that 
Sikim examples are not identical with either nvalenms or any 
other named race, and (4) that an adult male of so-called 
magnirostrU from Burma in Mr. Hume's collection has the bill 
no larger (in fact a little smaller, I think) than in a specimen 
from Ceylon, When the whole evidence is carefully oolhited 
I believe that P. eupcUritis will stand with two sub-species, m. 
P. magniro8lris, Ball, and P. nipalensis^ Hodgs. To follow 
Mr. Seebohm's ingenious classification of ornithologists, the 
'Mumpers" will admit eupatriits only, the '^splitters*' will 
jecognize eupatriuSj and aoout four other closely^allied species. 
I hope that my attempt to introduce myself among those '^ who 
aim at hitting the happy medium'' will be duly remembered to 
my credit. 

This fine Paroquet is common in the S&l forest of Nepal 
from Semrabasa, where the forest begins, to fletoura in the 
Dun. The bird is most numerous about Bichiakoh, less so at 
Semrabasa, where it meets P. iarquattM, and at Hetoura where 
it meets P. purpweus. I did not observe it in the plains, nor 
above Hetoura in winter. It is never seen in the valley of 
Nepal except as a cage bird. This species frequents the depths 
of the S&l forest in pairs or small parties of six to eight. Its 
note is rich deep and not unpleasant, and its flight is rather 
slow but stroncr. 

148.— Palnornis torquatus, Bodd. 

Three males: — ^Length, 17 to 18'6 ; expanse, 20 to 21*5; 
yring, 6'8to 7*3; tail, 10 to 10*85; tarsus, 0*6; bill frt>m 
gape, 0*76 to 0*8 ; from anterior margin of cere to pointy 
straight, 0*96 to 1*0 ; cere on culmen, 0*08 to 0*1 ; depth of 
closed bill, 0*85 to 0*93 ; closed wings short of tail, 6*9 to 7'5. 

* Thif hM boon ftlretdj pointed oat, S. F. YlX-t ^^i where the whole queetm 
U f«U7 ai0cuMed.-£d^ 8. ?. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 241 

Bill dark red ; the lower mandible darker than the upper, and 
dnflky at the tip; cere yellowish fleshy ; maro^ins of eyelids 
orange ; irides pale yellowj with an inner grey ring ; feet sallied 
yellowish grey ; claws plnmbeous at basci dusky at tips. 

Three females. — Length, 16 to 16*6 ; expanse, 19*8 to 20*3 ; 
wing, 6*53 to 6*8 ; tail^ 8*7 to 9*4 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 
0*73 to 0*76 ; anterior margin of cere to point of bill, straight, 
0*86 to 0*9 ; cere on oulmen, 0*1 to 0*15 ; depth of closed bill^ 
0'8 to 0*84 ; dosed wings short of tail, 5*75 to 6*36. 

Bill, upper mandible dark red, lower reddish dusky ; edges 
of eyelids orange ; irides pale yellow with a pupillary ring of 
grey ; feet pale fleshy grey ; claws dusky at tips^ grey horny 
at their bases. 

All these specimens were shot towards the end of Decem- 
ber and were most satisfactorily sezed, the birds being apparent- 
ly quite adult and the sexual organs prominent Themalee had 
a rose demi-coUar, much the same colour as in n^[)alensi$j but 
paler and narrower ; black stripes from the base of the lower 
mandible meeting at the chin, and a fine black streak from 
nostril to eve. The blue on the head varied from a band above 
the rose nng to a washing extending to the crown, and was 
continued round in front to the junction of the black stripes. 
The fenudee had a narrow emerald green ring round the neck ; 
but had no blue on the head, no rose collar, and no black band 
in front. Neither sex showed any trace of a red shoulder spot 

The Bose-ringed Paroquet is found in great numbers in the 
plains of Nepal near the Tarai, and a few birds stray into the 
lower part of the 8il forest ; but it is not found in the lower 
hiUs^ the great valley, or the Nawakot district at any season 
of the year. In winter it swarms in thousands in the plains of 
Nepal, going about in parties or large flocks, and constantly 
uttering its harsh screaming cry. It frequents hedges^ bamboo 
clumps, mangoe topes, stubble fields and haystacks. 

On the 20th December I was encamped in a large tope at 
Parwanipur, which was evidently a favourite roosting place of 
this Paroquet ; for, notwithstanding all the noise and bustle of 
a large camp, the birds flew into the trees about dusk in 
hundreds, and the fearful din they made in settling down 
could only be compared in its violence to a storm at sea. 

149.— Palsaornis purpureus, P. L. S. Mull. 

Three nudeej Nawakot diatrietj idih November. — Length, 14 
to 15-1 ; expanse, 16*9 to 17*2 ; wing, 5*8 to 6*0 ; tail, 8 to 9*5 ; 
tarsus, 0*48 to 0*5 ; bill from gape, 0*65 to 0*66 ; from anterior 
margin of cere to point of bill, 0*67 to 0*7 ; closed wings short 
of tail, 5*4 to 6*8. 



242 A coMTKifinrioH to tec obnithologt of nkpal. 

Bill with the upper mandible onoge rellov, the lover black ; 
irides white, whitiBb, or hoary ; feet pale dingy greenish ; clawt 
grey homy, in otte specimen dosky horny ; head rich peach- 
bloom red, shaded wiUi delicate bine on the oocipat> nape, 
'and obeeka; black mandibalar stripes oontinoed u a narrow 
collar roaai back of neck ; wing spot dark red ; wing^^ioTerts and 
axillaries verditer bine, contrasting with the colour of the breast 

Yoang bird, Betoura, 25th December, — Length, 10'2 ; expanse, 
15-8 ; wing, 5-4 ; tail, 4-4 ; tarans, 04 ; bill from gape, 0*57 ; 
irom anterior margin of cere to point of bill, 0'65 ; dJepth of 
closed bill at cere, O'GS ; oere on cnlioen, 0*15 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1-95. 

Bill homy yellow, dnsky at tip ; the upper nuuidible darker 
than the lower, and slightly mottled dosky ; irides very pale 
yellow; feet greenish; forehead, lores and cfaeelu Hloiahgrey; 
the forehead tinged brown; top and back of head green like 
the back ; a yellow collar most prominent at sides of neck aai 
faint on the lui^e ; tip of middle tail feathers blae ; no trace 
of a wing spot ; nnder wing-coverts the same coloar as in the 
adults noted above. 

Thia beantifol species is very common in the Nawakot dis- 
trict and in the Dnn abont Hetonra. It does not occor in the 
valley eicept possibly as a mere straggler. It is nsoally seen 
in large flocks, flies most swiftly, aod has a very pleasant call ; 
the note of the bird when perched ia sometimes most mnsicaL 
On several oooasions I have had reason to be astonished at the 
way in which this Paroqnet can conceal itself in a tree : a large 
flock will fly into a tree in fall foliage, and at oooe become 
invisible to the keenest scmtiny. 

Two Paroqnets of this species were pnrohased in Nepal, in 
February. The birds were alike, and had the head plom Uoe, 
a yellow collar and no black ring roond the neck ; th^ were 
supposed to be either adult females, ur else yoang birds. 
Abont the middle of March I was surprised to see th«n in 
eoUu ; on the SOtfa March one of the birds laid an e^g in the 
cage ; a aacond egg was laid on the 85th, and a third on the 30th. 
Vm eggs were pore white and of normal shape and aise tog the 
qteaeai 

In " Strat Fbathbbs," I., p. 343, foot-note, and a^n ia 
" Kesta and Eggs," p. 117, Mr. Hume says that P. ^oMcepiatia 
(iengaUnrit) is found in Nepal ; if so this must refer to the ex- 
treme east of the State, oo the borders of Sikim. 

ISO.— Falsoornis scbisticeps, Hodgs, 

i/aU, Btember.—heDeih, 14-i ; expanse, 18-4; wing, 626; 
tail, 7'8 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0-7 ; anterior margin i^ 



A GOKTRIBUTION TO THK OBNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 243 

«ere to point of bill) 0*8 ; depth of closed bill at cere, 0*78 ; 
oere on cnlmen, 0*2 ; oloaed wings short of tail, 5*0. 

Bill horny yellow ; base of upper mandible coral red ; cere 
orange; irides light straw ; feet pale greenish.; claws homy grey. 
An adult bird) with the head dark slaty^ bordered by a narrow 
black band which meets at the chin ; below the black ring a half 
oollar, on back of neck bright green ; a small maroon-red wing 
spot ; end of tail safiron yellow. 

Uiree young malea^ January. — Length, IZ to 12*3 ; expanse, 
18-5 to 18-75 ; wing, 6*4 to 6*6 ; tail, 5 5 to 6*25 ; tarsus, 0*5 
to 0-55 ; bill from gape, 0*65 to 0*72 ; anterior margin of cere 
to point of bill, 0*75 to 0*84 ; nostril to point of bill, 0*8 to 
0'82; depth of closed bill at cere, 0*78 to 0*82; cere on cuU 
mtti^ 0-2 to 0-22 ; closed wings short of tail, 2 9 to 8*5 ; 
weight, 4ozB. to 4'75ozs. 

Bill horny yellow, livid at tip ; base of upper mandible 
reddish brown ; irides yellowish white ; feet grey, or yellowish 
fleshy; forehead and cheeks dingy greyish green; top and 
back of head dark green ; a pale and rather bright green ring 
round neck ; no black mandibular stripe, and no wing spot 

Female, yaungy January. — Length, 12*6 ; expanse, 18 7; wing, 
6*5 ; tail, 6*0 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*7 ; anterior mar- 
gin of cere to point of bill, 0*34; nostril to point, 0*85 ; depth 
of closed bill at cere, 0*83 ; cere on calmen,. 0*2 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 3*0 ; weight, 4*25 ozs. Colors of soft parts and 
plumage as in the young males described above. 

The Slaty-headed Paroquet is tolerably common in the valley 
of Nepal in winter, and is usually seen there in flocks of van- 
OU8 sizes from December to April. In December it was found 
in great numbera about the Sisagarhi Ridge, and in January in 
the Residency grounds. Curiously enough, all the birds 
noticed about the Residency appeared to be young ; these were 
comparatively fearless and easily approached. This species 
seems to be very capricious in its movements and wanders 
about a good deal ; it is a favourite cage bird in NepaU 

152.— Palaornis fasciatus, P. Z. S. Mull. 

Male, young. Valley of Nepal, 30/A ^ti^tM^.— -Length, 10 ; 
expanse, 18 ; wing, 5*8; tail, 3*5 ; tarsus, 0*6; bill from gape, 
0-8; bill at front, 1*0; depth of closed bill at cere, 0-94 ; cere 
on culmen, 0*15 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*6 ; weight, 
5ozs. 

Bill hom^r black ; base of lower .mandible and tip of upper 
brownish ; irides creamy white ; cere grej plumbeons ; ieet 
pale green ; claws dusky or livid. A dusky band, 0*2 in width, 
across forehead extending to the eyes ; above thia on the fore- 



244 A OONTRIBUTION TO THB OBNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 

head a narrowish fulvons band, tinged vinaoeons, oontinned 
backwards as a snperoilium to the ear-coverts ; a broad fulvous 
patch on each side of the head embracing lores, cheeks and ears; 
the ear-coverts tinged greenish ; a dnsky band, 0*5 broad, and 
1*1 long on each side of the throat, from the lower mandible } 
vertex, occipnt, and nape bright green ; whole upper parts dark 
green, the feathers black shafted ; secondary coverts tinged 
yellow, and the inner webs of the primaries blackish, edged 
with yellow internally ; chin yellowish fulvous ; rest of under 
surface pale green ; under surface of tail feathers pale yellowish 
olive. 

This species was not common in the valley of Nepal, and was 
only observed there in August, September and October. It was 
usually seen in flocks of about twenty birds, frequenting small 
trees on the confines of forests. As this is the last species of 
the genus PaUeomia to be noticed, I may here give my impres- 
sion of the general vertical distribution of the various species 
in that part of Nepal which is known to me. P. seiistieepi is 
found at greater elevations than any of the others, ranging up 
to 7,000 feet or over in summer ; next in order comes /ascta/tis, 
tiien purpureua at elevations of from 1,500 to #3,000 feet ; then 
ni/Ki/tf MM in the S&l forest ; and lastly torquatu$ iu the l^mi 
and plains. 

166.— Picas nuuoroides, Hodgs. 

Five males, Ifoy.— Length, 9*2 to 9*9 ; expanse, 15*9 to 16*3; 
wing, 6*0 to 5*S ; tail, 335 to 3*85 ; tarsus, 0*85 to I'O ; bill 
from gape, 1*45 to 1-6 ; bill at fron^ 1-22 to 1'4; dosed wings 
short of tail, 1-0 to 1*5. 

Upper mandible dusky or slaty black ; lower pale grey 
homy ; orbital skin leaden or slaty ; irides brownish red to deep 
crimson ; feet dingy green ; the soles dull yellow ; claws livid 
horny. 

FetnaUj Mag. — Length, 9*2 ; expanse, 15*5 ; wing, 5*02 ; tail, 
8*4; tarsus, 0;8 ; bill from gape, 1*45 ; bill at front, 1*2 ; dosed 
wings short of tail, 1*3. 

Upper mandible slaty black ; lower grey homy ; orbital 
skin plumbeous ; irides reddish brown; feet dingy green; daws 
slaty. 

It will be observed from the above measurements, carefully 
taken from specimens in the flesh, that this Woodpecker, which 
is doubtless Hodgson's majaroidee, is much larger than stated 
by Gray and Jerdon. The former author described the species 
in the B. M. Catalogue of Mr. Hodgson's Collection, 1846, App. 
p. 156, and the dimensions there given are : — '^Length, 8 in.; bill 
1 in. 5 lin. ; wing 4 in. 9 lin. ; tarsi 7 lin." Dr. Jerdon's mea* 



A CONTBIBXJTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGT Or NXPAL. 245 

•corements can be easily referred to, and as his description of 
majoroides does not quite fit the above six birds, I may note 
the following points about them : There is no white spot ou 
the outer web of the first primary ; the three outer tail feathers 
are banded with yellowish, notpurey white; a narrow stripe on 
the forehead, the lores, round the eye, and the ear-coverts are 
whitish tawny ; the patch on the side of heck beginning behind 
the ear-coverts and continued narrowly across back of neck to 
the opposite side is silky golden yellow ; the lower breast^ 
abdomen, and flanks are markedly tinged with yellow. The 
crimson band on the hind head of the male is about half an 
inch broad on the occiput. The female differs from the male in 
having the head black, without any crimson band, and the 
yellow patch on the side of the head is duller. 

Male, younffj May. — Length, 8*6 ; expanse, 15*0 ; wing, 4*8 s 
tail, 3-1 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*2 ; bill at front, 0*93 ; 
closed wing short of tail, 1*05. 

Bill leaden grey homy, darker above ; irides brown ; feet 
greenish plumbeous. The bill short aud sof6 ; colours much as 
in majoraidei female, but less intense; the lower tail-coverts 
very pale crimson, and the whole top of head dull crim^ 
son, with the black bases of the feathers showing through 
as small spots. This specimen is very interesting; it has 
the head colored as in himatayanus male; but the under- 
parta are boldly striped as in majoroidea and not uniform, 
unatreaked as appears to be constantly the case in the former 
species. I refer the specimen to majoroides principally, because 
it has the breast and abdomen streaked with black, and because 
it was obtained at the same time and place as that species^ 
while no adult specimen of himalayanua was obtained in 
Nepal. The young of both sexes of inajoroideSf might have 
been expected to resemble the mature female. 

This Woodpecker is common on the hills surrounding the 
valley of Nepal, wherever large tree forests occur. I found it 
common in the Sheopuri forest in May, at an elevation of 
about 7,000 feet, frequenting the moss-covered oaks. It was 
nsually seen high up on the trees, singly or in pairs. The 
birds hammered very vigorously at the bark of the trees and 
were not easily alarmed. 

157.— Picus macei, ^ieilL 

Femaky Biekiakohj December. — Length, 8*1 ; expanse, 13*8 ; 
wing, 4*85 ; tail, 8*15 ; tarsus, 0*65 ; bill from gape, 1-13 ; bill 
at front, 0*9; closed wings short of tail, 1*1. 

Bill plumbeous dusky, grey homy at base; feet greenish 
plumbeous ; the two outer tail feathers on each side are barred 



246 A COKTBlBUnON TO THB OBNITHOLOaT OF NBPAU 

with white ; the third lateral tail feather on each side has two 
white spots on the oater web^ and a terminal white spot at the iip« 
With reference to Mr. Blanford's remarics on this speeies in 
J. A. 8., B., Vol. XLI, of 1872, Part II, p. 155, 1 note that my 
bird has the lower parts de^ baff, with well-matked duskj 
stripes. This example agrees well with specimens fh>m Mossocme 
in Mr. Hnme*s mnsenrnw 

This species was noticed in the Nawakot district in NoTem- 
ber, and about Bichiakoh in December. At the latter place it 
was found in a dump of Acacia trees associated with Tungir 
picui pj/gmaus. 

159 dM;— Picas incognitas, Sp. Nov. 

Female, Valley of Nepal, ind March. — Length, 7*6 ; expanse, 
18*6; wing, 4*3; tail, 3*1; tarsus, 0*7; bill from gape, 1*06; 
bill at front, 0*84 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*15. 

Bill plumbeous, pale greyish homy at base of lower mandible r 
eyelid leaden; irides crimson; feet dingy greenish leaden; 
claws plumbeous horny. 

Forehead brown ; vertex and occiput bright gamboige yeilow; 
rest of upper plumage black with white bars ; tail with the oentre 
feathers black, faintly rayed ; the two outer feathers on each 
side banded with yellowish white, and the third lateral toil 
feather on each side with two yellowish white spot^ oof the 
outer web near the tip; lores and ear-coverts whity brown; a 
white patch on the side of the neck, prolonged narrowly below 
the eat-coverts; a brown mandibular stripe on aich side of 
the neck of much the same tint as the forehead ; beneath the 
plumage sullied white ; the breast and abdomenl tinged yellow^ 
and with longitudinal blackish streaks ; vent and under tail- 
coverts pale crimson. 

I have compared this Specimen with twenty-two fifte skins of 
Pieue irufinifrons from the Western Himalayas in Mr. Hume's 
museum, and I cannot avoid the eonelusiou that the Nepal 
bird is distinct. It is closely allied to brunnifrons, but diffisiv 
in the following particulars : — It is considerably' dmaUer ; the 
bill is much longer, more pointed, not so deep at the base; and 
the cttlmen is decidedly not so straight ; the hind head' is bright 
gamboge yellow instead of rather dull golden (I refer to 
females) ; and these pale yellow feathers are much longer and 
come down on the nape in a sort of crest 

There can be no doubt as' to which is the true brurm^/rane of 
Vigors, for it is the western species that is so well figured* in 
Gould's Century of Himalayan Birds; and the figure in 
Malherbe's monograph also faithfully represents the same 
species. I should have hesitated to describe my single sped*' 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE 0RNITH4IL0GT OF NKPAL. 247 

men as now, had I not seen Mr. Bodgson's drawings of the 
male and female of the species he called P^ brunnifrona ; his plate 
undoubtedly represents the species t'O which I have ventured 
to give a new name, and shows that the male bird has a crimson 
occipital band^ as in the allied form so common in the Hima- 
layas further to the west. On the back of his plate Mr. Hodg- 
son notes that he obtained his specimens in the valley, and the 
measurements he give^, from several examples in the flesh, 
show the size did not exceed that of my bird. 

This species was only once noticed in the valley of Nepal. 
On the 2nd March a bird was heard in the Residency grounds 
utterinor a peculiar, rather shrill and long cry, at short inter- 
vals ; Uie note reminded one somewhat of the alarm cry of 
Halcyon smyrnensis in winter, and proceeded from this Wood- 
pecker, then perched in a pine tree. In a minute or two tb^ 
cry stopped, and then the situation of the bird was betrayed 
by the flakes of bark which fell from the branch it was explor- 
ing. I fancy I saw this Woodpecker in the Nawakot district 
in winter, but this is not certain. 

163.— Yunglpicus pygmaauSy Vig. 

Mahy Bichiakohj December. — Length, 5*6; expanse, 10*7; wing, 
3*4 ; tail, 2*25; tarsus, 0*54 ; bill from gape, 0*67 ; bill at front, 
0*55 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*55. 

Bill horny grey ; irides dark red ; feet dingy green. Two 
small crimson sincipital tufts^ upper tail-coverts and four central 
tail feathers unspotted black. 

Two femaleSf Dun and Biehiahoh^ December, — Lengthy 5*1 
and 5*8 ; expanse, 10*1 and 10*5 ; wing, 3*4 and 3*45 ; tarsus, 
0*55 and 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*75 ; bill at front, 0*58 and 0*6 ; 
closed wing short of tail, 0*6. 

Bill grey horny ; irides dark reddish ; feet dingy green ; no 
crimson about head ; central tail feathers and upper tail-coverts 
black. 

This little Woodpecker was tolerably common in December 
throughout the S&l forest from Hetoura to iSemrabasa. It 
frequented the depths of the forest trees growing about cleared 
spaces^ isolated clumps of Acacias, &c., and was constantly 
heard tapping as one walked along the forest paths. I noticed 
it often on quite young trees, clinging to the horizontal branches 
and hammering away as if its life depended on its exertion. It 
seemed to be very bold, and when disturbed would usually fly 
no further than to the next tree. 

171.— Gecinus striolatus, Bly. 

Male, S&lforeeiy between Biciiaioh and Semralaaa^ December.'^ 
Lengthen; expanse, 17; wing, 5*4; tail, 4*1; tarsus, 1*05; 

32 



248 A OO^TRIBtmON TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAC 

bill from gape^ 1*5 ; bill at front, 1*25 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 2L 

Bill plumbeous dusky ; tbe basal three-fourths of the 
lower mandible yellowish green horny ; irides carmine red ) 
feet dingy plumbeous. There is a black line across the fore- 
head which is not *^ whitish^' as given by Jerdon. 

I found this Woodpecker very common in the S&l forest 
from Bichiakoh to Semrabasa in December. It was almost 
invariably found feeding on the ground, in rather long grass. 
As one walked through the forest and flushed them, the birds 
rose noiselessly and flew to the lower branches of the trees. 
Occasionally a bird would fly away over the grass for twenty 
or thirty yards, and then settle on the trunk or horizontal 
branch of a tree. I did not believe I had Woodpeckers before 
jAe until I shot one. 

172.— Gecinus occipitalis, J^g. 

Atcde, Hetoura, December. — Lengthy 12*45 ; expanse, 19*2 ; 
wing, 6*1 ; tail, 4"7 ; tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 1*65 ; bill at 
front, 1*45; closed wings short of tail, 2*4. 

Bill dull homy black ; orbital skin plumbeous ; irides dark 
crimson ; feet plumbeous ; claws slaty. 

Male, young y Pharphing (near Valley) \^th July. — Length, 
30*6 ; expanse, 17*5 ; wing, 5*5 ; tail, 3*9 ; tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from 
gape, 1*45 ; bill at front, 1*15 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*0. 

Bill slaty^ whitish horny at tip ; irides brown ; feet pale 
plumbeous. 

Female^ Valley of Nepal, August. — Length, 12*6 ; expanse) 
19*2; wing, 5*9; tail, 4*55; tarsus, 1*15; bill from gape, 
1*6 ; bill at front, 1*5 ; closed wings short of tail^ 3*0; weighty 
6ozs. 

Bill homy black; orbital skin plumbeous grey; irides 
crimson ; feet plumbeous ; claws slaty. 

These specimens do not agree very well with Jerdon's des- 
cription, but are identical with examples from Simla, Dehra^ 
&c. I note the following points for comparison with Jerdon's 
account : 

The male has the forehead and top of head red ; the occiput 
and nape black; a black mandibular stripe on each side of 
the throat, extending to below the ear-coverts, where it turns 
slightly upwards and ends abruptly ; point of chin ashy. 

The young male has the red of the forehead extending to tbe 
mid line of the crown, i.e.y the red colour does not extend bo 
far back on the head as in the adult. 

The female has no red on the head, which is blacky streaked 
with slaty or grey, and the nape is black. 



A CONTBIBUTION TO THB OBMIXHOI4OGY OF KEPAI«. ^49 

. ' The yonn;; male ha^ the rump bright greenish yellow, and 
this coloar extends high up on the back to the iuterscapulary 
region. The adult male nas the rump only as bright as ia 
the young bird, but this tint does not extend at all to the back. 
The female has the rump tinged with yellowish^ this part being 
less bright than in the male. 

The Black-naped Oreen Woodpecker is not uncommon ia 
the forests surrounding the valley of Nepal, where it also breeds. 
I found it fairly common about Uetoura^ in December. 

174.— Chrysophlegma chlorolophus, Vieill. 

Male^ Sdl farestf Z?«cem6^r.— Length, 10*5 ; expanse, 17'1 ; 
wing, 5*5; tail, 4*5 ; tarsus, 09 ; bill from gape, 1*25; bill at 
front, 1*03 ; closed wings short of tail, lr9. 

Bill greenish yellow horny ; culmen and tip dark plunibeous ; 

rpe and orbital akin plumbeous ; irides carmine red. The tail 
faintly cross barred. 

Two males, not mature^ Vallet/j August and September.-^ 
Length, 9*9 and 10*5 ; expanse, 16*6 ; wing, 5 and 5*2 ; tailj 
8-6 and 8-8 ; tarsus, 0-8 and 0*9 ; bill from gape, M6 and 1-2 ; 
bill at front, 1*0 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*8 and 2*0. 

Bill greenish horny, dusky above and at tip ; orbital skin 
slaty plumbeous; irides crimson; feet and claws plumbeous 
greenish. 

Female, Nimboatavj JDe^ember. — Length, 11*1; expanse, 17*3; 
wing, 5*7 ; tail, 4*56 ; tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 1*2 ; bill 
at front, 1*05 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*0. 

Bill yellowish green ho^ny ; culmen and tip dark plumbeous ; 
irides carmine red ; orbital skin bluish plumbeous ; tarsi dingy 
green ; toes greenish leaden ; cjaws grey horny. 

The lesser Yellow-naped Woodpecker is tolerably common ia 
the Valley, where it breeds. It is usually found in tree foresta 
%boQt;the lower parts of the surrounding hills, but occasionally 
visits the wopded knolls ,in the central part of the valley. 
It was not uncommon in the lower hills, Pun and S&l fore'afe 
in winter. 

}78.— Micropternus p^aiqceps, Bly. 

Female, Valley, SeptenjJbern — Length, 10*1 ; expanse, 17 ; wing, 
5'3; tail, 3*3 ; tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 1*2 ; bill at front, 
VO; nostril to tip of bill, 0'75; breadth of bill at gape, 
0*5; length of foot, 2*2; closed wings short of tail, 2'0; 
weight, 4 ozs. 

Bill black, the basal two-thirds of the lower mandible grey 
horny ; orbital skin dark plumbeous ; irides brown ; feet dingy 
Uaden ; claws dusky plumbeous. 



250 A CONTBIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 

This Rnfous Woodpecker seemed to be rather rare in the 
valley of Nepal. The only specimen secured was shot in the 
Residency g:rounds. 



186.— Vivia innominata; Burt. 

Male, June. — Lenorth, 4*05 ; expanse, 7*25 ; wing, 2'3 ; tail, 
1*3 ; tarsus, 0'5 ; bill from gapcj 0*5 ; bill at front, 0*45 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0'65. 

Bill plumbeous black ; irides brown ; feet darkish plumbeous. 

Two females J May and June. — Length, 3*9 to 4 ; wing, 
2-3 to 2-35 ; tail, 1-3 to 135 ; tarsus, 045 to 0-5 ; bill from 
gape^ 0*5 to 0*52 ; bill at front, 0*4 ; closed wings short of tail, 
0-65. 

Bill plumbeous, or dusky plumbeous, lighter below ; irides 
brown ; feet plumbeous ; claws dusky. 

The fifth primary is longest, the sixth nearly equal to it, and 
the fourth shorter than the sixth. The tongue can be protrad- 
ed over an inch beyond the tip of the bill. The male has 
the forehead green, and above this there is a rufous brown 
bar which is spotted with black ; the female has no chestnut on 
the head. 

The Speckled Piculet is fairly common in woods in the 
central part of the valley of Nepal, and in some parts of the 
forests at the foot of the hills. I found it quite a tree bird, 
and never noticed it in tangled brushwood, &c., as mentioned by 
Jerdon. 

191.— Megalama marshallonim, Swinh 

MaUj December, — Length, 12 ; expanse, 18 ; wing, 5*7 ; tail, 
3*9 ; tarsus, 1*25 ; bill from gape, 2*1 ; bill at front, 1*5 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 2*8. 

Bill yellow homy, greenish towards the tip ; cnlmen from 
nares bluish black, darkest at tip; irides dark brown; feet 
dingy homy green ; claws black. 

Three females^ December and May. — Length, 12*3 to 13*4; 
expanse, 18 to 19 ; wing, 5*45 to 5*53 ; tail, 3'85 to 4*2 ; tarsus, 
1*2 to 1*3 ; bill from gape, 205 to 2*13 ; bill at front, 1*53 to 
1'63 ; closed wing short of tail, 3 to 3*4. 

Bill greenish yellow horny; the culmen from nostrils to tip 
black or dusky ; irides deep brown ; feet dingy pale green ; 
claws slaty black. 

In both sexes the head and nape are dark violet blue; the 
hind neck with the feathers conspicuously striated with pale 
yellow, forming a sort of half collar ; the primaries are not 
blue-green as stated by Jerdon in his description : the first and 



A COKTBIBUTION TO THE ORKITHOLOQT OF NEPAL. 251 

eecond primaries are wfaollj black ; the rest are black, margined 
on the onter web with blue-g^reen. 

This fine Barbet is common in the valley of Nepal through- 
out the year. It inhabits the forest-clad hills that surround 
the valley^ descending in winter to the foot of the hills, and 
ranging in summer to an elevation of over 7,000 feet. It was 
never found in the woods of the central part of the valley. 
Although it generally affects high trees, I have, on several 
occasions, found and shot it in low thick jungle, perched on 
bushes or bush trees. Its fine, plaintive call — tillrloWf till-loWf 
till-low, ^c.j — uttered by flocks in chorus, may be heard from a 
^eat distance, and is both striking and pleasant. 

192.— Megalaama hodgsoni, Bp. 

Two malesj Hetoura, December. — Length, 1I'3 to 11*35; 
expanse, 17*4 to 178; wing, 5*2; tail, 3*6 to 3*7; tarsus, 
1-15 to 1-2; bill from gape, 1*73 to 1-75 ; bill at front, 1*25 to 
1*32 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5 to 2*7. 

Two femaleej Hetoura^ Decernber, — Length, 11*6 to 11*7; 
expanse, 18*2 to 18*3; wing, 5*5; tail, 365 to 3*8 ; tarsus, 
1*2 to 1*3; bill from gape, 1-75 to 1*8; bill at front, 1*3 to 
1*35 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5 to 2*6. 

Bill homy yellow ; orbits deep yellow ; irides brown, deep 
brown, and reddish brown ; feet fleshy yellow ; claws dusky, 
brown at bases. 

The bill is very large and powerful, and the birds generally of 
large size and robust form. In both sexes the chin and tliroat 
are rather dark earthy brown, with a slight copperv tinge on 
the chin ; forehead brown ; feathers of hind head, siaes of neck, 
breast, and upper abdomen, pale yellowish fulvous, with well* 
defined dark brown edgings. 

I have carefully compared these four specimens with the fine 
series of green Barbets in Mr. Hume^s museum, and they 
certainly do not agree with the species he calls hodgaonij or 
any other in his collection. My birds are distinct from the 
species figured in Marshall's monograph nnder the name of 
hodgBonu A specimen from Kaladungi, labelled hodgsonij in 
Mr. Hume's museum, agrees exactly with the figure in the 
monograph of the Barbets in having the throat white, and the 
forehead whitish ; and certainly, the Nepal birds difibr as greatly 
from that specimen as M. inomaia does from canieeps. My 
specimens, 1 believe, represent the true hodgaoni^ as Bonaparte's 
type seems to have come from Nepal. In the Consp. Gen. Av., 
I., p. 144, 1 find the following : — ^^ 19, Megalaimus hodgsonij 
Bp. Mns. Lugd. ex Nepal. Similis sequentis et valde major ;'' 
the species which follow this being caniceps, viridu^ ^c.^ as fur as 



252 A OONTttlBUTION TQ THS OBNI7H0];.0aT OF N^PAl* 

I remember. If my surmise be correct, tlien the western form, 
^vhich has hitherto been called liodgsoni^ will require a new name, 
and it is to be hoped that some one will examine Bonaparte's 
type and settle the questiou. 

Hodgson's Barbet is common in the Dnn^ about Hetoura^ 
and in parts of the S&I forest ; but it does not ascend the hills to 
ftny great height, nor is it ever found in the valley of Nepal. I 
found it very common at Hetoura in December^ flitting about the 
0dge of the forest, but more especially haunting tlie huge Semal 
threes {Bombax, fheptapylla). There the Barbet was bus^ 
feeding. out of the flowers of these Silk-cotton trees, going about 
from blossom to blossom in the most deliberate and attentive 
manner. Half a dozen shots fired from the road below, hardly 
sufficed to divert its attention for a moment from its pressing 
9Coapation ; or at most^ when a bird fell to my sliot, the others 
would fly off quietly to the jungle^ and return again to their 
(favourite tree in about five minute?. The birds were at such ^ 
height that no shot smaller than No. 3 had the slightest effeqi 
94 ihemj and I had to bring one down with a wire cartridge. 

Jl95.-^Megal89ma asiatica, Lath. 

Dimenaiotis of sixteen fre^h specimene. — Length, 8*5 to 9*75^ 
espjAnsOy 13 to 14*:^:; wing, 4 to 4*4; tail, 2*8 to 3*3 ; tarsus, 
p-85 to 1-1 ; bill from g^pe, 1*2 to 15 ; bill at front, 0:93 to 
1'04 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*3 to 2'7. 

Bill greenish yellow horny^ black above ; margins of eyelids 
orange ; irides hazel brown, brown, aud reddish brown ; feet 
dingy green ; claws horny bl^ck. 

The red ricts^l spot is always distinct in fresh specimeps. A 
ncistliqg, obtained in the valley on the 20th June, had the wing 
3*45, bill at front 0*7, and the bar across the top of the head 
4ark blue. A male, shot <>n the 13th September, with the WMig 
4*4, had also the band on the top of the head dark blue, and 
thor^ was just the faintest trace of the red rictal spot. 

'fhe Blue-throated Barbet is exceedingly common in tho 
tolley of Nepal throughout the year, frequenting the tree*covered 
hill slopes up to an elevation of npt more than about 6,000 
feet, and in all the woods of the central part of the valley. It 
was CQpanipn in the Nawakot distriqt in November, and was 
heard or obtained at Ohitlapg, Nimboatar, Hetoura, Bichisikoh 
and in the plain^c Its call and habita are VQry well known. 

196— Megalsema franklini, JBly. 

Male, Valley, June. — Length, 9'3; Qxpanse, 13*8; wing, 
4*15 ; tail, 3*2 ; tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 13; bill at front, 
0*85 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*$. 



L OOKTBIBimON TO THE OfiNITHGLOOT OF KBPAL. 253 

BlU black, grey horny at base ; iridea brown ; feet green ; 
claws dusky. 

Female ? Falkt^, June.— Length, 9*2 ; expanse, 13-2 ; wing, 3-9 ; 
tail, 8; tarsus, 0*9; bill from gape, 1-3; bill at front, 095; 
«3losed wings short of tail, 3*5. 

Bill blackish horny,' plnmbeons at base; irides brown | feet 
dirty greenish ; claws dnsky plumbeons. 

In both these specimens the first and second qnills are entirely 
black; third, fourth, fifth, and sixth edged with blue etteN 
nally. A narrow blue band fringes the black and crimsoq on 
the nape; the ear-coverts are not ^pale brown,' &c., but Mrith 
the patch on side of neck and front of throat silvery white. 

Tnis Barbet does not appear to be common in the Talley of 
Nepal. It was found there in forests on the hills surronndipg 
the valley^ at elevations of from 5,000 to nearly 8,000 feet ; 
vsnally on large trees, but occasionally in dense bushes near 
the forest paths, feeding on berries. It was never observed in 
any of the woods in the middle of the valley* 

197.— ZantholsBma hsBmacephala^ Mull. 

JUale, Notfember. — Length, 6*0; tail, 2*0; tarsus, 0*75; bill 
from gape, 0*95; bill at front, 0*65. 

Bill horny black, slaty at base ; orbital skin purple ; feet 
coral red ; claws black. 

Female^ June. — Length, 6*1; expanse, 10'5; wing, 8*15; 
tail, 1*6 ; tarsus, 0*7; bill from gape, 1*0; bill at iront> 0*7; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*9. 

Bill black; base of lower mandible grey homy ; irides brown ; 
orbital skin dull crimson ; feet coral red ; claws black. 

Two young birds, I9th June, — Length, 5*2 and 6*0; erpanrse, 
10*2 and 10*4; wing, 3; tail, 1*5 and 1*8; tarsus, 0*75; bill 
from gape, 0*82 and 0*9 ; bill at front, 0*6 and 0*68 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*9 and 1*0. 

Bill black, pale grey at base; orbital skin datk grey; irides 
dark brown; feet pale red fleshy ; claws black. 

These four specimens were obtained in the valley* The male 
is much more brightly colored than the female ; the young birds 
have the colours much duller than in adults, and want tiie crimson 
of the head and breast as well as the black band across the head. 

The Crimson-breasted Barbet is not common in the valley of 
Nepal, and is found there only in the central woods, where it 
breeds. 

199.— Cuculus canorus, Lin. 

Two males in adult plumage^ July and September. — Length, 
13*5 ; expanse, 24 and 24*6 ; wing, 8*3 and 90 ; tail 7*1 and 



254 A OONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 

7*4; tarsus, 0*8; bill from gape, 1*25 and 1*3; bill at front, 
0'8 and 0*9; closed wingfs sbort of tail, 2*3. 

Bill black above and at tip ; middle of lower mandible green 
horny ; base of lower mandible yellow ; gape and margins of 
eyelids bright yellow ; irides golden yellow ; eyelids pale grey ; 
feet yellow ; claws brown and fleshy yellow. 

EiffJu young malesj July, August and September, — Length, 
12*6 to 14; expanse, 22*1 to 24*4 ; wing, 7*8 to 8*8 ; tail, 68 
to 7*4 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*15 to 1*3 ; bill at 
front, 0'76 to 0*87 ; closed wings short of tail, 2 to 2*5. 

Bill dusky above, black at tip, and base of lower mandible 
greenish horny ; gape orang^ or yellow ; lower eyelid plumbeous 
or grey ; margin of eyelids greenish yellow ; irides light 
greyish, and yellowish-brown, or creamy buff; feet pale yellow 
to buff yellow ; claws horny yellow. 

Six! females in aduU plumage^ Aprils May^ and August. — 
Length, 124 to 13*2; expanse, 22*1 to 24; wing, 805 to 8*6; 
tail, 6*8 to 7-8 ; tarsus, 0*8 to 0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*15 to 1*25 ; 
bill at front, 0*78 to 0*9 ; closed wings short of end of tail, 1*5 
to 2-1. 

Bill black above and at tip ; middle of lower mandible 
greenish horny ; base of lower mandible yellow horny ; gape 
and margins of eyelids yellow ; irides yellow or brownish 
yellow ; feet buffy yellow, dusky, and yellowish horny. 

Five young females^ July, August, and September. — Length, 
11*75 to 131; expanse, 206 to 23*2; wing, 7*4 to 8*2; toil, 
6*2 to 7*2; tarsus, 0*8 to 0*9; bill from gape, 114 to 1*24; 
bill at front, 0*76 to 0*9 ; closed wings short of tail, 1-4 to 2*6. 

Interior of mouth bright orange ; irides yellowish brown and 
creamy buff. Colours of soft parts generally as in the young 
male. 

The Common Cuckoo is found in great numbers in the Valley 
of Nepal (where all the above specimens were obtained) during 
six months of the year, from April to October. The earliest 
date on which it was noticed was the 31st March, and tl^ 
latest about the first week in October. It frequents the central 
woods, and the forests on the hill sides up to 6,000 feet, rarely 
ascending to about 7,000 feet. It lays in May and June, 
generally selecting the nests of Praiincola indica and P. ferrea^ 
and occasionally I think that of FomcUorAinus erytkrogenj/s, 

200.— Guculus striatus, Drap. 

Male J AduU J Valley, September. — Length, 11*9; expanse^ 
20*4 ; wing, 7-1 ; tail, 6*3 ; tarsus, 0*7 j bill from gape, 115; 
bill at front, 0*86 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*1. 

Irides light brown. 



▲ GOHTBIBUTIOK TO THIE OBlflXSOIiOQT Off 19BPAL. 2&S 

F^mah in hipatie phoH ofp\um/Ag% Yalley, if tf$rtf«^:— ^fjen^tli^ 
11*2; expanse^ 18 5; mugf 6*7; tail, 6*0; tarsua, 0*7; bill 
from gape, 1*15 ; bill at fronts 0*77 ; cloaed wings abort of tail> 
2-25. 

Upper mandible black; lower mandible greenish homy, 
yellowish at base ; mouth aiid gape bright orange ; margins 
of eyelids deep yellow ; kides brownish golden ; feet ochre 
yellow. 

Female^ in a v&ry dark Hoffe of plunioge represerUinff Hodg^ 
«»n'# satnratns, VaUejf^ Jutg. — Length, 11*7; expanse, 19*3; 
wing, .6*9 ; tail, 6'S ; tarsus, 0*76 ; bill from gape, 1*16 ; bill at 
front, 0*74 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5« 

Upper mandible black, lower green horny, dusky at tip ; 
gape orange ; edge of eyelids green ; irides greyish brown;, 
feet pale waxy yelbw ; claws brownish yellow, homy. 

The Himalayan Cuckoo is fairly common in the valley from 
May to September, but is found in far fewer numbers than 
the common species. I do not know whether it resides there 
permanently or not, but my impression is, that it migrates to 
lower levels in the cold season^ In May and June it is found. 
in tree forests, at elevations of over 7,000 feet, frequenting 
the tops of high trees and continually uttering its peculiar call, 
which the Parbatias render as '' Kaifal pakyo^' (the Kaiphal 
fruit is ripe) — a very good imitation of the cry. In August 
and September tlie birds (principally young ones) are found 
in the woods of the central part of the valley. 

205.— Hierococcyz varius, Vahl 

Male^ AdiMj Bhawanipur (Plains), December. — Length, 18*5 1 
expanse, 23*1 ; wing, 8 ; tail, 7*7 ; tarsos, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 
1*2 ; bill at front, 0-85 ; dosed wings short of tail, 8*3. 

Irides golden yellow ; feet piue yellow ; claws yellowish 
homy. 

Female J Adult , Valley^ Ftf&ftfary.-^Length, 13; expanse, 22'6 1 
wing, 7-65; tail, 7*2; tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 1*25 ; bill 
at front, 0*85 ; cloaed wings short of tail, 2*9 ; weight, 4 ozs. 

Bill green horny ; culmen and anterior part of upper mandible 
black ; margin of eyelids gambogfe yelbw ; iriiies orange ; 
feet yellow; claws yellowish nomy. 

Male J Young ^ Valley ^ Aprils — Length, 14; expanse, 23*5; 
wing, 8 ; tail, 7*9 ; tarsns, 1 ; bill from gape, 1*3 ; bill at front, 
0*95 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*3. 

Bill black on culmen and at tip, the rest green ; iris brown 
yellow ; feet yellow. 

In this specimen the whole upper parts, including the outer 
webs of the primaries and secondaries, are barred with rufous, 

98 



856 A CONTBIBUTION TO THE OBHITHOLOGT OF NBPAL; 

the bars heihg fatni on the interscapulary recrion ; bat some 
new quillS) not fullr growui are unhanded pure grey on the 
outer webs, as in the adult. 

This Hawk-Cuckoo is found in small numbers in the valley 
of Nepal^ where it breeds. In May it was often heard in the 
Sheopuri forest at an elevation of about 7,000 feet, and it was 
observed on several occasions^ in the central woods, before 
and after the breeding season. It seems to come into the 
valley earlier than the other Ouckoos, as I shot a specimen in 
the Residency grounds on the 8rd of February. It was com- 
mon in the plains of Nepal, in topes, during December. Its 
call and habits are well known. 

207.— Hierococcyx sparveroides, Vig. 

Female^ Youngs Valley ^ AuguBt, — Length, 14*3; expanse, 
23*6; wing, 8*3 ; tail, 7*5 ; tarsus, 1 ; bill from gape, 1*4; bill 
at front, 0*96 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*1. 

Bill black above, green horny below ; gape and margin of 
eyelids yellow ; irides brown ; feet and claws yellow ; the 
bill is very large and powerful, above dark brown, banded 
with rufous; large longitudinal drops of black on the 
throat and breast, and arrow-head bars on the flanks and 
abdomen. 

MaUi Toun^y Valley ^ August. — Length, 14*3 ; expanse, 24 ; 
wing, 8*65 ; tail, 8*2 ; tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 1*25 ; bill at 
jfront, 0*85 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*2. 

Upper mandible black, lower greenish; gape and eyelids 
greenish yellow ; iris brown; feet yellow. Above dark, bronzed 
brown, inconspicuously banded with rufous ; tail crossed with 
five dark-brown bars, the interspaces rufous ; below, the longi-* 
tudinal dark drops on tha neck and breast are narrower than 
in the first specimen, and the flanks and abdomen are trans- 
versely barred with dusky; tho bill is very small for this 
species, so much smaller than in the first bird, which was of 
much the same age, as to make one doubt whether this speci- 
men is really eparverioidee. 1 do not know what else it can 
be ; the large size, general style of colouration, and the very 
broad bars on the tail preclude the possibility of referring it 
to variu9y and h fortiori it cannot be nieieolor. 

The Large Hawk-Guckoo is a seasonal visitant to the valley 
of Nepal, arriving about the beginning of April and descend- 
ing to the plains and low warm valleys in September. It 
frequents the forests on the hills round the valley during its 
breeding season, and in August the young birds are found in 
the central woods in small numbers. 



A OONTRIBUTION TO THE OBKITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 257 

213.~Ooccystes coromandus, Lin. 

Male f Valley , May. — Length, 16 ; expanse, 19; wing, 6*4^ 
tail, 10 ; tarsns, 1*1; bill from gape, 1*4; bill at front, 1*05; 
closed wings short of tail, 6'9; crest, 1*7. 

Bill black ; feet blnish plnmbeous ; the soles yellow ; claws 
dusky ; the head is darker than the rest of the upper parts, 
the forehead alone being without gloss ; the tail feathers, 
except the uropygials, are narrowly margined with whitish 
at the tips ; chin and throat fulvous ; flanks pale ferruginous, 
and the thigh-coverts smoky ; lower tail-coverts dull black, 
with whitish margins to the tips of the tail feathers. 

The Bed-winged Crested Cuckoo appears to be rare in the 
Talley of Nepal, but breeds there, I believe. The only speci- 
men obtained was shot at Godaveri, at the foot of the hills 
bounding the valley to the south. 

214.— Eadynamys honorata» Lin. 

Three aduU maleSy Valley, May. — Length, 14*8 to 15*8 ; ex- 
panse, 23*3 to 23*7 ; wing, 7*7 ; tail, 7*4 to 8*25 ; tarsus, 12 to 
1*3; bill from gape, 1*4 to 1*5; bill at front, 1*05 to 1*2; 
nostril to tip of upper mandible, 0*78 to 0*8 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 3*7 to 4*3. 

Bill pale greenish horny, blackish about the nostrils, and base 
of lower mandible plumbeous ; gape and orbital skin pinkish ; 
irides bright scarlet and crimson ; feet bluish plumbeous, the 
soles yellow ; claws dusky horny or blackish* 

Tioo adult females J Valley ^ May. — ^Length 15 and 15'5 ; ex- 
panse, 22*4 and 23*6 ; wing, 7*2 and 7*6 ; tail, 7*3 and 7*9 ; 
tarsus, 1*2 and 1*25; bill from gape, 1*4; bill at front, 1*0; 
nostril to tip of upper mandible, 0*73 and 0*75 ; closed wings 
abort of tail, 4*1 and 4*3. 

Bill greenish horny, dark at the nostrils, and plumbeous at 
base below ; gape pinkish ; irides crimson ; feet bluish or green* 
isb plumbeous ; the soles dirty yellowish ; claws dusky homy. 

Female^ immature, Valley ^ «7ti/y.— Length, 13*6; expanse, 
21*5 ; wing, 6*8 ; tail, 6*5 ; tarsus, 1*25 ; bill from gape, 1*35 ; 
bill at front, 0*98 ; nostril to tip of upper mandible, 0*65 ; 
closed wings short of tail 3*8. 

Bill black ; the tip of the lower mandible light horny ; irides 
dark brown ; feet light bluish plumbeous ; claws dusky ; the 
bars on the wings, tail, and abdomen are rufescent, on the 
other parts they are white ; the hind head darker than the rest 
of the upper surface. 

The males have the tail faintly, but regularly, barred. A 
pair of nestlings, taken from a nest of Corvue eplendene in July^ 



258 A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORKITHOLOOY OF tnSPlL. 

differed in plumage nearly av maeh as tlio adnlt male does ffom 
the adult female. One of these little birds had the upper sur- 
face dark bottle-green, and measured length, 7 ; wing, 3*4 1 
the other was dark brown above, barred with rofons^ It ap- 
pears, therefore, that in this species die sexes differ in colour 
ab initio. 

I have carefully compared my five adult Koils with a large 
peries of malayana and honoraJUi* and they unquestioiiably belong 
to the latter species. This might be gathered from the dimen- 
sions alone, but I may add that in the Nepal birds the bill is 
much smaller than in specimens of malaycyna, being equal in size 
to the bills of examples from Deesa, and actually smaller than 
in some specimens from Etawah and the Laccadivea. 

I mention this because Nepal has lately often been 
given as a habitat (ovmalayaMs that species may occur in 
some part of the Nepal territories, but certainly the Eoil of 
the Nepal Valley is ionoraia. 

The Indian Koil is a seasonal visitor to the valley, arriving 
about the end of March or beginning of April, and departing 
in September. It frequents the woods of the central part of 
the valley, gardens, groves, and trees, near houses and villages; 
in April, May, and Jxme its well-known cry may be constantly 
heard. The eggs are laid in the nest of the common crow 
( C. splendena)^ as in the plains of India. 

21^.— Rhopodytes tristiBi Less. 

Three females^ Valley, May, July^ and August — Length, 20*2 
to %3'4; expanse, 18-5 to 19*2; tail, 13 to 16*5; tarsus, 1*6 
to 1-6; bill from gape, I'S to 1*6; bill at frcnt, 1-2 to 1*25; 
closed wings short of tail, 1,0-2 to 13*5 ; wing, 6*8 to 6*8. 

Bill horny green, darker towaVds the base ; orbital skin dark 
r^d ; irides dark or brownish red ; feet greenish plumbeous ; 
dsLWB horny black. 

I found this species in the valley of Nepal, in small numbersi 
from April to September. It frequented tree bushes in thickish 
jungle at the foot of the hills. 

221.— Taccocua infiiscatai Bfy. 

Nawakot District, November. — Length, 17-7 ; etpanse, 18-6; 
wing, 6-4; tail, 1035 ; tarams, 1*75; bill from gape, 1*4; bill 
at front, 1*05 ; closed wings short of tail, 7*0. 

Bill cherry red ; tip yellow ; masTgia of maxilla black at 
middle ; gape and orbits dusky purplish ; mouth black ; irided 
dark brown; feet slaty; claws brown-black. This specrmen 
Agrees well with Jerdon's description. - 



A OONTRTBUTIOK TO THB ORKITHOLOGT OT NVPAL. 259 

This species was tolerably common in the Trisul Valley, 
Nawakot district, in November. It was nsaally obserred feed-^ 
iug on the ground, in the midst of bnshea near the path, and 
when alarmed it flew np into the nearest tree. It does not 
occur in the Nepal Valley. 

229.— iBthopyga nipalensis, Sodgs. 

EifflUeen males, February^ May, June. — Leucrth, 5*3 to 5*9 ; 
expanse, 6*1 to 6*65 ; wing, 20 to 2*2; tail, 2*6 to 8*0 ; tarsus, 
0-6 to 0-65 ; bill from gape, 0*78 to 0*9 ; bill at front, 0*6 to 
0*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*7 to 2*05. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy or yellowish fleshy ; irides dark 
brown ; feet dark brown horny to brownish black ; claws brown- 
ish black. 

Three females f February an// /un«.-— Length, 4*1 to 4*7; ex- 
panse. 5*9 to 6*1 ; wing, 1*9 to 1*97; tail, 1*7 to 1*73 ; tarsus, 
0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 08 ; bill at front, 0*66 to 0*68 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 095 to 1*0. 

Bill black; gape orange; irides dark brown; feet dark 
homy brown ; claws dusky. 

This beautiful Honey-Sucker is common in the forest-corer- 
ed hills round the vallejf of Nepal throughout the year. In 
summer it is only found m tree forests, at elevations of from 
7,000 to 8,000 feet, but in winter it descends occasionally to 
the foot of the hills, though it never visits the central part of 
the valley. AH my specimens were shot in the Sheopuri forest, 
and there the Honey-Sucker was always plentiful in the rather 
open parts of the forest, hunting about actively in small trees, 
by the side of the path, constantly moving, and sometimes 
hovering over a bush or between the leaves. 

231— Oinnyris asiatica» Lath. 

Two mateSy Valley^ June, — Length, 4*4 and 4*5 ; expanse, 
7 and 7*1 ; wing, 2*25 ; tail, 1*45 and 1*5 ; tarsus, 0*5 and 
0*57 ; bill from gape, 0*75 and 0*76 ; bill at front, 0*65 and 
0*7 ; closed wings short of tall, 0*5 and 0*6. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides dark brown and reddish 
dark brown. Breeding plumage : no trace of white tips to 
tail feathers ; gloss on upper parts more green than purple. 

Male, Valley^ August. — Length, 4*3 ; expanse, 6*9 ; wing, 
2*2 ; tail, 1^6 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*78 ; bill at front, 
0*68 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*5. 

Bill bbick, brownish at base of lower mandible ; gape buff 
fleshy ; irides blackish brown ; eyelid plumbeous ; feet and 
daws black. In the curuearia stage, with a glossy stripe from 
chin to vent, and glossy patches on the upper surikce of the 



260 A OONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NKPAL. 

wings and partly on the tail, but not on the head or elsewhere ; 
tail feathers narrowly margined with white at the tip. 

Four female8f Valley^June to Augu8L — Lengthy 4 to 4*4; 
expanse, 6*7 to 6*8 ; wing, 2*1 to 2*2 ; tail, 1*3 to 1*45 ; tarsus, 
0*54 to 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*78 ; bill at front, 0*6 to 
0*65; closed wings short of tail, 0*45 to 0*7. 

Bill black, brownish at base below ; gape orange or bnff 
fleshy ; irides dark brown ; feet and claws black ; a white spot 
on the tip of the outer tail feather, the white extending a 
little up the outer web. A young bird, obtained on the 12tb 
June, was earthy brown above, yellowish fulvous beneath. 

This Honey-Sucker is a summer visitant to the valley, and 
is fairly common there from May to September, frequenting 
gardens, hedges, and cultivated ground fringed with bushes or 
small trees. On the 26th May, a nest of this species was found 
in a Hibiscus bush in the Residency Garden. The nest was a 
beautiful fairy-like structure, composed chiefly of soft grass, 
flowers and bits of leaves ; it was pear-shapal, with an oval 
entrance at the side^ and had a cup-shaped roof which formed 
a portico over the mouth of the nest. In this two eggs were 
found, slightly incubated, which measured 0*65 by 0*47 and 
0*64 by 0*45. The ground colour was greenish white, with a 
few irregular spots of reddish brown at the large end of the 
eggs, the small end and greater portion of the surface being 
free from markings. 

240.— Piprisoma agile, Tick. 

Two malesy Valley, July and August, — Length, 4 ; expanse, 
7*5 and 7*85 ; wing, 2*45 and 2*51 ; tail, 1*34 and 1*4 ; tarsus, 
0*52 and 0*55 ; bill from gape, 0*40 and 0*43 ; bill at front, 
0*29 and 0*3 ; closed wing short of tail, 0*5 and 0*55. 

Bill bluish plumbeous, dusky at tip ; irides brownish red 
and scarlet ; feet dark plumbeous ; claws blackish. 

This interesting little bird was not uncommon in the central 
part of the Nepal Valley, from May to September. I can con- 
firm Jerdon's statement that it frequents high branches of trees 
in parties or small flocks ; such were its habits about the end 
of July. Mr. Hodgson did not obtain this species in Nepal ; 
at least it is not entered in either edition of the B. M. Catalogue 
or his collection, and there is no flgure of it amongst his draw- 
ings. This is the more remarkable as I shot both my specimens 
in the Residency grounds. There can be no doubt as to the 
identification, for although I named the specimens at first 
merely from Jerdon's description, I have since compared them 
with numerous examples iu Mr. Hume's collection. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE O&NITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 26 1 

2241— Myzanthe ignipectus, Hodga. 

Three aduU malee^ July and August — Lenortli, 3*2 to 3*3 ; 
expanse, 5*7 to 6*2 ; wing, 1*8 to 1*9 ; tail, 0*9 to 1*03 ; tarsus, 
0*5 to 0*55 ; bill from gape, 0*4 to 0*42 ; bill at front, 8 to 
0*32 ; closed winces short of end of tail, 0*45 to 0*5. 

Bill black ; irides brown or blackish brow^n ; feet and claws 
dull or brownish black ; the black stripe down the middle of the 
abdomen is very well marked ; the wings do not reach to the 
end of the tail, as stated by Jerdon. 

Female, February. — Length, 2*9 ; expanse, 5*1 ; wing, 1*8 ; 
tail, 0*95 ; tarsns, 0*43 ; bill at fronts 0*3 ; closed wings short 
of tail, 0-35. 

Bill black; base of lower mandible pinmbeons; feet and 
daws blackish; above olive green, brightest on the rump 
and the head greyish ; chin whitish ; lower surface a faintly 
bnff yellow, greenish on the sides ; axillaries and lower wing- 
coverts pure white. 

Malsj imnuUurej 6th Augtut. — Length, S'2; wing, 1*9; tail, 
0-95; tarsus, 0*49; bill from gape, 0*42; bill at front, 0*33 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*35. 

Bill homy black ; base of lower mandible greyish ; irides 
dark ; feet and daws dull black ; glossy dark green on mid- 
back and shoulders ; a small red spot appearing on the breast; 
otherwise as in the female. 

MaUj young^ \st August — Length, 3*3 ; expanse, 6*2 ; wing, 
1*9 ; tail, 1*0; tarsus, 0*5; bill from gape, 0*4; bill at front| 
0*3 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*4. 

Bill black, grey at base of lower mandible ; gape orange ; 
irides blackish ; feet and claws dull slaty ; the head partially 
glossr dark green ; breast pale orange ; otherwise as in the 
female. 

MaUy Srd Jufyj Talley. — Length, 3*1 ; expanse, 5 5; wing, 
1*8 ; tail, 0*9 ; tarsus, 0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*55. 

Bill plumbeous dusky ; tarsi plumbeous ; toes blackish plum- 
beous ; claws black. I am very doubtful about the identifica- 
tion of this specimen. It closely resembles Mgzantheignipectua^ 
female^ but I sexed the bird myself, and found the testes so 
large as to show that it was breeding. The bill is imperfect, 
but the base, which remains, is dusky leaden. I failed to 
identify it with any species of Dicaum in Mr. Hume's collec- 
tion. 

The Fire-breasted Flower-pecker is tolerably common in the 
valley of Nepal, and apparently is a permanent resident. It 
frequents gardens, groves, and tree bushes on the bill sides, 
and is social in winter. 



962 Av CONTRIBUTIOK TO THB OBNITHOLOOT OF NKPAU 

247.— Tichodroma mnraria, Lin. 

Male.^'Tjength^ 6*3 ; expanse, 11*8 ; wiog, 4 ; tailj 2*3 ; tanas, 
0*87; bill from gape, 1*2; bill at front, 0*93; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*45. Spots on the primaries pure white. 

Female. — Length, 6*7 ; expanse, 12 ; wing, 4*1 ; tail, 2*3 ; 
tarsns, 0*9; bill from gape^ 1*3; bill at front, 1*0; closed 
wing short of tail, 0*4. 

Bill and claws black ; feet black, tinged with brown ; irides 
dark brown. The sixth and seyenth primaries have the spot on 
the inner webs golden yellow. Mr. Hodgson gives a figure of 
this species in which the yellow spots on the wings are pro- 
minently shown, but he says : — ^^ Golden drops of alars often 
wanting/' 

The Wall-Creeper was found in winter only, in the Nawakot 
district, the valley of Nepal, and the Markhu Valley, but not 
in any great numbers. It frequented the rocky sidea of 
streams, and boulders along their course. 

248.— Sitta himalayensis, Jard. and Selb. 

Three males, May, June and ^«^»«^.— Length, 4*55 to 4*75 ; 
expanse, 8*6 to 9*1 ; wing, 2*8 to 2*9 ; tail, 1*4 to 1*5 ; tarsus, 0*65 
to 0*7 ; bill from gape, 65 to 0*74 ; bill at front, 0*5 to 0*53 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*2 to 0*3 ; foot, length, 1*35 to 1*4, 
breadth, 0*95 ; mid-toe and claw, 0*85. 

Bill black above and at tip ; lower mandible and base of 
upper bluish grey horny; irides dark brown; feet dingy 
greenish brown ; the soles yellowish green ; claws dusky. 

Tliree females, Febmaryj May and Jiun«.— Length, 4*6 to 
4*85; expanse, 8 7 to 9*0; wing, 2*77 to 2 9; tail, 1*45 to 
1*5; tarsus, 0*6 to 0*73 ; bill from gape, 065 to 0*7; bill at 
front, 0*49 to 052 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*1 to 0*35. 

Bill bluish black horny; base of culmen and of lo^er mandible 
grey horny ; irides dark brown ; feet dingy brownish, thd 
Boles greenish yellow. 

Three young birds. May and June. — Length, 4*15 to 4*5; 
wing, 2*5 to 2*6 ; bill from gape, 0*6 ; bill at front, 0*4. 

Upper mandible dusky ; lower mandible and gape homy yel- 
low ; irides blackish ; feet dingy fleshy, paler ri^escent below, 
but otherwise not differing from adult female. 

The White-taiied Nuthatch is common on the hills round the 
Nepal Valley, from 5,000 to 9,000 feet, throughout the year, 
but never seems to stray into the central wooda. In summer 
it was abundant in the forest on the Sheopuri Ridge ; it was 
usually seen in parties on small, rather young tvees, and was 
very bold and active. 



A OONTBIBUTION TO THE OBNITHOLOOT OF NKPAL. 263 

251.— Sitta dnnamomeiveiitriB, Bly. 

Two males, September and October. — Length, 5*8 and 6*1 ; 
lexpansd^ 9*6 and 10*5; win^, 3*3 and 3*35; tail^ 1*8; tarsus, 
0*66 and 0-7; bill from gape, 1*0; bill at front, 0*76 ; closed 
wings short of tail, U'5 and 0*6. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible and of culmen bluish 
grey homy ; irides hazel brown ; feet dingy plumbeous. 

Female J July. — Length, 5*3; expanse, 10*9; wing, 3*4; 
tail, 1*8 ; tarsus, 0*7 ; bill from gape, 0*9 ; bill at front, 0*75 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*6. 

Bill homy black ; base of oulmen and basal two-thirds of 
lower mandible homy white ; irides brown ; gape yellow ; feat 
greenish plutnbeous, the soles greenish yellow ; daws plum- 
beous hol*ny. 

Two ffoung birds, June and August. — Length, 5*1 and 5*6 ; ex- 
panse, 9*5 and 10; wing, 3*2 and 3*3; tail, 1*8; tarsus, 0*7 ; 
bill from gape, 0*9 and 0*95 ; bill at front, 0*74 and 0'75 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*4 and 05. 

One of these specimens has the whole upper surface undulat- 
ed with rusty and blackish. 

This Nuthatch is common in the central woods of the Yalleyi 
and is usually seen in small parties running up and down the 
trunks of bate ti'des. It is more shy in its habits than S. himor 
layemis. 

254.--*npapa epops, Lin. 

Two males, fatlpy^ April. — Length, 12 and 12*5 ; expanse, 
18 and 18 2; wing, 6*9 and 6*0 ; tail, 4* 5 and 4*3 ; tarsus, 0*8 
and 0*9 ; bill from gape, 2*4 and 2*5 ; bill at front, 2*25 and 
3*3 ; nostril to point of bill, 1*9 and 2*0 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 1-9 and 2*0. 

Two females, Valley, September. — Length, 11*4 and 11*6; ex- 
panse^ 17-4 and 18 ; wing, 5*75 ; tail, 39 and 41 ; tarsus, 0*8 
and 0-85 ; bill from gape, 2*3 and 2*4 ; bill at front, 2*05 ; nos- 
tril to tip of bill, 1*88 and 1*88 ; weight, 2 ozs. 

Rill horny black; base of upper mandible livid, and base of 
lower mandible greyish horny ; gape whitish fleshy ; eyelid 
plumbeous ; irides dark brown ; feet dusky ; claws blackish 
homy. 

The European Hoopoe is a rare bilrd in the valley of Ndpal, 
a few pairs only beings now and then, seen there in winter. 
About the beginning of April it passes through the valley, pro- 
bably to its breeding places further north, and returns about 
the beginning of September on its way to the toloids. It was 
found fairly common, ia Deodraber, at Bitshiakoh, and in the 
Tarai, and plains. 

34 



264 ▲ CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORKITHOLOGT OF HRPAL. 

258.— Lanius tephronotuSi Vig. 

FemaUj Chitlanffj December. — Leno^th, 9*6 ; expanse, 13*1 ; 
wing, 4*25; tail, 505; tarsus, 1*15; bill from gape, 1*03; 
bill at front, 0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*1. 

Bill black; base of lower mandible yellowish homy; irides 
dark brown ; feet and claws black ; above dark bloish grey ; 
the rump, tail-coverts, flanks and lower abdomen ferruginoas ; 
a narrow black band across the forehead, passing through the 
eyes and expanding on the ears to form a large patch on sides 
of neck. 

Four immature birds ^ of which two are males j Falley, February , 
Marehy and October. — Length, 8*8 to 10 ; expanse, 12 to 13 ; 
wing, 3*8 to 4*2; tail, 4*3 to 5*2; tarsus, 1*1 to 1*15; bill 
from gape, 0*93 to 1*0; bill at front, 0*6 to 0*65 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 3*9 to 4*1 ; weight, 1*5 to 1*7 ozs. 

Bill black; base of lower mandible pale grej homy; irides 
very dark brown ; feet dusky plumbeous or blackish ; claws 
horny black. All washed with brown above, the tail brownish, 
and the lower surface, from the neck downwards, more or less 
strongly nndulated ; in one specimen the upper tail-coverts are 
also faintly barred ; and in another (10th October), with undu- 
lations on the hind head, nape, scapulars, rump and upper tail« 
coverts, as well as on the lower surface. 

The Grey-backed Shrike is common in the Valley of Nepal 
from about the end of September to the middle of March ; it is 
the only Shrike found in the Valley during the winter season, but 
it migrates further north to breed. In December it was fairly 
common about Chitlang, which is higher than Kathmandu, but 
seemed to be entirely replaced in the Hetonra Dun by L. niffri" 
oeps. It frequents gardens, groves, and cultivated ground, perch- 
ing on bushes and hedges, and small bare trees. It has a very 
harsh chattering note, louder than that of nigricepsy and appears 
to be most noisy towards sunset, when its cry would often lead 
one to suppose that the bird was being strangled in the clutches 
of a raptor. 

269.— Lanius nigricepSi FranU. 

Three males, July and September {VaUey)j December ( Be- 
toura). — Length, 8*8 to 9*9 ; expanse, 11*2 to 12; wing, 8-75 to 
3*9 ; tail, 4*2 to 5*2 ; tarsus, 1*0 to 11 ; bill from gape, 0*9 to 
0*95 ; bill at front, 0*63 to 0*67 ; closed wings short of tail, 3 
to 8-8. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides deep brown. 

Three females^ VaUeyy Marehj June and Augwt. — Length, 
9 4 to 9-5; expanse, 11*5 to 11*7; wing, 3*55 to 3*65 ; tail| 



▲ OONTRIBUnOM TO THE OBNITSOLOQY OF NEPAL. 265 

4*6 to 4*9 ; tarsas, 1*1 to 115; bill from gape, 0*9 to 0*95 ; 
bill at frout, 0*58 to 0*67 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*1 to 3*4. 

Bill black ; base of lower maQdible slaty horny ; irides dark 
brown ; feet leaden black. 

Three young malesy Valley^ July, August and September.^' 
Length* 8*6 to 9*4 ; expanse, 11*3 to 11*8; wing, 3*55 to 3*65 ; 
tail, 4-3 to 4*6 ; tarsus, 1*0 to 1*1 ; bill from gape, 0*9 to 
0'93 ; bill at front, 0*57 to 0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 
31 to 3*2. 

Upper mandible brownish black; the lower dasky at tip, dark 

Srey in centre, and livid fleshy at base ; gape white or yellow 
eshy ; irides blackish brown ; lower eyelid blnish grey ; feet 
and claws black. 

The parts which in the adnlts are pure, are in these yonng 
birds dull and brownish, and the colours generally are paler and 
less well marked ; the head above is spotted and barred, and 
there are a few bars on the back and upper tail-coverts, 
but the whole lower surface is, in all cases, without undulations. 
All the specimens, both adult and young, show a prominent white 
bar on tue wing. 

The Black-headed Shrike is common in the Nepal Valley from 
the beginning of March to the end of September, and mi- 
grates to the Dun, Tarai, and plains in winter. In December it is 
common about Hetoura and Bichiakoh. It frequents scrub 
. jungle, euphorbia and other hedges near hamlets, and small trees 
on the borders of woods. It has the usual habits of the tribe, 
perching on the tops of bushes and trees, and uttering a harsh 
chattering cry. It breeds on the hill sides of the valley, usually 
in places where there is no tree forest, and not uncommonly in 
the neighbourhood of hamlets. Several nests were obtained in 
May and June; these were large cup-shaped structures, com- 
posed of grass roots, fibres, and fine seed down intermixed. The 
egg cavity was circular, lined with fine grass stems, about four 
inches in diameter, and two inches deep in the middle. The 
usual number of eggs is five ; the ground colour pale greenish 
white, boldly blotched and spottea with olive marks in an irre- 
gular zone round the large end. A clutch of five eggs taken on 
the 14th June gave the following dimensions : — 0*94 to 0*97 in 
length, and 0*65 to 0*7 in breadth. 

265.— Tephrodornis pondicerianuSi Om. 

Male^ DecenU>er.— Length, 7*1 ; expanse, 11; wing, 3*55; 
tail, 2*9 ; tarsus, 07 ; bill from gape, 1*03; bill at front,0'7 ; 
closed wings short of tieiil, 1*5. 

Bill dusky; the lower mandible brownish at base; irides 
brown ; gape whitish fleshy. 



266 A OOMTttlfiUTIOK TO THE OBNITHOlX>aY OF KEPAL. 

I fdmnd this species tolefably* cninmon in the SA forest be- 
tweeo Bichiakoh and Semrabasa in December. It frequented 
bush trees by the lioad^sidej was gregarious, and had a rather 

pleasant note. 

P 267d»^«--HeiiupuB capitalifii MoClelU 

Bhimphediy December. — Xiength, 5*5 ; expanse^ 7*7 ; wiagv 
2*5 ; tail, 2 6; tarsus, 0*5 ; bill from gape, 0*72; bill at front, 
0'45 ; closed, wings shoi't of tailj.l'S. 

Bill black; the, head isblack, glossed green, and very sharply 
audi distinctly marked off from the brown back. 

I found this species only once in Nepal, a little below Bhim* 
phedi, in December. It was gregarious, and frequented bushes 

Sowing near the road... llnfortunately only one specimen of 
is species was secured, and. it could not be sexed. 

269.— Volvocivojra meUschista, Hodgs. 

(1.) Female, Immaturej Afo^.-r-Length, 9*5 ; expanse, 14-6 ; 
wing, 4*8 ; tail, 4*9 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 1*0 ; bill at 
front, 0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*2. 

Bill, feet and daws black* Wings dusky, with a faint greenish 
gloss ou the outer webs of tke feathers ; a long white spot on 
the inner webs of tiie third, fourth, fifth and sixth quills ; uropy- 
gials greyish dusky, blackish towards the tips ; next pair of reo- 
trices blackish throughout, with a faint greenish gloss on the 
outer webs ; the rest of the tail feathers tipped with white ; 
lower breast, abdomen, flanks and thighs with faint blackish 
spots on the feathers, giving the appearance of regular trans- 
verse bars; lower tailtcoverts greyish white, strongly barred 
with bUck> 

(2.) JdaUf young, Julyi-^Lengthf 9*3; expanse, I4"8; 
wing, 4*65 j tail, 4*6 ; tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape^ 0*95 ; bill at 
front, 0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*65. 

Bill black; irides hazel; feet dull plumbeous blaek; cktws 
black. Darker above than.(l) ; tke quills with conspicuous pale 
fringes; white and black bars. on the top of the head and slightly 
on the back ; chin, throat, breast and under wing-coverts barred 
with white; no white spot on. the quills; lateral tail feathers 
white tipped. 

(3.) Male, Adult, Anffuei. — Wings and tail imperfect as the 
bird was moulting.; the wings glosB^ed green, like a^ Drongo, 
and no pale fringes to tbQ quills ; the lateral tail feathers with a 
white terminal spot. 

(4,) Female, ImnuUMre^. Auguai, — Length, 9*5 ; tail, 4^7 ; 
tarsus, 0*82 ; bill from gape, 1*0; bill, at front, 0*6. 



A OOHTRlBirriOK TO THE OBllYTHOLOQT OF NEPAL. 267 

Bllt horny black ; iridea lake red ; lower eyelid plnmbeons 
grey ; feet dnil ptambeons, the soles yellowish ; claws dusky. 
Upper surface uniform, the nuderparts faintly barred ; a circle 
of white feathers round the eye ; the white spots nearly worn 
off the lateral tail feathers; new growing quills without any 
white spots, but the third and fourth primaries, which are 
old feathers not yet shed, haye a Inrge white spot on the inner 
webs. 

(5.) Mahy Y&unff, Juffust. — Length, 8*8 ; expanse, 13*7 ; 
wing, 4*55 ; tail, 4*9 ; tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*97 ; bill at 
front, 0*59 ; closed winga short of tail, 2*3^ 

Bill homy black ; tip and base of lower mandible pale ; irides 
brown ; interior of mouth yellow ; feet dull plumbeous ; claws 
dusky. A pure white ring round the eye ; profusely spotted and 
barred on the upper surfiice, rocluding the wing-coverts, and 
the quills margined with white ; whole lower surface conspicu- 
ously cross barred ; whitf» spots on the quills) and on the ends of 
the lateral tail feathers. 

(6.) Female^ Immaffure, Septembsr.^-JueDgthy 9'5 ; expanse^ 
14*4 ; wing, 4*7 ; tail, 4*5 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*0 ; 
bill at front, 0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*2. 

Irides reddish brown ; plumage very similar in aU respects ta 
(1) ; outer tail feathers 1*2 shorter than the nropygials. 

The Darb-crrey Cuckoo Shrike is tolerably common in the val- 
ley of Nepal from April to about the end of September. It fre^ 
quents tho central woods of the Valley, and ascends the sur- 
rounding hills to an elevation of about 6,000 feet. It is gene* 
rally seen in pairs, in large trees, hopping abouc actively from 
branch to branch*, and often uttering a pleasant ndte ; it is not at 
all shy, and its flight seems to be rather slow and short. 



270*— Qraucalua macu. Less. 

(1.)' FSmale, Nepal Valley^ November. — Length, 12*6 ; ex- 
panse, 21*75; wing, 7*15; tail, 6*2; tarsus, 1*05; bill from; 
gape, 1*45 ; bill at front, 1*0 ; closed wings short of end of taily 
2*9 ; weight, 4 ozs. 

Bill blackish ; irides brownish red ; feet blackish- plumbeous ;. 
claws black. Chin to abdomen transversely barred ; a few rust- 
coloured smears on the chin, throat, and breast, and also faintly 
on the crown, back and upper tail-coverts ; a faint dusky lorial 
streak. 

(2.) MaUj Nawaioiy Natfember, — Length, 12*8 ; expanse, 
20*5; wing, 7*15; tail, 6*0; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 1*53; 
bill at front, 0*98; closed wings short of tail, 2*5^. 

Bill black; gape yellowish ; irides reddish brown ; feet dingy 
plumbeous. Ghin, throat, and upper breast almost unbarved ; no> 



268 A CONTBIBUTIOM TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF HK^AU 

raatj smears on any parfc ; darker above than (1), the pale mmp 
coatrastini^ more, and the lorial streak more marked. 

(3.) Male^ Bichiakoh, December. — Length, 12'8; expanse, 
22*1; wing, 7*35; tail, 60; tarsus, I'O ; bill from gape, 1*5; 
bill at front, 093 ; closed win^s short of tail, 2'25. 

Bill black ; irides red-brown ; feet and claws dusky. Rather 
darker above than (2) ; no bars whatever on lower surface, ex- 
cept some faint ones on the under tail-coverts ; chin, throat, 
and abdomen uniform grey, paling on the middle of the belly, 
and vent white; nostrils and lores black; the tail faintly barred, 
a character hardly indicated in (I) and (2). 

The Large Cuckoo Shrike is common in winter in the Nawa- 
kot District, and about Hetoura and Bichiakoh. To the Nepal 
Valley it appears to be a mere straggler, as it was only observed 
there from about the end of October to the middle of Novem- 
ber, and those birds were, I imagine, taking a short cut from the 
Nawakot district to the plains, instead of following the course 
of the Trisul Qanga River. Jerdon's account of its habits is 
very accurate ; but the only notes I heard it utter were sweet 
and musical. 

271.— Pericrocotus speciosus. Lath. 

TAree young maUsy Valley^ August and November. — Length, 
8*3 to 8* 6 ; expanse, 1 1*6 to*' 123 ; wing, 4 ; tail, 4* 15 to 4*35 ; 
tarsus, 65 to 08 ; bill from gape, 097 to 1-0 ; bill at front, 
0*56 to 0*6 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*2 to 2*95 ; weight I 
to 1*25 ozs. 

Bill, feet, and claws black ; irides dark brown. All in female 
garb, but the lateral tail feathers are distinctly flame coloured ; in 
two specimens (August) the head is undulated— each feather hav- 
ing a narrow dark subterminal bar followed by a whitish fringe. 

Twofemalesj August and November, — Length, 8'5 and 8*6; 
expanse, 11*65 and 12-£ ; wing, 3*8 and 4*0 ; tail, 42 and 4*3; 
tarsus, 0*7 and 0*76 ; bill from gape, 1*0 ; bill at fronts 0*5 and 
0*6 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*4 and 2*6. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides dark brown. In all these 
five specimens there is no yellow on the outer web of the three 
first primaries. 

The Large Mini vet is not common in the Valley of Nepal, but 
certainly breeds there. It was found in the central woods in 
flocks, and frequented high trees. I also obtained it on the hills 
round the Nawakot district, high up in November. 

273.— Pericrocotus brevirostris, Vig. 

Ten aduU males. — Length, 7*1 to 81 ; expanse, 10*2 to 11; 
wing, d-4 to 3*75 ; tail, 3*9 to 4*65 ; tarsus, 0-55 to 0*65; bUl 



A COirrRTBimON to THB OBNITHOLOGT of KBPAIto 269 

from gape, 0*7 to 0*77 ; bill at front, 0*38 to 0*47 ; closed wiogB 
short of tail, 2*1 to 2*8. In all these specimens there is a narrow 
reddish line on the margin of the outer web of the first primary 
at its base, and a more or less pronounced short red line on the 
margin of the outer web of the fourth primary at the bulge, 

Nine adult females. — Length, 7*3 to 7*6 ; expanse, 10 to 10*6 ; 
wing, 3*35 to 3*6 ; tail, 36 to 4*35 ; tarsus, 0*6 to 0*65 ; bill 
from gape« 0*7 to 0*72 ; bill at front, 0*4 to 0*47 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*8 to 2*65. 

All these have a yellowish white line on the outer margin of 
the first primary at the base, and either no, or only a faint trace 
of a similarly coloured hair line on the outer margin of the fourth 
primary at the bulge. 

Male^ Valley y June. — Length, 7*8 ; expanse, 10*5 ; wing, 8*4; 
tail, 4*35 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*72 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 2-75. 

This example is in the plumage of the adult female, but has 
a faint tinge of red on the throat, lower breast and upper part 
of the abdomen, a scarlet spot on the rump, and a rosy red 
spot on both webs of the eighth and niuth quills. 

Two immature maleSj Valley, August and September, — Length, 
7*7 to 7-85 ; expanse, 10*4 and 10*3 ; wing, 3*55 and 3*6 ; tail, 
4*4 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*7 and 0*72; bill at front, 
0*45 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*8 and 2*9. 

Plumage as in adult female. 

Three young males. Valley y July. — Length, 7*5 to 7*9; expanse, 
10 to 10*8 ; wing, 3*4 to 3*65 ; tail, 42 to 4*5 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; 
bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*75 ; bill at front, 0*43 to 0*5 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 2*6 to 3*0 ; weight, 0*75 ozs. 

Bill black, brownish at base below; lower eyelid grey, its margin 
with a line of white feathers ; irides very dark brown ; feet and 
claws black. Upper surface brownish grey, with a slight greenish 
tinge, each feather having a dark subterminal bar, and below this 
a white fringe, thus giving the upper surface a strongly un- 
dulated appearance ; the upper tail-coverts olive yellow, most 
of the feathers also barred ; elsewhere coloured as in the adult 
female. 

The Short-billed Minivet is very common in the valley of 
Nepal throughout the year, and is also abundant, in winter, in 
the Nawakot district and from Bhimphedi to Hetoura. In the 
valley it is usually seen in the central woods, in parties or flocks, 
on high trees ; it is very erratic in its movements, and is some- 
times found in great numbers, for a day or two, in a place 
where it will not afterwards be seen for weeks. When flocks 
of this species frequent Pine trees (P. longifolia) it is a pretty 
sight to watch their bright plumage glowing in the sun as they 



270 A OONTRIBUTION TO THE ORKITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 

move about in the dark ^rreen trees. During the breeding; aea^^ 
son (May and June) this Miaivet is found in forests on the hills 
up to an elevation of 7,500 feet. A nest was found in the 
Bbeopuri forest on the 17th June, which contained two very 
younj{ birds^ and one egg. 

278— Buchanga atra, Herm. 

Six mcdes. — Length, 1 1*7 to 12*6 ; expanse, 17 to 18*6 ; wing, 
5*9 to 6*2 ; tail, 6*3 to 71 ; tarsus, 0*85 to 0*9; bill from gape, 
1*05 to 1-13 ; bill at front, 0*75 to 0*8 ;closed wings short of tail, 
8*7 to 4*1 ; weight, 2*25 ozs. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides brown and deep red. 

Three females. — Length, 11*7 to 12; expanse, 16 to 17*5; 
wing, 5'5 to 6*0 ; tail, 6 3 to 70 ; tarsus 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill from 
gape, 1*05 to 1*1 ; bill at front, 0*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 
3 25 to 3-9. 

In all these specimens the white riotal marks are yery promi- 
nent, and measure in length from 1 to 0*2. 

The Common Kingcrow abounds in the liepal Valley dnrioig 
the whole year, and is common in winter in the Nawakot dis« 
trict, the lower hills, and the plains. In the yalley it is very tame 
and familiar, frequents the skirts of woods, gardens, hedges and 
fields, and often perches on the backs of oattla It not only 
descends to the ground to capture its prey, but very commonly 
stands on the around, both in fields and on banks. During the 
winter, when the fields are mostly bare, it certainly passes the 
greater part of the day, when not on the wing, standing on some 
bank or little mound ; and from thence sallies along every now 
and then to seize an insect, and again takes up a position on a 
clod of earth. In ''Nests and Eggs'' Mr. Hume doubts whether 
this species ever breeds at any elevation exceeding 2,000 feet ; 
in Nepal it certainly breeds freely at elevations of from 4,000 to 
5,000 feet. Three nests were taken in the Valley in May and 
June ; these contained each three or four pure white eggs. 

280.— Buchanga longicandata, A. Bay. 

Four males, April and September. — Length, ITS to 11'9; 
expanse, 16 to 16*6 ; wing, 5*55 to 5*6 ; tail, 6-5 to 6*8 ; tarsus, 
0-65 to 0-75 ; bill from gape, 1*1 to 1*16; bill at front, 09; 
closed wings short of tail, 3*4 to 4* K 

Two females, April. — Length, 11*2 and 11*3; expanse, 15*8 
and 16 ; wing, 5*4 and 5*5 ; tail, 6*4 ; tarsus, 0*73 and 0*76 ; bill 
from gape, 1*1 and 1*15 ; bill at front, 0*9; closed wings short 
of tail, 4. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides brownish red, blood red 
and crimson. 



A CONTBIBtrriOK TO THE OBKITHOLOOY OF KBPAL. '271 

These speciineiis belong to typical longicaudata^ and do not 
at all approach pyrriops. Setting aside all other difiPerences, 
this species may be distinguished at a glance from atra 
{aUnrieia, Hodgs.) by its mnch more feeble feet; the tarsi 
and toes are shorter and markedly more slender ; the claws much 
smaller^ and the hind claw decidedly more curved. 

Three fcunff females, July and Augnet. — Length, 9*0 to 10; 
expanse, 15 to 15*5 ; wing, 4*7 to 5; tailj 3*8 to 4'2 ; tarsus, 
0- 65 to 0*7 ; bill from gape, 1*0 ; bill at front, 0*8 to 0*83 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 1*2 to 2'0. 

Bill black, grey homy at extreme tip ; gape pale yellow fleshy ; 
irides blackish to blood red ; feet dusky ; claws black. 

Male^ Sheopuri Ridge, 20th May. ^Length, 11*5 ; wing, 5*5; 
outer tail feathers, 6'35 ; middle tail feathers, 3*73 ; tarsus^ 07. 

This example differs from all the others by having more gloss 
on the breast, by its slender form, and by the smaller feet — the 
tarsi being more slender and the hind claw markedly smaller ; 
in other respects it closely resembles longicaudata and not pyrrhops. 
It may possibly fall under B. himalayana^ Tytler. 

The Long-tailed Drongo is a migratory species in the Nepal 
Valley, urriving about the middle of March and retiring to lower 
and warmer regions towards the end of September ; the earliest 
date on which it was observed in the valley was on the 10th 
March. It frequents the central woods, perching high up on 
the trees, and never descends to the' ground. It is especially 
active towards dusk, when the bats begin hunting ; obviously, 
I think, because their food is, generally speaking, the same, and 
that many insects are then flying about. This species lays in the 
Talley in May and June, the nest being placed high up in trees, 
often in Pinue longifolia. The eggs are usually four in number, 
fairly glossy, in shape moderate ovals, smaller at one end. The 
ground colour is pinkish white, with a tinge of buff, sparingly 
spotted and blotched vrith brownish red, chiefly at the large 
end, where the marks tend to coalesce, so as to form an irregular 
incomplete ring. Four eggs taken on the 28th May measured, 
1-09 to 1;12 in length, and 0*75 to 0*76 in breadth. The race 
which I identify with himalayana was found, in very small 
numbers, on the summit of Sheopuri, at an elevation of about 
7,500 feet, and was breeding at the time I shot my specimen, 
viz,, the 20th May. 

281.— Buchanga coBrolescens, Xm. 

Male-^Hetoura, December, — Length, 10*5 ; expanse, 16*5 ; 
wing, 5*4 ; tail, 5*35 ; tarsus, 0*75 ; bill from gape, 1*1 ; bill at 
front, 0*75 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides fine red« 

35 



S72 A COKTRIBUTION TO THB OBNITHOLOGT OF NBPAI*. 

Th^ Whito-bellied Dcongois eommonin the Danabont HeUn- 
ra^ in winter^ but k not found in the Nepal Yallej. It fret 
qnents open forest and clearings, and catches its prey on the 
wiugy always returning to perch on a tree after it has seized an 
insect. This species is not entered in either of the B. M. Gati^ 
logne of Mr. Hodgson^s collections, bat he figures it, I belierei 
in his drawings. 

282.— Chaptia aneti^ Vieill. 

MaUj Nimboatar (Lower Hilbjj Deember. — Length, 9*1 ; 
expanse, 14*6 ; wins:, 4*93 ; tail, 4*83 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill irom 
gape, 1*0 ; bill at frontj 0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*25. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides deep slightly reddish brown. 

Two females f Nimboatar, December, — Length, 9*0 and 9*1 ; 
expanse, 18*7 and 13*8 ; wiug, 4*6 and 4*7 ; tail, 4*55 and 4*65 ; 
tarsus, 0*6; bill from ^ape, 0*96 and 1*0; bill at front, 0*66; 
closed wings short of tail, 2*15 and 2*3. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides reddish brown. The fourth 
quill is longest ; the third 0*15 to 0*2 shorter ; the fifth 0*05 
longer than the third and 0*3 longer than the. sixth. 

The Bronzed Drongo is common, in winter, from Bhimphedi 
to Hetoura, in the tree forests. It frequents high trees, captures 
its prey on the wing, and its note is more subdued and pleasanter 
than that of Bvehanga. It was never observed in the valley of 
Nepal, but Mr. Hodgson seems to have obtained it there in 
summer. 

284.— Dissemurus grandis, Gould. 

This species does not occur in the valley of Nepal. I had a 
specimen in confinement, captured in the lower hills, wbioh was 
very tame and most amusing. It imitated the notes of many 
birds and mammals, and was altogether such a pet, that I 
could never persuade myself to convert it into an ornithological 
specimen, and take its measurements. 

286.— Ghibia hottentotta, Lin. 

Two males ^ NimbocUarj December, — Length, 12*6 and 12*8; 
expanse, 20-3 and 20-7 ; wing, 6*73 and 6*9 ; tail, 6-0 and 6*1 ; 
tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape, 1*64 and 1*7 ; bill at front, 1*4 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 2*5 and 2*6. 

Three femaleSy Nimboatar and Hetoura^ December. — Length, 
1215 to 12-7; expanse, 19*5 to 20; wing, 6*45 to 6*67 ; tail, 
5-6 to 5-9 ; tarsus, 095 to 1*0 ; bill from gape, 1-55 to 1*7 ; bill 
at front, 1*23 to 1*27 ; dosed wings short of tail, 2*35 to 2*6. 

Bill horny black ; gape fleshy ; irides lightish brown, dark 
brown and reddish brown ; feet and daws black. 



A GDHTRIBUTIOK TO T0r OBSrFHOLOGT OF KSPAL. 27S 

('Tbid fine species is common in winter from Bbimphedi to 
Semrabasa^ associating in small parties and constantly ntterino^ 
8 creaking sort of note. In December it abounded on the 
Semal {Bombaa sp,) treecf, which were then in full flower^ and it 
was a cnrious sight to see such a bird playing the part of a 
Honey-sucker. As the birds flitted about, from flower to flower, 
they uttered their subdued metaUic clanging note ; and whenever 
a Chaplia anea settled on the siIk«cotton tree, to share in the feast, 
» ChiBia would at once fly to the spot and drive off the small 
intruder ; more respect w^as, however, shown to MegaliBmahodg" 
soni, which was commonly seen on the same tree. The Hair- 
crested Drongo was never seen in the Nepal Valley. 

28&— Muscipeta paradisi, Lin. 

Eight maleiy Valtey, April, May and June. — Length, 18 to 
20*5 ; expanse, 10*3 to 1 1*5 ; wing, 8-55 to 3*8 ; tail, 18*6 to 16*2 ; 
tarsus, 0*62 to 075 ; bill from gape, 1*05 to 1*1 ; bill at front, 
0^68 to e-7 ; length of crest, 11 to 1*3 ; length of terminal 
white portion of shafts of uropygials, 5*0 to 8*4. 

Bill, gape and margin of eyelids, cobalt blue, the tip of the 
bill darker ; irides dark brown ; feet plumbeous blue ; daws 
dusky. The outer web of the primaries is not wholly white, but 
is margined more or less broadly with white, and a portion next 
the shaft is black. In seven specimens there is no trace of a 
black margin to the edges of the uropygials ; in one specimen 
there is a hair line of black on the edges of the basal half of the 
central tail feathers. 

In one bird, shot on the 5tfa April, the rump and upper tail- 
coverts are sullied with chestnut. These eight males are all 
long-tailed white birds. 

MaUj Fal%,22n<f/un«.«— Length, 9' 1 ; expanse, 11*2; wing, 
3*65 ; tail, 475 ; tarsus, 0*04 ; bill from gape, 1*06 ; bill at front, 
0*68 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*2. 

This is a short-tailed white male bird; it was noticed almost 
daily for nearly a month tending its youngs and had then very 
long white central tail feathers. It was shot as soon as it drop- 
ped its long uropygials. 

Male, Immature, Falley, 16th May. — Length, 8*5 ; expanse, 
10*8; wing, 8*5; tail, 4*1; tarsus, 0*7 ; bill from gape, 1*1 ; 
bill at front, 0*7 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*75. 

A chestnut short-tailed bird, resembling the females presently 
to be noted, but having the nape darker, a nK)tallic black band 
at the base of the foreneck, and well marked black shafbs to the 
tertiaries. 

Sup femahe^, Valley, April and May. — Length, 8*0 to 8*5 ; 
expanse, 10*2 to 10*9 ; wing, 3*5 to 3*6 ; tail) 4*1 to 4*5 ; tarr 



274 A GONTBIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOIOGT OF NBPAL.. 

BUB, 0*65 to 0-7 ; bill from gape, 10 to 1-1 ; bill at front, 0*6 to 
0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5 to 2*7. 

Bill, gape and margin of eyelids cobalt bloe, the tip of the 
bill dosky ; irides dark brown ; feet plombeous blue, with a 
slight greenish tinge. 

All adult specimens, in chestnut plumage, and of course, 
short-tailed birds; in all the inner webs of the quills are 
dusky, and the tertiaries are not black shafted. 

Two young birds ^ Valley j July, — Length, 7-3 and 7*4 ; ex* 
pause, 10*2 and 10-4 ; wing, 3-3 and 3-4 ; tail, 3*7 and 3-8 ; 
tarsus, 0-6 and 0-65 ;. bill from gape, 0*95 ; bill at front, 0-58 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 2*1 and 2-3. 

Bill blackish or leaden ; the base of the lower mandible brown- 
ish grey ; irides dark, or blackish brown ; gape yellowish fleshy ; 
feet bluish plumbeous ; claws dusky. Chestnut short-tailed 
birds, difiPering from the adult female only in hanng the shafts 
of the tertiaries black and a merely rudimentary crest. 

The above eighteen specimens are typical paradisi ; I would 
draw special attention to this point, as Jerdon states that aMnis 
replaces paradisi ^^ in the sub-Himalayan regions of Nepal,' Ac. 
In boUi additions of the B. M. Catalogue of Mr. Hodgson's col- 
lections, the specimens of Paradise Flycatcher obtained by that 
naturalist in Nepal are correctly referred to paradisi. 

The Paradise Flycatcher is very common in the Nepal Valley 
from the beginning of April to about the end of September ; 
in the latter month, nearly all the birds to be seen are young 

ones. 

It frequents the central woods, gardens, and hedges, but does 
not ascend the hills. In its habits it is very restless, con- 
tinually flitting about, from tree to tree, or along hedges, and 
it occasionally descends to the ground to seize its prey. I once 
shot a long-tailed white bird while it was on the ground, in 
the Nil Barahi wood. During the breeding season the male 
bird has a very pleasing melodious whistle, but the note of 
alarm is a short sharp chirp frequently repeated. In the valley 
it breeds in May and June, both sexes sharing in the incubation 
and feeding of the young. Many nests of this species were 
seen and taken in woods and gardens, but the account given 
in ^^ Nests and Eggs'' is so complete, that 1 need not take up 
space here by entering into long descriptions; I must note 
however, that although the usual number of eggs laid is four, 
I have twice met with five ^ggs in a nest As to the interest- 
ing question of the* plumage of the breeding birds I must say 
a few words. This Flycatcher was so abundant in the valley, 
breeding dose to my house, where it could be observed firom 
day to day, that I can confidently state that the male is a long- 



A OOlirFBIBUTIOK TO THE ORNITHOLOaT OF NEPAL. 275 

tailed white bird, and the female a short-tailed chestnut one*. 
I met with no exception to this rale, but some most compe- 
tent observers have found long-tailed chestnut males breeding 
in other parts of India. Taking all the evidence, the 
following conclusions seem to be fairly justified : — (1) The 
young of both sexes are short-tailed chestnut birds with very 
slight crests. (2) The adult female is a short-tailed chestnut 
bird. (3) The young male of the second year is a long-tailed 
chestnut bird, and ofben breeds in that garb^ and possibly even 
breeds before it has acquired the long uropygials. (4) The 
change of colour is always from chestnut to white, and a male 
having once acquired white plumage never a^ain changes to 
chestnut. ^5) The fully adult breeding male is a longHkailed 
white bird. (6) The long uropygials, in the white bird at least, 
are certainly seasonal, being shed when the breeding season 
18 over. 

294.— Ghelidorhynz hypoxantha, Ely. 

Male, Valley, March. — Length, 4*8 ; expanse, 6*6 ; wing, 
2-23 ; tail, 2*4 ; tarsus, 0*65 ; bill from gape, 0*45 ; bill at front, 
0*8 ; idosed wings short of tail, 1*1. 

Bill black above; the lower mandible entirely yellow; irides 
brown. 

l^ee female$, Nawalcot district^ November. — Length, 4*55 to 
4-65 ; expanse, 6*4 to 6*5 ; wing, 2*1 to 2*14 ; tail, 2*18 to 
2*28 ; tarsus, 0*56 to 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*4 ; bill at front, 
0*25 ; dosed wings short of tail, 1*25. 

Upper mandible black, lower yellowish homy; irides 
blackish brown ; gape orange ; feet brownish. 

The Yellow-bellied Fantail is common throughout the 
Nawakot district in winter, frequenting orchards and trees by 
the roadside. In the Nepal Valley it was only obtained in 
March, when it was found about the thorny hedges round the 
Besidency grounds. 

295.— Gulicicapa ceylonensis, Swa. 

Twelve epedmensy Valley and Nawahot district, February to 
December. — Length, 4*4 to 5*3 ; expanse, 7 to 7*8 ; wing, 2*25 
to 2-6 ; tail, 2*1 to 2*4 ; tarsus, 0*5 to 0*55 ; bill from gape, 
0*48 to 0-55 ; bill at front, 0*3 to 0-42 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 1-0 to 1-25. 

Bill dusky or black above, below horny brown, and the base 
of lower mandible yellowish ; irides dark brown ; feet orange 
or dingy reddish. 

This Flycatcher is exceedingly common in the central woods 
ef the Nepal Valley throughout the year ; and is abundant in 



2.76 A. comrBtButioM to thb ornithology of smAU. 

the Nawakot district, and tbe woods of the tower bills iit 
winter. 

297.— Alseonax latirostris, Boffl. (A. terrioolor, 

Hodgs.) 

(1). Eight specimensj Valley, AprU to AnguH.-^Jj&tk^h^ 4*76 
to 5-4; expanse, 8 5 to 8*8; wings, 275 to 2*9^; tail, 2 to 2-3; 
tarsus, 0*55 to 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*65 to 0*7 ; bill at fronts 
0*4 to 0*6 ; closed winofs short of tail, 0*8 to 1*1. 

Upper mandible black; lower yellowish horny at. base, faintly 
greenish about the middle and dusky at tip ; ^pe fleshy yellow ; 
irides dark brown ; feet dusky or brownisn black ; claws black ; 
the margins of the eyelids are satiny white. The colour of 
the plumaofe is precisely the same as in specimens from Travan^ 
core and Madras, but the examples from Southern India seem 
to have the bill shorter and broader at the base than my 
specimens and others from the Himalayas, e.g., Dharmsala. 

(2.) An immature bird, Valley , let August. — Length, 5*2 ; 
expanse, 8*7 ; wing, 2*8; tail, 2*2; tarsus, 0*6; bill from gape, 
0*67 ; bill at front, 0*41 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*1. 

Bill dusky brown, the base of lower mandible yellowish horny 7 
gape yellow ; irides brownish black ; feet plumbeous black. The 
wing-coverts and secondaries have conspicuous pale rufescent 
margins, and the tail feathera and secondaries are also tipped 
with the same colour ; numerous pale spots on the nape and 
head ; the lower surface not spotted. 

(8.) Two young birdsy Ftdley, 23rd July. — Length, 4*4 7 
expanse, 8 and 8*1 ; wing, 2*45 and 2*6 ; tail, 1*65 and 1*7 ; 
tarsus, 56 and 0*57; bill from gape, 0*6 and 0*63 ; bill at 
front, 0*38 and 0*4; closed wings short of tail, 0*8 and 0*9. 

Bill dusky, the basal part of lower mandible yellowish homy; 
gape fleshy yellowish ; irides black ; feet plumbeous, the soles 
yellowish fleshy ; claws brown horny, pale at the tips. Profusely 
spotted, except on the chin and flanks, with tawny or pale 
rufescent ; the head streaked ; the coverts and secondaries 
broadly margined with pale rufous, and the quills and tail' 
feathers tipped with the same colour ; the chin white and the 
flanka greyish white ; the lineated head recalls the parallel 
stage of Fratincola ferrea and P. indica. These two birds had 
left tbe nest, but were unable to fly. 

This Flycatcher is common in the central woods of tho 
Nepal Valley from the middle of April to September, bat mi- 
grates to lower levels in winter. It is social, except during the' 
breeding season ; frequents the lower branches of trees very 
commonly, and darta out every now* and then to seize an insect, 
according to the manner of its tribe ; occasionally one. bird may> 



A OOirrBlBUTX(»T TO TRB OmriTHOLOaT or NSPAU 977 

1)6 seen parsning another from place to place^ apparently in 
the course of altercation. Its cry consists of a single plaintive 
fiort of note, slowly repeated, and the alarm note is a short 
sharp sonndy something like ^^ tcAiek^ tekick,^^ &c. It certainly 
breeds in the yalley, and probably lays in Jane, but I did not 
secure any nests* 

801.— Olancomyias melanops, Vig. 

Six adult birds, VcdUy^ May^ Auffuat and Stf/>^«m&«r.— Length, 
6*0 to 6*6 ; expanse, 10 to 10*4; wing, 8*2 to 3*45 ; tail, 2*8 to 
3-2 ; tarsus, 0*65 to 0*7 ; bill from gape, 0*64 to 0*78 ; bill at 
front, 0*85 to 0*45 ; dosed wings short of tail, 1*4 to 1*6. 

BilU feet and claws black ; irides very dark brown. 

Fouryounff birdsy Fattey^ August, — Length, 5*8 to 6*2; ex* 
panse, 9*6 to 10 ; wing, 3*15 to 3*2 ; tail, 2*6 to 2*9 ; tarsus, 
0-6 to 0-65 ; bill from gape, 0*63 to 0*65 ; bill at front, 034 to 
0*87 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*2 to 1*4. 

Bill homy black, the base of lower mandible brown ; gape 
yellow ; irides blackish brown ; feet dusky leaden ; claws horny 
black. In one specimen the sides of head and whole lower 
surface, except the wing lining and axillaries, are profusely 
spotted with fulvous, the spots on the throat and breast in* 
dining to golden colour ; in another there are whitish spots on 
^e nape and mid-back, the lower surfaoe being spotted with 
fulvous ; in the third example the breast and abdomen are un- 
spotted j and the fourth has only the neck, breast, and a line 
down the abdomen thickly covered with white spots. 

The Verditer Flycatcher is tolerably common in the Talley of 
Nepalj generally frequenting the forests at the foot of the hills, 
but straying into the central woods from time to time. It 
ascends the hill to nearly 8,000 feet in the breeding season. It 
was not observed in the valley in winter. 

801.— Gyoniis rubeculoides, Vig. 

Three malesj Valley^ May and June. — Length, 5*4 to 5*9 ; 
expanse, 8*5 to 9*2 ; wing, 28 to 2*9; tail, £*15 to 24; tarsus, 
0-7 ; bill from gape, 0*7 ; bill at front, 0*47 to 0-5 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 10 to 1-25. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet brown or dusky. Iden- 
tical with specimens from Sikim, with which I have compared 
them. 

The Blue-throated Redbreast is a seasonal visitant to the Nepal 
Valley, where it breeds. It was only noticod iu the central 
uroods and was not at all common. 



278 A CONTRIBUTION TO THiB OBNITHOLOGY OF TSrSPAL. 

315.— Niltava macgrigorisB, Surt. 

Makf Valley ^\hth February. — Length, 5*0; expanse, 7*85; 
wing, 2*6 ; tail, 2*2 ; tarsus, 0*7 ; bill from gape, 0*6 ; bill at 
front, 0*28; closed wings short of tail, 1*0. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet and claws dusky* 

MaUj Nimboatar (Lower Hills), December. — Length, 4*7 ; 
expanse, 8*0 ; wing, 2*6 ; tail, 2 ; tarsus, 0*7 ; closed wings short 
of tail, 1-0. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown ; feet duskj. 

I give a short description of tiiese specimens, as Dr. Jerdon^s 
account does not seem quite satisfactory : — Lores and a band 
across forehead jet black ; front of head, neck spot, rump, and 
upper tail-coverts brilliant ultramarine or cobalt ; rest of upper 
«urface, including both webs of the uropygials and the outer 
webs of the rest of the tail feathers, rich dark purple blue ; 
wings and inner webs of the tail feathers (except the centrals) 
blackish or dusky.; the wing feathers more or less edged 
externally with a duller blue than the colour of the upper parts ; 
chin, foreneck, and upper breast dark violet blue ; abdomen fuli- 
ginous ashy, paling to white towards the vent ; wing, lining and 
lower tail-coverts pure white. 

This lovely species appears to be rare in the valley of Nepal^ 
but more common in the glen of the Bapti, about Nimboatar, 
in winter. It was generally seen in rather dense jungle dose 
to rivers, or about thick bushes fringing streams at the foot of 
the hills, and it was solitary in winter. 

319.— Siphia strophiata, Sodgs. 

Three males, Valley, March and May. — ^Length, 6*2 to 5*4 ; 
expanse, 8*8 to 9 ; wing, 2*8 to 8*05 ; tail, 2*3 to 2*85 ; tarsus, 
0*8 io 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*62 to 0*65 ; bill at front, 0*83 to 
0*36 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*9. 

Bill black; irides dark brown; feet dark horny brown; 
claws black. 

Female^ Fa/2tfy, ilfay.— Length, 5*0; expanse, 8*25; wing, 
2*7 ; tail, 2*2 ; bill from gape, 0*65 ; bill at front, 0*35 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*95. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy whitish ; irides dark brown ; feet 
dingy brownish. This specimen differs from the males in 
leing browner above, with the frontal band narrower ; and the 
colours of the under surface are less intense. 

The Orange-gorgeted Flycatcher is not common in the Nepal 
Valley. I obtained it in March, in the thorny rose-hedges, 
about the Besidency grounds ; and towards the end of May it 
was found on the Sheopuri Bidge, at about 7,000 feet, solitary 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGT OF NRPAL. 279 

or in pairs, in thick small-tree forest where the ground was 
very damp. 

319 &is.— Siphia nifigolaris, Sp. ^ov. 

Female^ Sheopuri Ridge^ 7,\8t May. — Length, 4*8 ; expanse, 
8-3 ; wing, 265 ; tail, 20 ; bill from gape, 0-65 ; bill at front, 
0*35 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*8. 

Bill black \ irides dark brown ; feet livid fleshy ; the soles 
yellow ; claws livid horny. 

A narrow band across the forehead ; the lores, cheeks, and 
sides of neck pure bluish grey ; upper surface rich olive ; the 
head darker and tinged with brown, and the rump more bright 
and slightly washed with rufous ; quills rufous brown on the 
outer webs, the inner webs black, narrowly margined with ful- 
vous ; tail with the uropygials black, the rest of the tail fea- 
thers white at the base for about half their length (increasing 
in extent from the outermost feathers), black at the terminal 
ends, the black tips measuring from 0*7 to I'O ; the chin, throat, 
and upper breast, uniform bright orange rufous ; the lower 
breast and flanks dingy olivaceous ; middle of belly, vent and 
lower tail-coverts, albescent. 

In this interesting specimen the bill, in size, shape and colour, 
is precisely the same as in Siphia strophiata ; the upper surface 
(excepting the frontal band) and wings exactly resemble the 
same parts in S, strophidta female ; the tail would do for either 
Siphia or Erythrostema ; the lower parts and sides of the head 
and neck are absolutely the same as in Erythrosterna aWicilla 
in breeding plumage. The bird is a true Siphia^ distinguish- 
able at a glance from strophiata by the absence of the black 
chin and throat, and by having the lores and cheeks ashy grey 
instead of black ; and it is certainly no stage of S. erytliaca, 
Mr. Hume tells me that he has seen at least a hundred speci- 
mens of 5. strophiata in all stages, but that he never met with 
a specimen at all like the one under consideration ; but yet he 
considers that my bird is only an abnormal example of 
strophiata^ principally, as I understand, because in the colour 
of the upper parts it so closely resembles that species, which 
normally exhibits a decided affinity for Erythrostema. With 
all due deference for an opinion from such high authority, I 
must dissent from this view. The coloration of the under 
surface in my specimen is so well marked and sharply defined, 
that no countenance is given to the hypothesis of a lusus 
naturcB ; while the fact that the colour of the upper parts is 
like that of Siphia strophiata cannot certainly be considered a 
proof that it is the same species, seeing that it difiers so very 
materially in other respects. 

36 



280 ^ CQKTBtBUTIOH TO T^S ORNITROLOQT 07 NSFAL* 

I thought at one time thut the bird nni^v aoDBi^enthn 
might be referable to Siphia hodgsoni, Yerreaux ; but Mr. 
Hume (S. F., V., p. 137), relying on the description, measure- 
ments, and fio^ure of that species, identifies it with Siphia 
erythacc^ On the whole, I think, I am fairly justified in con- 
sideringf that my bird represents a new species ; aod I propose 
for it the name of Siphia rufigularis. 

The Busty-throated Siphia was only met with in the 
Sheopuri forest, in May, at an elevation of about 7,500 feet 
It frequented bushes^ and was not common. 

331.-^8ipliia superciliaxiSi Bly. 

Two males, Sheopuri Forest, May. — Length, 8*9 and 4*05 ; 
expanse, 6-83 and 69; wing, 2-8 ; tail, 1-7 ; tarsus, 075 ; bill 
from gape, 0*55 ; bill at front, 0*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 

O'e. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet dusky or livid flesby. 

This species was only obtained in the Sheopuri Forest, in 
May, at an elevation of about 7,000 feet. It was found, in 
small numbers, inhabiting rather close damp forest, in pairs, 
and allowed oue to approach quite dose to it without showing 
any sign of alarm. It firequented the lower branches usually, 
and often made a dart down from its perch to catch aa insect, 
in true Flycatcher fashion. 

823.— Erythrosterna albicilla, Pall. 

Three maUe^ October and February. — Length, 4*8 to 5*1 ; 
expanse, 7-8 to 8-1 ; wing, 2-73 to 2-8 ; tail, 2-2 ; tarsua, 0-7 ; 
bill from gape, 0*5 to 0*6 ; bill at fronts 0*36 to 0*38 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*95 to 1*0. 

Bill dusky or homy black ; base of lower mandible grey 
horny ; irides deep brown ; feet and claws black. la these 
specimens there is no trace of rufous on the chin or throat. 

Two males J ith April. — Length, 4*8 and 4*9 ; expanse, 8*4; 
wing, 2-7 and 28 ; tail, 2'15 ; tarsus, 0*68 and 0*7 ; bill from 
gape, 0-59 and 0*6 ; bill at front, 0*35 and 0*36 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*9. 

Bill horny black ; base of lower mandible greyish ; irides dark 
brown ; feet brownish black, -he chin and throat bright rusty 
rufous. 

Two femalesj Sth and 9ih April. — Length, 4*75 and 4*9; 
expanse, 8 ; wing, 2*6 ; tarsus, 0*7 ; bill from gape, 0*61; closed 
wings short of taU, 0*9. 

Colors of sofl parts as in the male; no trace of rusty oa 
chin or tliroat. 



A C0NTBIBU7I0N TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF KEPAIi. S81 

This species was tolerably common in the central woods of 
the Nepal Valley from October to about the middle of April ; 
I lost sight of it in the latter half of April. In the Besidency 
grounds it frequented hedges and the lower branches of the 
pine trees, was very lively and activCi aad was usually seen in 
pairs, or small parties of four or five. 

343.— MyiophoBeus temmincki, Fig. 

Two males, Valley y Febniary and 2fi^u*«.— Length, 1 8 "5 and 
18-7 ; expanse, 215 and 22 ; wing, 7*1 and 7*3; tail, 5*5 and 
5*65 ; tarsus, 2 and 205 ; bill from gape, 1*55 and 1*63 ; bill 
at front, 0*93 and 1*17 ; closed wings short of tail, 2 and 2*8 ; 
weight, 6*5 and 7ozs. 

Bill dull yellow ; nostrils and along culmen to tip dusky or 
blackish ; irides rich brown ; feet shining black ; claws horny 
black. 

Two femaleay Pharphingy Julpy and Valley, August. — Length, 
13-1 ; expanse, 20*8 ; wing, 6*8 ; tail, 5*2 to 5*25 ; tarsus, 2 ; 
bill from gape, 1*5 to 1*6; bill at front, 0*95 to 1*18; closed 
wings short of tail, 2*3 ; weight, 6 and 6'5ozs. 

Bill yellow ; the cnlmen and base of upper mandible brownish 
black; irides brown; feet and claws Mack. These four 
specimens differ from examples shot by me in Kashmir in the 
following points : —They are darker and more dull colored ; the 
white spots on the wiug-ooverte are more minute and scanty ; 
and the bill is markedly deeper and more powerful than in the 
western birds. 

The Yellow^billed Whistling Thrush is a permanent resident 
in the Nepal Valley and at Pharphing; it occurs in sniall 
numbers only, about the streams as they issue from the hills^ 
but, of course, is never seen in the central part of the valley. 
I also found it on some of the hill streams iu descending to the 
Nawakot district, and it was common along the course of the 
Bapti, between Bhiniphedi and Nimboatar, in winter. Its 
habits are thoroughly well known. 

347.— Cinclus asiaticusi Sm. 

The Brown Water Ouzel was observed in the Nawakot dis- 
trict in November, in the Markhu Valley in December, and on 
several occasions near the head waters of the Bishnnmati Biver 
in the valley of Nepal : it was not at all abundant, and was 
always very shy. It is solitary in winter, and is generally seen 
either perching on a rock in the bed of the stream, or spinning 
along very rapidly close to the surface of the water ; and it 
frequently utters a sharp shrill whistling cry. 



282 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORMITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 

351.— Cyanodnclus cyanns, Idn. 

MaUj VcdUy^ February. — Length, 8'9 ; expanse, 14*8; wing, 
4*9; tail, S'55 ; tarsus, 1*1; bill from gape, 1*25 ; bill at 
front, 0*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*45. 

Bill homy black ; gape jellow ; irides deep brown ; feet and 
claws black. No trace of ferrnginous or chestnat on any part 
of the pinmage. 

Female J Valley j November. — Length, 8*9; expanse, 14*3; 
wing, 4*75 ; tail, 3*5 ; tarsus, 1*05 ; bill from gape, 1*25 ; bill 
at front, 0*83; closed wings short of tail, 1*4. 

Bill dnskj ; irides dark brown ; feet and claws black. All the 
feathers of the npper surface edged with whitish ; the chin whitey 
brown, and the vent and lower tail-coverts rufescent ; not the 
sliofhtest tinge of blue on any part. 

The Blue Bock-Thrush is a winter visitant to the valley of 
Nepal, arriving in October and retiring in the early part of 
March. It was found in very small numbers, always solitary, 
on rocks or boulders near the foot of the hills ; and was never 
seen in the central part of the valley, 

352.— Petrophila erythrogastra, Vig. 

Two males, February and May, — Length, 9*3 and 9*5 ; ex- 
panse, 15 and 15*2 ; wing, 4*9 and 4*95; tail, 4*2 and 4*3; 
tarsus, 1*03 and 1*05 ; bill from gape, 1*22 and 1*25; bill at 
front, 0*72 and 0*75 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*75 and 1*8. 

Bill black ; gape yellow ; irides dark brown ; feet vinons 
brown or black ; claws blackish. In one specimen the feathers 
of the interscapulary region are narrowly edged with brownish, 
in the other (May) the lores, cheeks, sides of neck and inter- 
scapulary region are black, the latter faintly tinged bluish. 

Two females^ June. — Length, 8*9 and 9*2 ; expanse, 13*7; 
wing, 4*6; tail, 3*5 and 3*9; tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 1*1 and 
1*2 ; bill at front, 0*75 ; closed wings short of tail, 1-8 and 1*9. 

Bill dusky ; mouth and gape yellow ; irides brown ; tarsi dark 
brown ; the toes blackish. 

The Chestnut-bellied Thrush is tolerably common on the hills 
round the Nepal Valley, where it breeds. It is usually seen in 
open parts of the forest, from 6,000 to nearly 8,000 feet, single 
or in pairs ; it perches on bushes or trees and often feeds on the 
ground on sloping grassy plots. 

353.— Petrophila cinclorhjrncha, Vig. 

Male, Valley, July. — Length, 7*6; expanse, 12*5; wingy 
4*7 ; tail, 2*8 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill fi*om gape, 1*1 ; bill at front, 
0*73 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*9. 



▲ CONTRIBUTIOH TO THB OBKITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 283 

Bill brownish black ; the ^ape bright yellow ; tarsi duskjr 
slatj ; the toes brownish black ; claws blackish horny ; the back 
quite black. 

Young male, Valley^ \9ih July. — Length, 7*5 ; expanse, 12*1 ; 
wingy 4*1 ; tail, 2*8 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*05 ; bill at 
front, 0*7 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*1. 

Bill dusky ; base of lower mandible grey horny ; gape and 
edge of eyelids yellow ; feet dusky slaty ; claws dusky horny. 
Shoulders and margins of quills and rectrices tinged with blue ; 
a white wing spot ; the upper tail-coverts bright ferruginous, 
lunated with dusky ; whole rest of upper surface brownish 
black, profusely and closely spotted with white ; the spots on the 
wing-coverts yellowish ; under surface fulvescent, crossed with 
dark bars, except the lower tail -coverts, which are not barred. 

The Blue-headed Chat-Thrush is found in the valley of 
Nepal on the hill sides only, and seems to frequent by prefer- 
ence little dry nullahs overgrown with bushes and small trees. 
It breeds in the valley, and is often caged for the sake of its 
fine song. 

365.— Geodchlacitrma^ Lath. 

Male, Valley y July. — Length, 8*7 ; expanse, 14*5; wing, 4*7 ; 
tail, 3*15 ; tarsus, 1*25 ; bill from gape, 2*1 ; bill at front^ 0*8 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 1*5. 

Bill horny black ; base of lower mandible grey horny ; tarsi 
very pale fleshy ; toes pinkish fleshy ; claws pale pinkish horny ; 
the tail feathers, with the exception of the central pair, are 
faintly and regularly barred with black, the bars being most 
distinct on the inner webs. 

This fine Thrush was found, in summer, on the hills round 
the valley, at an elevation little exceeding 5,000 feet ; but it 
was not observed in winter. It usually frequents nullahs con- 
taining a dense growth of bushes and small chestnut trees, and 
it is a favourite cage-bird with the Nepalese. 

356.— Gtoocichla unicolor^ Tick. 

Female, Valley , June. — Length, 8*7; expanse, 14*3; wing, 
4*6 ; tail, 3*1 ; tarsus, 1*15 ; bill from gape, 1*03 ; bill at front, 
0'75 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*3. 

Bill yellow, with a few dusky cloudings ; irides brown ; eyelid 
greenish yellow ; feet vivid orange yellow ; claws yellowish 
horny. Ashy on the rump : the breast and sides of flanks dull pale 
olivaceous brown ; the upper tail-coverts reach to within 1*5 of 
the end of the tail. 

The Dusky Ground Thrush was foand in small numbers 
only, in the Nepal Valley, in summer, when it breeds. It was 



£84 A CONTRIBUnOH TO THB ORNITHOLOQT OF NSPAU 

always notieed about the skirts oF the central woods, often 
alighting on the gronnd and running along prettj qnickly, and 
feeding in damp spots. Mr. Hodgson gives a good figure of 
the species in his drawings. 

358.— (Jeodchla dissimilis, Bly. 

Female^ Sheopuri Forest^ lith Jfay.-^Length, 8 ; expanse, 
12'9; wingy 4*2; tail, 3-15; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 1*0 ; 
bill at fronts 0*7 ; closed flings short of tail, 1*5. 

Bill yellowish dusky ; gape yellow ; irides deep brown ; 
feet fleshy yellow; claws horny yellow. The npper tail- 
coverts reach to within 1*15 of the end of the tail ; the 
rectrices and npper tail-coverts are faintly cross-barred with 
dusky, and there is a naked spot behind the eye; the 
sides of the breast and flanks are bright ferruginous, the upper 
breast being spotted with dark brown. This specimen diflTers 
from my Nepal example of unicolar (which is also a female) in 
being smaller and more brown above, in the orbits and 
supercilium being bufly, in wanting the ashy rump, in having 
the bill broader at the base and not so deep as in unteoloTf bnt 
most markedly in hayincr the sides of the breast and flanks 
ferrnginous instead of dull olive brown. It unquestionably 
belongs to the species figured in the Ibia^ 1871, Plate YII, and 
there called by Dr. Jerdon Geocichla disaimilis. Amongst Mr. 
Hodgson's drawings there is also a plate of this species very 
similar to the one given in the Ibis in illustration of Dr. Jer- 
don's Supplementary Notes to the Birds of India. Mr. Hume 
has a specimen from Nynee Tal, labelled dissimiliSf which 
exactly resembles the figure in the Ibis above referred to ; but 
an examination of a series of unieolor in his collection leads 
one to doubt whether the females of diisimilis and unieolor can 
always be satisfactorily discriminated. So many competent 
authorities have considered the two forms d istinct that i dare 
not even suggest a doubt as to the correctness of their views ; 
but I hope that Mr. Hume will, in an early number of ^' Stray 
Feathbrs,'' give us a note on the specimens of S. unieolor 
and disrimilia in his museum, with reference to this 
point. * 

This species was only notic ed in the Sheopuri Forest, in 
May, at an elevation of • about 7,500 feet. It was decidedly 
rare, and the only specimen obtained flew out of some 
bushes and perched on the branch of an oak tree, where it 
was shot. 

. * As I mentioned to Dr. Scull j when ha examined mj pretty large eeries, I do not 
belioTe in the distinctneM of the two forms. All Bljth'a muteum epecimena are in nj 
opinion unioelor. 



▲ CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITflOLOQT OF NEPAL. 285 

861.— Memla boulboul, Lath. 

SvftnaUiy Majf and June. — Lengtfai 10*7 to 11*3; ezpanAe, 
17 to 18 ; wing^ 6'5 to 5-85 ; tail, 4*2 to 5*0 ; tarsns, 1*2 to 
1*35; bill from j^ape, 1-2 to 1*24; bUl at front, 0*9 to 0*95; 
closed winga short of tail, 2*4 to 2*45. « 

Bill orang'e or orange yellow ; gape and margin of eyelids 
yellow ; irides brown ; feet brownisa yellow ; the soles yellow. 

Six /emedesg Decembery Februaryy May and June. — Length, 
10*7 to U-l ; expanse, 15*3 to 17*5; wing^ 5*25 to 5*65; tail, 
4*1 to 4*5; tarsns, 1*25 to 1*85; bill from gape, 1*2 to 1*25; 
bill at front, 08 to 0*93; closed wings short of tail, 20 to 2*2. 

Bill deep yellow or orange, dusky at nostrils; irides dark 
brown ; month orange ; margin of eyelids pale yellow ; feet 
fleshy brown ; the claws brown horny ; above deep brown ; 
with an olivaceous or slightly mfescent tinge ; beneath paler ; 
and somewhat ashy on the middle of the abdomen ; an incon- 
apionous wing band, rofescent brown. Jerdon's description of 
ilie female of this species would hardly enaUe one to identify 
these Nepal specimens. 

The Grey-winged Blackbird is common in the valley of 
Nepal thronghout the year, always adhering closely to the 
forests on the snrronnding hills. In the winter it descends to 
the foot of the hills, and it is then social, frequenting thick 
bush jangle and flying away quietly after the manner of 
TrodaUpleran. In summer it is found in tree forests, at eleva- 
tions of from 7,000 to 8,000 feet In May and June it waa 
very common in the Sheopuri Forest, keeping in pairs^ and its 
fine song was constantly heard. 



862.— Merula albocinctai Royle. 

J%ree malee^ February. — Length, 10*75 to 11*1; expanse^ 167 
to 17 0; wing, 5*4 to 5*65 ; tail, 4*23 to 4*4; tarsus^ 1*25 to 
1-35 ; bill from gape, 1*25 to 1*82 ; bill at front, 0*82 to 0*86 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 1*95 to 2*2. 

Bill yellow, dusky at extreme tip ; irides dark brown ; gape, 
mouth and margin of eyelids deep yellow ; tarsi bnffr yellow i 
the toes brownish yellow ; claws horny brown. The lower tail- 
coverts have the feathers white shafted and with a narrow 
terminal fringe of dull white. 

Female^ February, — Length, 10*8; expanse, 16*5; wing, 
5*35; tail^ 4*3 ; tarsus, 1*3; bill from gape, 1*25;, bill at front, 
0'81 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*05. 

Bill dark yellow, dusky at the tip and nostrils ; irides deep 
brown ; feet dingy yellow ; claws dusky ; head darker than the 
back ; the feathers of the breast and abdomen fringed with a 



286 A CONTBIBUTION TO THB OBNITHOLOQT OF NEPAL. 

paler shade of brown^ thas giving an undulated appearance to 
those parts. 

These four specimens are typical albocincta {nivicoUi9y Hodg- 
son) ; I did not meet with any examples of castanea. 

The White-coUared Ouzel is only found about the Nepal 
YiiUey in winter, and even then at high elevations on the hills, 
never lower than 7^000 feet. I found this Ouzel common in the 
Sheopuri Forest in Febmary ; it was not social like J/, boulbaul, 
being always found single or in pairs. It frequented the moss- 
covered branches of the trees^ or flew up from a bush to the 
nearest tree on being alarmed. It is rather a noisy bird^ audits 
note, in winter^ is harsh, something like that of Flanesticui 
atrigulariB when alarmed, but lower and more full. 

365.— Planesticus atrogulariSi Tem. 

Five males J December y March and April. — Length, 9*7 to 
10-4; expanse, 15-1 to 16-8 ; wing, 6*4 to 5*6; tail, 3-9 to 41 ; 
tarsus, 1'25 to 1*3; bill from gape, 1*1 to 1*2; bill at front, 
0*68 to 0*74 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*3 to 1*8. 

Mffht femaUsy December to April. — Length, 9*2 to 9*75 ; ex- 
panse, 151 to 15*9; wing, 5 to 5*3; tail, 8*7 to 4*1; tarsus, 
1*15 to 1*3; bill from gape, 105 to 1*15; bill at front, 0*65 to 
0*78; closed wings short of tail, 1*3 to 2*0. 

This Thrush, the ^^ Chachar" of the Nepalese, is a winter 
visitant to the Nepal Valley, arriving about the end of 
November and departing at the end of April. It is exceeding- 
ly common in the valley in winter, frequenting gardens, groves, 
and woods, and ascending the forests on the hill sides to about 
6,000 feet. It is often found feeding on grassy slopes, pathways 
and even ploughed fields, and when alarmed seeks refuge in the 
nearest tree, uttering as it rises a shrill cry. It was tolerably 
common in the Markhn Valley in December. 

371.— Oreocincla dauma. Lath. 

MaU^ Valley, October. — Length, 10*6; expanse, 17*9; wing, 
5*73; tail, 4*2; tarsus, 1*3; bill from gape, 1*23; bill at 
front, 0'85 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*9 ; weight, 8'5 ozs. 

Upper mandible black ; the lower dusky at tip, green 
horny at base; gape orange; irides dark brown; feetoaffy 
yellow. 

This beautiful Thrush is rare in the valley, probably only 
passing through on its way to and from the plains. The only 
specimen obtained was shot on the 27th October ; it was feed- 
ing on a grassy plot, and on being alarmed flew iuto the nesr- 
«8t tree and perched on one of the lower branches. 



A OONTRIBUTIOM TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NBPAli. 287 

382.— Orammatoptila striata, Vig. 

Three malesj July and AuffusL — Lengthyll*2 to 12; expanse, 
167 to 17-2; wing, 5*63 to 5*7; tail, 5-2 to 5-75; tarsus, 
1-65 to 1-75 ; bill from gape, 1-25 to 1-35; bill at front, 1 to 
102; nostril to tip of bill, 0*66 to 0'67; closed wings short of 
tail, 2-7 to 3-6. 

Two femalesy June and July. — Length, 11 and 12*1 ; ex- 
panse, 16'8 and 17; wing, 5*3 and 5*6; tail, 5*35 and 5*7; 
tarsus, 1*65 and 1*75; bill from gape, 1*16 and 1*2; bill at 
front, 0*93 and 0;95 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*4 and 3*75. 

Bill homy black ; the base of lower mandible plumbeous ; 
irides deep red or crimson; feet grey plumbeous; claws 
brownish horny. Sexes alike ; all the specimens darker than 
examples from the Himalayas further to the west ; streaks on 
the body feathers above pure white, or slightly sullied white, 
but not yellowish. 

The Striated Jay-Thrush is fairly common on the hillfi 
round the Nepal Valley, at elevations of from 5,000 to 6,000 
feet. It frequents dense thickets in small parties, and has a loud 
marked call^ something like Cliooiy chuky chuk. In the 
breeding season it is, of course, found in pairs, and it lays 
about the end of July. In confinement it is very quiet and 
undemonstrative, but soon dies. 

388.— Alcippe nipalensis, Hodgs. 

Three specimens^ Valley^ February^ July and August — Length, 
5'1 to 5*3 ; expanse, 7*0 to 7*4 ; wing, 22 to 2*4 ; tail, 2*3 to 
2-4 ; tarsus, 0*8 to 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*55 to 0*6 ; bill at 
front, 0*4 to 0^45 ;. closed wings short of tail, 1*5 to 1*6. 

Bill grey or livid horny, the base of the upper mandible and a 
line along the culmen black ; irides hazel brown ; feet livid 
fleshy ; claws grey horny. The brownish black sincipital 
stripes, and the white ring round the eye, are well marked. 

This species is found about the foot of the hills round the 
Nepal Valley all the year, but does not appear to be common. 
It is social in its habits, and frequents bushes and bushy trees 
in small parties* 

400.— Pomatorhinus ruficollis, Hodgs. 

Two male$y VaUey^ June and August. — Length, 7*6 ; expanse, 
8-7 and 9-8 ; wing, 2*9 and 3*3 ; tail, 3*5 and 3*7 ; tarsus, 1*1 
and 1-2 ; bill from gape, 0*9 and 1*0 ; bill at front, 075 and 
0*78; closed wings short of tail, 2*2 and 2*5. 

Three females, Valley, February ^ June and July, — Length, 
7*4 to 7*5 ; expanse, 90 to 9*2 ; wing, 2*95 to 3*1 ; tail, 3*3 to 

87 



288 A CONTRIBni'ION TO THB OBKITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 

3-4; tarsns, 1*1 to 1*2 ; bill from gape, 0*97 to 1*0 ; bill at 
front, 0-75 to 0*79 ; closed wings short of tail^ 2*2 to 2-4. 

Bill homy yellow, paler at the tip^ and the base of the maxil- 
la and basal three-fourths of culmen brownish black ; the irides 
vary from pale red to crimson ; eyelid plumbeous ; feet grey 
or greenish plumbeous ; claws brownish horny. In all the 
specimens the whole belly, flanks, vent and lower tail-coverts, 
are earthy brown ; in one specimen there are rufous patches 
on the breast. 

This species is tolerably common on the hills round the val- 
ley of Nepal, at elevations of from 5,000 to about 7,500 feet, 
and is a permanent resident. It is found in small parties or 
in pairs, rarely solitary, in dense bushes on the hill sides, and 
sometimes in thick low forest on the top of the hills, 

? 401.~PomatorhinQS ferrogmostts, Bly. 

On the 28th November, in a forest a little below Nawakot, 
I saw a small party of Pomatorhinvs which, I think, were pro- 
bably of this species. My reason for saying this is, that I saw 
the bill of one of the birds, and it seemed to me bright red ; 
but of course I may be wrong in my surmise, as I did not 
obtain a specimen. 

402.— Pomatorhinus schisticeps, Hodgs. 

NimboataTy December.-^ Length, 9*9 ; expanse, 12*1 ; wing, 
4-03 ; tail, 4*7 ; tarsus, 1*3 ; bill from gape, 1*2 ; bill at front, 
1-05 ; closed wings short of tail, 2 9. 

Bill horny yellow ; the base of the upper mandible duskv ; 
irides reddish cream colour ; feet plumbeous, the soles yellowish ; 
claws livid horny. 

This Scimitar Babbler was only noticed near Nimboatar in 
the lower hills, in winter. It was found in thick jungle 
on the bank of the Bapti river, frequented dense bushes, and 
was social in its habits. 

405.— Pomatorhinus erythrogenys, Vig. 

Three maleij June afidAuguei. — Length, 9*5 to 10-7 ; expanse, 
11-5 to 11*75 ; wing, 8*5 to 8-8 ; tail, 89 to 41 ; tarsus, 1*4 to 
1*5 ; bill from gape, 1*43 to 15 ; bill at front, 1*15 to 1-25 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 2*75 to 2*9. 

Female J Valley, AuffUiL^-^Jjengih, 10; expanse, 11*5; wing, 
3-72 > tail, 4*2 ; tarsus, 1*4 ; bill from gape, 1-4 ; bill at fron^ 
1*2; closed wings short of tail, 2*9. 

Bill dingy grey horny ; the base of the maxilla blackish, and 
the base of the mandible greenish ; irides yellowiak white or 
hoary ; feet brownish fleshy ; olaws brown homy. 



A OONTBtBUnOV TO THS ORNITHOLOGT 09 NEPAL. 289 

In these four spedimenB the throat and breast are rather deep 
oinereons ; all have a short blaekish mandibular stripe, and in 
all the mstj colour tends to meet across the breast ; the dark 
coloor of the throat and breast is not due to age ; it is quite as 
well marked in joxmg birds as in adults. 

This species is more common than ruficollU on the hills 
round the Nepal Valley. It frequents thick brush-wood on the 
slopes of the hills^ but seems to avoid tree forest ; occasionally 
it may be seen peeping about from the middle of a bush^ and 
on being disturbed it quickly drops to the ground and hops off 
to other shelter. It is generally found m pairs^ but is social 
in winter ; the alarm note consists of a single loudish ^ eiucl:^ 
repeated at short intervals, but the usual cry uttered is a com- 
pound one : one bird says ' quoick^ and its companion imme- 
diately adds, * tcAur, tehur^ ieiutf tciur/ and so on da capo. It 
lays in May and June ; two nests, taken on the SOth May and 
6th June, were large loosely-made pads, not domed, and with 
the egg cavity sancer-shaped each nest contained three pure 
white eggs. 

407.--<}arriilaz lencolopkus, Hardw. 

Male, Nimboa^r, December. — Lengthy 12 ; expansoj 16*1 ; 
wing, 5-83 ; tail, 5-5; tarsus, 1*8 ; bill from gape, VSb; bill at 
front, I'l ; closed wings short of tail, 3*5. 

Bill hornv black ; irides red brown ; orbital skin slaty ; feet 
livid plumbeous j claws dusky grey; the tail is distinctly 
barred. 

This Laughing Thrush is found in the Nepal Valley, in sum- 
mer, in the forests at tlie foot of the hills, at an elevation not 
exceeding, I think, about 5,000 feet. It was never met with 
about the valley in winter, but was found at that season in the 
Nawakot district, and was exceedingly common in the lower 
hills, from below Sisagarhi to the Hetoura Dun. No one who 
has chanced to come across a flock of this species in the jungle 
will ever forget the startling shout of Joud discordant laughter 
with which his approach is greeted by them ; nor the peculiarly 
noiseless and rapid manner in which the birds flit away through 
the thicket, clmttering and grumbling at the cause of their 
alarm. 

411.— Qarrolaz albogularis; Gould. 

Four maleBy May and June, — Length, 11*2 to 11-75 ; expanse, 
15-4 to 15' 7 ; wing, 51 to 52 ; tail, 5-25 to 55 j tarsus, 16 to 
1-65 ; bill from gape, 12 to 124 ; bill at front, 0-83 to 0*85 j 
closed wings short of tail, 3*0 to 3*3. 



L 



290 ▲ -CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL* 

£iglii femalesf February, Maf and June. — LeDgtb, 10*7 to 
11'7 ; expanse, 14-7 to 15-1 ; wing, 4*5 to 6'1 ; tail, 5*0 to 5*7 ; 
tarsus, r6tol'7; bill from gape, 1*15 to 1*25 ; bill at front^ 
0*8 to 0*85 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*9 to 40. 

Bill horny black, brownish at the tip ; gape and orbital skia 
plambeons ; irides bluish white ; feet pale leaden grey ; daws 
pale horny. 

The White-throated Laughing Thrush is a permanent resi- 
dent of the forest-dad bilk round the valley of Nepal, at an 
elevation of from 6,000 to nearly 9,000 feet. It frequents 
dense bushes and small tree forest, feeding on the ground where 
it turns up the dead leaves ; and it is gregarious, associating in 
large flocks, except during the breeding season, when only 
pairs and solitary birds are met with. The chorus uttered 
by a flock of these birds is more subdued and less harsh than 
that of G. leueolophus; and when alarmed the birds steal away 
in single file. It breeds in April and May, and by the middle 
of June, the birds are found in flocks again ; a young bird seen 
on the 19 th June was about the size of a quail. With reference to 
Jerdon's description, I note that my specimens all have the 
band on the forehead deep rusty, not fulvous; and that the- 
breast is a little paler than the back. 

415.— Trochalopterum erythrocephalum, Vig. 

Two malesy Chiilang^ December. — Length, 10*1 ; expanse, 
11*6 and 11*75; wing, 3*8 and 3*9; tail, 4*5 and 4*7; tarsus, 
1*5 ; bill from gape, 1*14 and 1*15 ; bill at front, 0*75 and 0*8; 
closed wings short of tail, 3'S and 3*55. 

Ticofematesy Valley {May) and Chitlang {December). — Length 
9*5 and 9*9 ; expanse, 11 and 11*5 ; wing, 3*6 and 8*7 ; tail, 
4*2 and 4*25 ; tarsus, 1*23 and 1*25 ; bill from gape, 1*05 ; bill 
at front, 0*75 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*25 and 3*35. 

Bill horny black ; irides greyish brown ; feet brown fleshy ; 
claws brownish grey homy. 

These specimens are darker and more deeply coloured than 
examples from the Himalayas further west, the grey on the 
tortiaries especially being of a much darker shade ; the feathers 
of the ear-coverts are very conspicuously margined with silvery, 
thus recalling T. ehryeopterum. 

This species, although it does not occur in any considerable 
numbers, is yet fairly common on the hills round the Nepal 
Valley. In winter it is found in parties, along the foot of the 
Iiills, where there is thick brush-wood ; and in the Chitlang 
Valley it is common, in December, in similar localities. Oa 
the 21 st May I shot a bird of this species on the Sheopnri 
Bidge, at an elevation of about 7,000 feet. It moves about 



▲ COKTBIBUTION TO TH8 OBNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 291 

very rapidly and noiselessly amongst the bushes it frequents^ 
and its note is sabdoed and not unmusical. 

425.— Trochalopterum lineatum, Fig. 

Two mahsy Valley , June and November. — Lengthy 8*2 ; ex* 
pause, 9*55 and 9*8; wing, 305 and 3*16; tail, 3*6 and 3*8; 
tarsus^ 1*05 and 1*1 ; bill from gape, 0*85 and 0*9 ; bill at 
front, 0*55 and 0*65 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*3 and 3*0. 

Three femaleSf Valley y May^ June and AuguH. — Length, 7*7 
to 8*1 ; expanse, 8*9 to 9*3 ; wing, 2*85 to 2 9 ; tail, 3*6 to 3*8; 
tarsus, 0*95 to 105 ; bill from gape, 0*8 to 0*85 ; bill at front, 
0*54 to 0*62 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*5 to 2*9. 

Bill dusky; the base of the lower mandible greyish or brown- 
ish homy ; irides brown or reddish brown ; feet fleshy brown ; 
claws livid homy. 

These birds differ from specimens shot in Kashmir in 
having the head darker and with more marked glistening 
blackish shafts to the feathers ; tbe chia, throat, and breast 
are rufous, whereas Kashmir examples have the chin whitish, 
and the throat and breast tinged with grey. Compared 
with numerous specimens from Simla and Koteghur, in Mr. 
Hume's museum, the difference is not so marked, but still 
the Nepal birds are all more deeply coloured. Two specimens 
in Mr. Hume's collection, labelled Trochahpteron imbricatum, 
**Dolaka, Nepal, January 1875,'' are identical with my birds. 
Mr. Hodgson gives a figure of a bird, obtained in the Kachar 
of Nepal, which he calls eetafer^ and this is quite distinct from 
lineatum ; but then he figures what is obviously the Nepal race 
of lineatum^ and calls it also setafer. In ^' Nests and Eggs," 
p. 266, Mr. Hume enters *^ Trochalopteron imbricatumj Hodorson," 
and quotes Mr. Hodgson's notes to the effect that it breeds 
commonly in the central region of Nepal during April and 
May. Now imbrieatum is, I apprehend, a title bestowed by 
Bljth and not by Hodgson ; and the description of the nest 
and eggs quoted by Mr. Hume most probably refers to lineatum 
which breeds in the valley of Nepal. I conclude that my five 
specimens entered above, and the two specimens in Mr. Hume's 
museum from Dolaka, are simply a local deep-tinted race of 
lineatum quite unworthy of specific separation from the western 
form of that species ; and that Mr. Hodgson, having confound- 
ed two very distinct .species (judging only from his drawings) 
under the same name, it follows that, unless his published des- 
cription of eeiafer agrees with his type specimen from the 
Kachar, or Upper Northern region of Nepal, that name can- 
not be retained. It is to be hoped that some one will examine 
the types of eetafer and of Garulax imbricatue, Blyth^ and clear 



292 A COVTBIBtmON TO THS ORNITHOLOOT OB* HXPAIi. 

ovnLj tbe cloud which now seems to hang over Jerdon's 
No. 426. 

Tbe Streaked Laaghing-Tbrush is a permanent resident on 
tbe bills round tbe valley of Nepal, at elevations of from 5,000 
to 7^000 feet. It is tolerably common, but does not occur in any- 
thing like tbe numbers seen in the bills furtber west Its habits, 
nests^ and eggs are tborougfaly well known ; bere I need only 
mention that three nests were taken in the valley at an eleva- 
tion of abont 6,000 feet on the 5tb, 6th and 14th June, and 
that each nest contained three nnspotted greenish blue eggs. 

428.— Actinodura nipalensis, Hodgs. 

Three males, Valley, Majf and June. — Length, 7*9 to 8'2; 
expanse, 105 to 1M5 ; wing, 34 to 8-65 ; tail, SS to 385 ; 
tarsus, 1*05 to 1*2; bill from gape, 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill at front, 
0*6 to 0*65; closed wings short of tail, 2*0 to 2*3. 

Billdnsky or brownish black; irides brown; eyelid dark bluish 
grey ; feet brownish fleshy ; claws brownish grey or livid. In 
his description of tbis species Jerdon says: — ^'Tail also castaneons 
with numerous black bands, except tbe two middle tail fea- 
thers i*' but the central tail feathers are even more conspicuously 
barred than tbe rest 

Tbis bandsome Bar- Wing was only obtained in the Sheopiiri 
Forest in May and June, at an elevation of about 7,000, and 
was not common. It was found in dense bushes on steeply 
sloping ground, and its habits seemed to be precisely those of 
Troehahpteron. 

429.— Malacias capistratus, Vig, 

Eight males. — Length, 8*6 to 9*4 ; expanse, 11 to 12; wing, 
8*7 to 3*9 ; tail, 4 to 4*6; tarsus, 1*05 to 1*2 ; bill from gape, 
0*94 to 1*1 ; bill at front, 0*65 to 0*74; closed wings short of 
tail, 2-45 to 8-0. 

Ten females. — Length, 8'2 to 9 ; expanse, 10*6 to 11*4; wing, 
8*5 to 3-65 ; tail, 3*8 to 41 ; tarsus, 095 to 1*15 ; bill from 
gape, 0-9 to 1*0; bill at front, 0*65 to 0*72; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*3 to 2-85. 

Bill black; irides reddish brown; feet fleshy brown; 
daws brown homy. It appears from tbe above measurements, 
all carefully taken from fresh specimens, that tbe female in 
this species is constantly and appreciably smaller than the 
male, the average difference being, in length, *4 ; in expanse^ 
•4 to -6 ; in length of wing, *1 to -25 ; in length of tail, 
•2 to *5 ; in length of tarsus, *05 to '1 ; in length of bill 
frcm gape, *04 to *1 ; in length of bill at front^ '02 ; and 



▲ 00»TBIBUTI(Nil TO TBB OBNITHOLOOT OF NBPAL. 293 

in the extent by which the closed wings fall short of the 
end of the tail, *15. These specimens resemble examples from 
J)arjeelincr in bein^ much darker in colour than the birds from 
the Western Himalayas, but there is no other difference. 
Specimens of this species from Murree, Simla, Nynee Tal, the 
Nepal Valley and Daijeeling show a regular gradation in tint, 
the western forms being pale and the eastern deep tinted. 

The Black-headed Sibia is very common on the hills roi^nd 
the Nepal Valleyi at elevations of from 6,000 to 8,000 feet, but 
is never seen in the central woods ; in winter it is also com- 
mon in the upper part of the Chitlang Valley. It principally 
affects large tree forest, but is often found in dense bushes 
on steeply sloping hill sides ; it is fond of the moss-covered 
branches of the large trees, to which it occasionally clings head 
downwards. In winter it is social^ very bold and noisy, its 
cry then resembling the scolding alarm note of Pycnonotua 
jygansj but louder and more harsh. In the breeding season. 
May and June, only single birds or pairs are seen, and its 
note is a fine loud titteree'titteree^ tweeyOy as noted by Captain 
Hnttoa ; the tweeyo being uttered after a short pause and 
in a more subdued tone. 



430.— Sibia picaoides, Hodga. 

AldU, I/imboater, December.^^Ijengih, 13*5 ; expanse, 14*8 ; 
wing, 5-2; tail, 8*6; tarsus^ 1*1 ; bill from gape, 1*18 ; bill 
at front, 0*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 5*9. 

Female, Nimboatar, December.^^Jjengih, 13*4 ; expanse, 13*6 ; 
wing, 4'74 ; tail, 8*4 ; tarsus, 1*15 ; bill from gape, 1*1 ; 
bill at front, 0*78 ; closed wings short of tail, 6*1. 

Bill homy black ; irides scarlet ; feet greyish dusky ; 
claws homy black. Above dark slatv ; wings blaok, with a 
large pure white patch; tail blackisn, faintly but regularly 
barred darker, and tipped with grey ; the throat slightly 
tinged with rufous. 

This species was tolerably common about Nimboatar in 
winter, but was not observed elsewhere in Nepal. It fre^ 
queated the silk-cotton trees singly or in pairs, feeding on the 
flowers like Chibia hoUentota. 

432.— Malacocercus terricolor, Hodgs. 

The Bengal Babbler was fairly common in the Dan, about 
Hetoura, in winter. 

444,— Hypsipetes psaroides, Vig. 

six males. — Length, 9*7 to 10*8 ; expanse, 14*5 to 15*3 ; 
wing, 4-8 to 5*1 ; tail, 4*35 to 4*9 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*8 ; bili 



294 A OONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL* 

from gape, 1*2 to 1-25 ; bill at front, 0*95 to 1*0 ; closed wings 
ahort of tail^ 2*4 to 2*8. 

Four female$. — Length, 9*3 to 10*5 ; expanse, 13'8 to 14 ; 
wing, 4*5 to 4*7 ; tail, 4*1 to 4*3 ; bill from gape, 1*2 to 
1*25 ; bill at front, 0*96 to 1*02 ; closed wings short of tail, 
20 to 2*4. 

Bill and feet bright coral red ; irides dark brown ; claws 
homy brown. 

This species is abundant in the valley of Nepal, and is a 
permanent resident there; it is also Common in winter ia 
the Chitlang Valley and on the slopes of Sisagarhi. In the 
Talley it frequents the central woods and the forests at the 
foot of the hills, never ascending higher than about 6,000 feet. 
It is social, except in the breeding season (May and June), 
fearless, and very noisy, having a variety of notes. It is 
chiefly found near the tops of trees, and is certainly more 
arboreal in its habits than H. maccUllandu 

447*— Hypsipetes macclellandi, Horsf. 

Sia males. — Length, 9*25 to 10 ; expanse, 12*5 to 13*3 ; 
wing, 4*3 to 4*5 ; tail, 4*1 to 4*6 ; tarsus, 0*65 to 0*75 ; bill 
from gape, 1*1 to 1*25 ; bill at front, 0*8 to 0*9 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*2 to 2*6. 

Five females. — Length, 9*0 to 9*8 ; expanse, 11*8 to 13*2 ; 
wing, 4*0 to 4*25 ; tail, 4*1 to 4 4 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*7^ ; 
bill from gape, 1*05 to 1*2 ; bill at front, 0*79 to 0*85 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 2*2 to 2-6. 

Bill blackish above, livid grey homy below ; irides brownish 
red or dark red ; feet fleshy brown ; claws brown horny. 
Head dark brown ; the nape paler, and all the feathers of these 
parts with light grey centres ; edge of wing buffy yellow ; 
inner webs of the quills dusky, with -a pale margin on the 
basal two-thirds ; the shaflbs of the tail feathers black above, 
pale greenish yellow below. 

This Bulbul is common throughout the year on the hills 
round the valley of Ilepal, but never tenants the central woods. 
It is generally found in bushes and bushy trees, not in high 
tree forest ; and is commonly seen in pairs. The breeding 
season appears to be May and June. A nest was taken on 
the 6th June, which contained two fresh eggs. The nest 
was somewhat oval in shape, measuring 3*35 in length and 
2*5 across ; the egg cavity was about 1 inch deep in the centre, 
and the bottom of the nest 1*25 thick. It was attached to 
a slender fork of a tree, and was composed externally of ferns, 
dry leaves, roots, grass, and a little moss, bound together with 
fine black hair-like fibres which were wound round the 



I 



A COKTBIBUnON TO THB OBNITHOLOOT OF KffPIL. 295 

f)rong8 of the fork so as regularly to Buspend the nest 
ike an Oriole's ; there was a regular lining^ distinct from the 
body of the nest, composed of fine long yellowish grass stems, 
and a little cobweb was spread here and there over the branches 
of the fork and the outside of the nest. The eggs are rather 
long ovals, smaller at one end, and fairly glossy ; they mea- 
sure, I'O by 0*7, and 0'97 by 0*7. The ground colour is pure 
pinkish white, abundantly speckled and finely spotted with 
reddish purple ; the spots closely crowded together at the large 
end, but not confluent, forming in one egg a broadish zone, 
and in the other a cap ; in the latter egg there are a few faint 
underlying staiaa of purplish inky at we large end. 

448.— Hemizus flavala^ Hodgs. 

MaUf Bhimphedi, December. — Length, 8*5; expanse, 11*35; 
wing, 8*85 ; tail, 8*55 ; tarsus, 0*7 ; bill from gape, 0*96 ; 
bill at front, 0*67 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*1. 

Bill black ; irides dark reddish brown ; feet dusky. 

This species was only observed about Bhimphedi in winter ; 
the birds were generally solitary and perched on the branches 
of small bare trees. 

451.— Oriniger flaTeolus, Qould. 

TuH> malesj December. — Length, 8*8 and 9'1 ; expanse, 13*0 ; 
wing, 4*15 and 4*2 ; tail, 3*9 and 4*0 ; tarsus, 0*8 and 0*85 ; bill 
from gape, 0*95 and 1*0 ; bill at front, 0*66 and 0*7 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 2*25 and 2*4. 

Bill greyish blue homy ; gape whitish fleshy ; ii'ides red 
brown ; feet livid fleshy. 

This Bulbul was common in December from Ninlboatar to 
Bichiakoh ; it was gregarious, associating in parties, frequented 
bushes and trees, and had the usual habits of Bulbuls. * As far 
AS I observed it seemed, in winter, to occupy a station inter- 
mediate between that of Hemixus flavala and Rubigula flam* 
ventris ; the former having been found higher up near Bhim- 
phedi, and the latter lower down in the S&l forest, between 
Biohiakob and Semrabasa. 

456.— Bnbigula flaviventris, Tick. 

MaUf December. — Length, 7*7 ; expanse, 11*3 ; wing, 8*6 ; 
tail, 8*5 ; tarsus, 0*6 ; bill from gape, 0*75 ; bill at front, 0*5 , 
closed wings short of tail, 2*15. 

Bill black ; irides pale yellowish ; feet brownish black. 

I found this Bulbul fairly common in the B&l forest below 
Bichiakoh in winter. It was as often observed in parties as 

88 



S96 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL; 

in pairs^ and it frequented the bashes by the roadside^ and 
baa the usual sharp querulous chirp characteristic of the 
Bulbuls. 

458.— Otocompsa leucogenys, J. E. Gr. 

Nine males. — Length, 7*6 to 8'1 ; expanse, 10*8 to 11*3 ; 
wing, 3-4 to 3-7 ; tail, 3-3 to 37 ; tarsus, 0-76 to 0*85 ; bill 
from gapoi 0*8 to 0*9 ; bill at front, 0*6 to 0*7 ; closed wings 
Bhort of tail, 2 to 2*3. 

Five /?mafe*.— Length, 7-2 to 7*5 ; expanse, 10 to 10*7 ; 
wing, 3-1 to 3-3 ; tail, 3*2 to 3 5 ; tarsus, 076 to 0*88 ; bill 
from gape, 0*8 to 0*82 ; bill at fronts 0*6 to 0*64 ; closed wings 
abort of tail, 1*8 to 2*1. 

Bill black ; irides light brown, in young birds dark ; feet 
plumbeous black. 

The White-cheeked Crested Bulbul is very common in suit- 
able localities, on all the hills round the Nepal Valley thronghont 
the year ; but it never enters the central part of the ^ley. 
It is also common in winter in the Nawakot district, the Chit* 
lang and Markhu Valleys, and from Bhimphedi to Nimboatar. 
Bushes growing on the hill sides are its favourite, and indeed 
only, resort in Nepal, and in these it breeds, in May and June 
principally, at elevations of from 6,000 to 6,000 feet. Its 
nests were secured on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 14th and 28th June ; 
the usual number of eggs laid seems to be three, and the 
average measurement of six eggs is 0'832 in length and 0*618 
in breadth. The nests and eggs of this species have been fyiUlj 
described in Mr. Hume's work. 

460.— Otocompsa emeria, Idn. 

The Bed-whiskered Bulbul appears to be exclusively confined 
to the lower regions of Nepal. I did not myself observe it 
in the wild state, but a caged specimen was brought to me at 
Elathmandu, which I kept for several months. 

4.61.— Molpastes pygseus, Hodgs. 

Four males. — Length, 9 to 9*6 ; expanse, 12*6 to 12*9 ; wing, 
4*15 to 4*3 ; tail, 4*1 to 4*4 ; tarsus, 1*0 ; bill from gape^ 093 
to I'O ; bill at front, 0*67 to 0*76 ; closed wings short of tail, 
2-4 lo 2-7. 

Five females. — Length, 8*2 to 8*5; expanse, 11*6 to 12*2; 
wing, 3*8 to 3*9 ; tail, 3*8 to 415 ; tarsus, 0*9 to 0*97 ; bill 
from gape, 0*9 to 0*95 ; bill at front, 0*67 to 0*72 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 2*4 to 2*5. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet dusky. 



A OONTBIBUTION TO THK ORKITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 297 

This Bolbnl is exceedingly common in the Nepal Valley, from 
thence all along the main road from Kathmandu to the plains, 
and in the Nawakot district In the valley it frequents the 
central woods, the vicinity of villages and hamlets, and cleared 
spaces on the hills up to an elevation of 6,000 feet. It breeds 
in May and June in the Residency grounds, the nests being 
very commonly placed in small pine trees (P. longifolia). Three 
is the usual number of eggs found, and a clutch taken on the 
29th May^ measured in length from 0*85 to 0*93, and in breadth 
from 0*64 to 0*65. 

465.— Phyllomis aurifrons, Tem, 

MaUj Setouray December. — Length, 7*3 ; expanse, 11*65 : 
wing, 8*75 ; tail, 2*65 ; tarsus, 0*7 ; bill from gape, 1*0 ; bill 
at front, 0*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*25. 

Bill black ; irides deep brown ; feet bluish plumbeous. 

I found this pretty Green Bulbul not uncommon in the Dun, 
about Hetoura, in December. It was usually solitary, and prin- 
cipally frequented small trees, moving about amongst the 
branches and leaves and uttering a rather pleasing note. It 
occasionally paid a visit to the flowering silk-cotton trees, but 
was quickly driven away by Chibia hotUntotta^ Megalama 
hodgionij and such like powerful competitors. 

466.— Phyllornis hardwickii, Jard. and Selb. 

Three males, Nmboatar {December^ and Pharphing (Jult/),'^ 
Length, 7*5 to 7*7 ; expanse, 11*6 to 12 ; wing, 3*8 to 3*85 ; 
tail, 3*0 to 8*2 ; tarsus, 07 ; bill from gape, 0*95 to 0*97 ; bill at 
front, 0*73 to 0*75 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*5 to 1*6. 

Bill black ; irides brown or dark brown ; feet plumbeous ; 
daws dusky or black. 

This beautiful species is common in winter about Nimboatar 
and breeds in summer at Pharphing and on some of the hills 
round the Nepal Valley. It is usually seen in pairs, and its 
habits are very like those of P. aurifrons ; but in winter it 
seems to be a more silent bird. 

470.— Oriolus kundoOi Syhes. 

Six malesj Valley^ April, May and /tin^.— Length, 9*4 to 9*7 ; 
expanse, 16*5 to 17*3; wing, 5*4 to 5*75 ; tail, 8*7 to 3*9; 
tarsus, 0*8 to 0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*25 to 1*4 ; bill at front, 
1*05 to 1*2 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*1 to 1*5. 

Three females, — Ltogth, 9*4 to 9*5 ; expanse, 16*4 to 16*6 ; 
wing, 5*5 ; tail, 3*7 to 375 ; tarsus, 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill from 
gape, 1*35 to 1*4 ; bill at front, 1*1 to 1*2 ; closed wings short 
of tail, 1*4. 



S98 A OOXTTBIBUTIOK TO THS ORNITHOLOQY Of HEPAL, 

Bill browniBh red ; irides brownish red to crimson ; ieet 
bluish plumbeons. 

Three immature birdsj Aprils May and June. — Length, 9*3 
to 9*5 ; expanse, 16*5 to 16*8 ; wing, 5*45 to 5*5 ; tail, 3*7 to 
3*9 ; tarsuss 0*8 to 0*9 ; bill from gape, 1*25 to 1*4 ; biU at 
front, 1*06 to 1*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*2 to 1*4. 

Bill reddish brown, in one specimen black ; irides brick red ; 
feet bluish plumbeons ; claws black. These birds are streaked 
with black or dark brown on the lower surface. 

The Indian Oriole is a seasonal visitant to the valley of 
Nepal, arriving about the lat April and departing in August 

It frequents some of the central woods, gardens and grovesi 
and breeds in May and June. 

471 ten— Orioliift tenuirQStria, Sly, 

Valley^ let fe&rtiafy.-*-Length, 9*9 ; expanse^ 17*7 ; wing, 
6*0^ tail, 3'8; tarsus, 0^94; bill from gape, 1*45; bill at 
front, 1*25 ; olosed wings short of tail, 0*9 ; weight, Sozs. 

Bill fleshy pink, paler at the base of the lower mandible ; irides 
crimson ; mouth fleshy ; eyelids grey ; feet deep bluish 
plumbeous ; claws brownish homy. The black occipital band 
18 0*4 in width, the yellow wing spot, 0*75 ; the yellow on the 
tips of the pair of rectrioes next the uropygials is 0*9 in length, 
and on the; outer rectrices, 1*8. 

Malej Vallet/j \9th February. — Length, 9*8 ; expanse, 17*8; 
wing, 5*7 ; tail, 3*7 ; tarsus, 0'9 ; bill from gape, 1*45 ; bill 
at front, 1*23 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*0; weight, 2*5ozs. 

Bill dusky, reddish fleshy in front of nostrils, at base and 
along gonys ; irides crimson ; feet greyish plumbeous ; claws 
dusky. The black band on the nape measures 0*1 in width; 
the yellow wing spot is 0*63 deep ; yellow on tips of the tail 
feathers on each side of the central pair, 0^8 ; yellow on the 
tip of outer tail feathers^ 1*55 along the inner web. 

I have compared these two specimens with examples of 
ienuiraetrie from Tenas^erim in Mr. Hume's museum, and after 
the most careful scrutiny I can detect no difiereace betwe<» tiie 
Nepal and Burmese birds. 

This Oriole is a winter visitor to the central woods of the 
Kepal Valley, and is fairly common there from about the end 
of October to March. On the 19th and 2l8t May I heard, 
and just caaght a glimpse of a Yellow Qriole, in dense forest 
on Mount Sheopuri, at an elevation of about 7,500 feet. It 
may possibly have been this species, and if so^ it probably 
breeds in the immediate vidnity of the valley. In winter 
this species is found solitary or in pairs, frequenting the tops of 
high trees ; and its flight is generally rather rapid and excited* 



▲ COVTRIBUnOH TO TBV OR|jriTS0U>G7 OF NSPAL. 899 

Its note greatly reoembles that of 0. iundoo, but is louder and 
less muBical; it also occasionally utters a rather barsh cry^ 
not Oriole-like, which is monotonously repeated. 

The occnrrence of this Oriole, hitherto, only recorded from 
the Burmese countries, in the valley of Nepnl, is very interest- 
iDg. It seems strange that such a bird should have escaped 
Mr. Hodgson's researches ; and the fact that he never obtained 
it is ail the more remarkable, inasmuch as both my specimens 
were shot in the Beatdenoy grounds where Mr. Hodgson dwelt 
for so many years. 

472.— Oriolos melanocephalusi Un. 

Famale, S&l Forest between Biekiaioh and Semrabaea^ Deeemr 
itfr.-^Length, 10 ; expanse, 16*3 ; wing, 5*45 ; tail, 3*9 ; tarsus, 
0*97; bill from gape, 1*4; bill at front, 1*18; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*2. 

Bill brownish red, paler at base ; irides carmine ; feet dark 
plumbeous ; claws dusky. 

A young male shot at Parwanipur, in the plains of Nepal, 
on the 20th December, agreed well with Jerdon's description 
of the young of this species. 

The Bengal Black-headed Oriole was very common, in winter, 
from the Hetoura Dun to Parwanipur in the plains. It was 
common tiiroughout the Sftl forest, solitary or rarely in pairs, 
and flew away before one from tree to tree. In the plains it 
principally frequented mangoe-topes and pipal trees. It never 
strays up to the valley of Nepal, I believe. 

474.-^Oriola9 trailU, Vig, 

Specimen skat at Nimboatar in December. — Length, 10*8; 
expanse, 17"1 ; wing, 5*95 ; tail, 4-3; tarsus, I'D; bill from 
gape, 1*46 ; bill at front, 1*2 ; closed wings short of end of 
tail, 1*75. 

Bill pale bluish grey ; irides pale buflfy yellow ; feet plumbeous ; 
daws blue at base, pale homy at tip. Identical with specimens 
from Daijeeling. 

The Maroon Oriole was onlv found at Nimboatar, in winter. 
It frequented dense jungle on the bank of the lUpti, and only 
single birds were observed. 

475t— Gopsyclius satdariSi Zin. 

Three make, March and April— Wingy 3*9 to 4*1 ; tail, 3*7 
to 3*8 ; tarsus, 1*13 to 1*2 ; bill from gape, 1*0 ; bill at front, 
0*7 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*3. 

The third lateral tail feather has some black on the inner web 
at the extreme base ; in the fourth tail feather the black runs 



300 A CONTBIBtlTIOM TO THS ORNITHOLOaT OF NKPAIm 

down as a margin to the inner web to within about half an inch 
from the tip^ and there is a black patch on the outer web of 
the feather at the base. 

Four females^ Marchj April and May, — Length, 7*8 to 8*8; 
wing, 8*6 to 4*0; tail, 3*4 to 3*5; tarsus, 1*1 to 1*2; bill 
from gape, 0*95 to 1*0 ; bill at front, 0*6 to 0*7 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 2-25. 

These specimens are as dark on the breast and back as 
some female examples from Pakchan, Tenasserim, entered 
by Mr. Hume in b. F., YL, p. 833, as C. musieus, Raffles, 
and have faint dark striations on the under wing-coverts. 
The Nepal birds are, in faot^ intermediate between saularit 
and miuicus, but are much nearer in colour to the Pakchan 
specimens above alluded to than to birds from Sambhnr, 
for instance ; indeed the tint even resembles that of Singapore 
examples. 

Male, Young, 15ih August — Length, 7*5; expanse, 11*2; 
wing, 3*6 ; tail, 3*1 ; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 0*95 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 2*0. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy ; mouth yellow ; irides brownish black ; 
feet livid blackish. This specimen is strikingly Thrush-like, 
and its spotted plumage recalls the parallel stage of Fetroplida 
einelorhyneia. 

The Magpie-Robin is a permanent resident in the valley 
of Nepal, and is one of the commonest and most familiar birds 
there met with ; it is also common in the Nawakot district 
and the plains of Nepal. In the valley it frequents gardens, 
groves, the skirts of the central woods and cleared spaces in 
them, and, generally, the vicinity of country houses and of 
hamlets; but it never ascends the hills. Its habits and fine 
song in the breeding season are well known, and have often been 
described. It breeds in May and June ; half a dozen nests, 
found in those months, were placed in holes in walls and trees. 

483.— Fratincola indica^ Bly. 

Fourteen males. — Length, 4*8 to 5*4 ; expanse, 8*1 to 9*1 ; 
wing, 2-5 to 30; tail, 1*9 to 2*35; tarsus, 0*8 to 0*96; 
bill from gape, 0*65 to 0*73; bill at front, 0*34 to 045; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*85 to 1*2. 

Nine females. — Length, 4*85 to 5*5; expanse, 8*0 to 9*06; 
wing, 2-45 to 2*95; tail, 1*9 to 2*23; tarsus, 0*8 to 09; 
bill from gape, 0*63 to 0*7 ; bill at front, 0*34 to 0*43 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*9 to 1*2. 

Bill, feet and claws black ; irides dark brown. 

Male, Young, Valley ^ \9th «/u/y. —Length, 5*2; expanse, 8*4; 
wing, 2*6 ; tail, 2*2 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*65 ; bill 



▲ CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NBPAIa 801 

Ht fronts 0*4 ; doBed wings short of tail, 1*0. This specimen 
is spotted and streaked above and on the breast. 

1 have followed Mr. Hume (cf. S. F., V., pp. 442—244) in 
entering^ the above twenty-fonr specimens under P. indica, but I 
am not snre that they all belong to one species. There are two 
distinct forms amongst mj birds: one, a small dark race, 
which is a permanent resident in the valley and breeds there ; 
the other a larger race with the lower surface rufous through- 
out, which only comes into the valley in winter. Six specimens 
of the latter race, obtained from November to March, have 
ihe following dimensions : — Four males, wing, 2*85 to 3*0 ; and 
bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*73; two females, wing, 2*9 to 2*95; 
and bill from gape, 0*7. It is clear that the two forms 
cannot be separated on the ground of size alone, for I find 
a regular gradation from birds with a wing 2*46 to those 
with a wing measuring 8*0; but perhaps the large form 
might be separated from indiea on account of its colours, 
migratory habits, and generally larger size. Without an 
examination of the type it seems impossible to say whether 
it is identical with the race described as P. robuHa^ Tristram, 
or not. 

There is yet another point to be noted about my PratineoUu* 
It has lately often been pointed out that rubicola difiers from 
indiea in having the upper tail-coverts and lower part of the 
rump with the fathers dark centred, whereas indiea never has 
those parts striated. Now in six of mv specimens the upper 
tail-coverts are longitudinally striated, though faintly ; and in 
one of these, a female, shot on the 12 th December, the lower 
rump and upper tail-coverts are centred with dusky along the 
shafts of the feathers, thus making a decided approach to some 
specimens of the same sex from London. Even in this specimen, 
however, the streaks are neither as dark nor nearly as strongly 
marked as in the European examples. 

The Indian Bush Chat is a very common bird and a perma- 
nent resident in the valley of Nepal ; and it is abundant, in 
winter, the whole way from the valley to the plains, and in the 
Nawakot district. Two nests of this species were found in 
the valley in June, placed on the ground and well sheltered by 
grass and wormwood bushes. 

486.— Pratincola ferrea» Hodgs. 

Three nudes. — Length, 5*75 to 5*8 ; expanse, 8*5 to 8*8 ; 
wing, 2*7 to 2*8; tail, 2*6 to 2*8; tarsus, 0*8 to 0*85 ; bill 
from gape, 0*62 to 0*68; bill at front, 0*38 to 0*43; dosed 
wings short of tail, 1*6 to 1*65. 



303 A CONTRtBUTIOK TO THB ORKITHOLMt 09 KBPAL. 

Three femaUs.-^Lengihy 5'5 to 5*7 ; expanse, 8*3 to 8*9 ) 
wing, 2-62 to 2-7 ; tail, 2*5 to 2'7 ; tarsns, 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill 
from gape, 0-53 to 0*65 ; bill at front, 0'35 to 0*42. 

The Dark-grej Bush Chat is tolerably oommon in tlie rallejr 
of Nepal throughout the year. It is always found about the 
foot of the hills, and ascends to an elevation of about 6,000 feet, 
but it never seems to visit the central parts of the valley. A 
nest of this species, taken on the 14th June, contained three 
eggs, of which one undoubtedly belonged to a Cnokoo. 

498.— Ruticilla hodgsoni, Moore. 

Mighi maleey October to IforoA.-— Length, 6*1 to 6*85 ; expanse^ 
10 to 10*4 ; wing, 3*3 to S'45 ; tail, 2*0 to 3*0 ; tarsus, 0*9 to 
0-96 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*75 ; bill at fr<Mit^ 0*38 to 0*48; 
closed wings short of tail, 1*0 to 1*3* 

Five females, November to ApriL^Lengihy 5*9 to 6*2; ex«- 
panse, 9*6 to 10-1 ; wing, 3*1 to 3*3; tail, 2*5 to 29; taraus, 
0-9 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*75 ; bill at front, 04 to 0*45 ; 
closed wings short of tail, I'O to 1*3. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy yellow ; irides dark brown ; feet 
black or brownish black, soles yellow ; claws black. 

The female is earthy brown above, the outer webs of the 
wing feathers being brown and the inner webs dusky, except 
the tertiaries which have both webs brown ; under surface dull 
greyish albescent, without any tinge of rufous ; white on the 
lower part of the abdomen ; the under tail-coverts are faintly 
tinged with rusty or pale rufous. In the male the upper snrfSEU^e 
is a moderately deep bluish grey. 

Hodgson's Redstart is common, in winter, in the valley of 
Nepal, the Nawakot district, and the Chitlang and Markha 
Valleys. In the Great Valley it appeared about the end of 
September and migrated northwards before the middle of April 
It is generally found along the course of the streams, perching 
on stones or in bushes growing close to the water ; occasionally 
about bushes at the foot of the hills in nearly dry nnllah^, 
feeding on grassy plots ; and very rarely in gardens in the 
central part of the valley. It has the habit^ conmion to the 
genus, of qnivering its tail when it perches. 

503.— Buticilla frontaliSi Vig. 

Two malesj Sheopuri Ridge^ ^<s&rua9y.-*Length, 5*95 and 6*1 -, 
expanse, 10*3 and 106; wing, 3*4 and 3*5 ; tail, 2*7 and 2*8 ; 
tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 0*69 and 0*7 ; bill at fronts 0*37 
and 0*38; closed wings short of tail, 0*95 and 1*05. 

Two females, ascent of Sheopurij February. — Length, 5*6 and 
6*0; expanse, 9*5 and 9*75; wing, 8*2 and 3*28; tail^ 2*6 



i 



A CONTBIBUnON TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 303 

and 2*7 ; tarsus^ 0*9 and 0*95 ; bill from gape, 0'65 and 
0*7; bill at front, 0*35 and 0*37; closed wings short of tail, 
10 and 1-23. 

Bill black ; gape yellowish fleshy ; irides dark brown ; feet 
and claws black. 

The quills have faint brownish edgings, and the median 
coverts are edged pale. The female is olive brown above. 

This fine Redstart is a winter visitant to the valley of Nepal, 
and is found only on the hills, at elevations of from 5,000 to nearly 
8,000 feet. I found it fairly common in February on the slope 
of Sheopuri and at the top of the ridge, frequenting bushes, 
cleared ground and forest paths. It was alwavs very shy, and 
on catching sight of one, it immediately dived into the nearest 
bush and there concealed itself ; occasionally it perched on a 
stone, and now and then was seen on a spray at the top of a 
bush, quivering its tail after the manner of its tribe ; but other- 
wise its habits differed greatly from those of 22. rufiventru and 
hodgioni. The only note it was heard to utter was a low but 
very distinct ^^ pirt, pv'C 

505.— Hhyacomis foliginosus, Vig. 

Six males. — Length, 5*3 to 5*5; expanse, 9*1 to 9*8; wing, 
2-9 to 8*1 ; tail, 2*05 to 2*85 ; tarsus, 0*8 to 093 ; bill from 
gape, 0-65 to 0*71 ; bill at front, 0*86 to 0*42 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*75 to 0*95. 

Seven females. — Length, 4*85 to 5*25 ; expanse, 8*3 to 9*2 ; 
wing, 2*75 to 2*95 ; tail, 2 to 215 ; tarsus, 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill 
from gape, 0*6 to 0*66; bill at front, 0'34 to 0*37; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*65 to 0*9. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy white ; irides dark brown ; feet dark 
homy brown ; claws black. 

The plumbeous Water-Bobin is only found in the valley of 
Nepal in winter ; and at that season it is also common along 
the rivers in the Nawakot district, the Markhu Valley, and as 
low down as Hetoura. Its favourite resort is, of course, a 
mountain stream, but I have occasionally seen it on the edge of 
a tank, and in bushes near some river. In Nepal it is nearly 
always found in company with the next species. 

506.— Ghimarrornis leucocephalus, Vig. 

Four males. — Length, 7*2 to 7*4; expanse, 11*5 to 12*1; 
wing, 3*8 to 40 ; tail, 3*0 to 4*0 ; tarsus, 1*2 to 1*25 ; bill 
firom gape, 0*8 to 0*84 ; bill at front, 0*45 to 0*5 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*4 to 1*5. 

Three females. — Length, 6*7 to 69; expanse, 10*5 to 11; 
wing, 3*45 to 3-6 ; tail^ 2*9 ; tarsus, 11 to 1*14 ; bill from gape, 

39 



304 A OONTRIfiUTION TO THE QBNITHOLOGT OF NBPAli. 

0*75 to 0*82 ; bill at front, 0^46 to 0*48 ; cteaed wing» sbori of 
tail, 1-35 to 1-45. 

Bill black ; gape fleshy white ; irides deep brown ; feet 
blackish brown ; claws black. 

The White-capped Redstart is fairly common in winter in 
the Nepal Valley, the Nawakot district, and on the streams as 
far down as Bicbiakob, south of the Sandstone Range. Its 
habits are very well known, bnt I may here mention that it 
constantly moves its tail np and down^ and often spreads it oni 
pretty widely. 

508.-~N6miira cyanura, PalL 

Female, February. — Length, 5'5 ; expanse, 8*8 ; wing, 30 ; 
tail, 2-5 ; tarsus, 09 ; bill from gape, 0*65 ; bill at front, 0*36; 
closed wings short of tail^ 1*0. 

Bill black, brownish at the gape ; irides dark brown ; fbet 
dark homy brown. 

The colour above is rather olive than *pale brown/ there is 
a faint bluish frontal band and supercilium, the chin is whitish, 
and the abdomen white. 

This species was only found in the Nepal Valley in winter, 
even then appeared to be rare. The only specimen obtained 
was shot in the Sheopuri Forest at an elevation of about 7,500 
feet ; it was solitary, and perched on the stump of a tree close 
to the path. 

513.— CaUiope pectoralis, Gould. 

Female, Valley^ March. — Length, 6*0 ; expanse, 9'0 ; wing, 
2*8 ; tail, %*1 ; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from ga,pe, 0*73 ; bill at front, 
0*45 ; closed wings short of tail, 1'4* 

Bill black, brownish at tip and base of lower mandible ; irides 
brown; feet brown ; the tarsi rather livid; claws dusky. The 
supercilium is whitish, and the spots on the tail feathers are 
white. 

The White-tailed Ruby Throat is a winter visitor to the 
valley of Nepal, but is not common there. It was only ob- 
served in the central part of the valley, frequenting thick 
bushes and thorny hedges ; it came out to the open ground to 
feed, but darted to cover again on the slightest alarm* The 
only specimen preserved was shot in the Residency grounds. 

514— Cyanecula suecicai Lin. 

MaUy Valley^ Novemier. — Length, 5*7 ; expanse, 8*9 ; wing, 
2*9 ; tail, 2*35 ; tarsus, 1*12; bill from gape, 075 ; bill at front, 
0*48; closed wings short of tail, 1*15; weight, 0*75 ozs. 



A COlVtBtBttlON to m O&KlTfiOLOQT OF NSPAb. d05 

Bin honij black ; base of lower uiaudible brownish ; gape 
and month yellow ; irides dark brown ; feet blackish brown ; 
claws homy black. 

This species as a cold weather visitor to the Nepal Yalley, 
and 19 only foand there in small nnmbers. 

630. — Orthotomos sutorius, Penn. 

Five mateSy Valley, May to November. — Lenorth, 4*5 to 5*6 ; 
expanse^ 6*1 to 6*4 ; wing, 1-9 to 20; tail, 1 65 to 8*75 ; tarsus, 
0-8 to 0-85 ; bill from gape, 065 to 0-7 ; bill at front, 05 to 
0*56 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*2 to 2*1. 

Four femalee, Valley^ March to ilu^u^f.— Length, 4*2 to 5*0; 
expanse, 5*9 to 6*4 ; wing, 1*9 to 1*95 ; tail, 1-6 to 2'2 ; tarsus, 
0-7 to 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0-64 to 0*69 ; bill at front, 0*47 
to 0*52 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*0 to 1*8 
' Bill blackish brown above, pale fleshy beneath ; irides yellow, 
golden buff, or orange ; feet reddish fleshy ; claws grey, or pale 
yellowish horny. 

The Indian Tailor-Bird is very common in the Nepal Valley, 
where it is a permanent resident. It is spread all over the 
central part of the valley, and is also found at the foot of the 
hilU, and in suitable localities ascends to an elevation of about 
6,000 feet. It frequents gardens, hedgerows and bushes, and is 
very familiar in its habits. It breeds freely in the valley at an 
elevation of 4,500 feet. I took many of its nests in the Resi- 
dency grounds, Bani Jangal, &c., in May, Jufte and Jtily. 

547.— Suya crimgera, Sodgs. 

Three maUsy Falley, July and duyust.^^Lengib^ 7-8 to 7*8 ; 
expanse, 7*3 to 7*5 ; wing, 2*3 to 2*35 ; tail, 4*2 to 4*75 ; tarsus, 
0*9; bill from gape, 0*68 to 0*7; bill at front, 0-48 to 0*63; 
closed wings short of tail, 8*1 to 3*8. 

Female, Valley, June* — Length, 7'1 ; expanse, 7*5 ; wing, 
2-35 ; tail, 4*0 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 0*65 ; bill at front, 
0-5 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*0. 

Bill black ; irides straw yellow, yellow, and golden yellow ; 
feet fleshy ; claws brown and dusky. 

I follow Mr. Hume (S. F., Vll., pp. 1 — 3), in referring my 
specimens to crinigera ; they are in liie fuliginoea stage. 

This species is tolerably common on the hills round the valley 
6f Nepal, at elevations of from 5,000 to 6,000 feet. It frequents 
low bushes oa the hill sides. The breeding season seems to 
last from May to quite the end of July. 

A nest taken on the 29th June contained only two fresh eggs. 
The nest was of the shape of a mangoe, the small end being 
vppermosty and the entrance on one side, near the top j its 



306 A CONTBIBUTIOK TO THB OBNITHOIiOaT OF NEPAL, 

xneaanrements, ezternallj) were^ in height 6'2 ; in breadth, 3*6 
in one direction, and 2*65 in the other ; the opening was nearly 
circnlar, 1*8 in diameter. The nest was rather flimsy in struo- 
ture, composed of grass down^ more or lees felted together, and 
bound round externally with dry green grass blades ; internally 
it was scantily lined with fine grass stems^ which were used to 
strengthen the lower lip of the entrance hole. The eggs were 
fairly glossy, moderate or longish oval in shape, and measured 
0'65 by 0*5 and 0*7 by 0*49 ; the ground color was pinkish 
white, the small end nearly free from markings, the middle 
portion of the eggs with faint streaks and tiny indistinct spots 
of brownish red, and the large end with a zone bright brownish 
red or a confluent cap of the same colour. 

559.— Phylloscopus nitidus, Lath. 

Two malesj Valley^ April. — Length, 4*6 and 4*65 ; expanse, 
7*5 and 7'6 ; wing, 2*5 and %'6 ; tail, 2 and 2*1 ; tarsus, 0*7 and 
0*75 ; bill from gape, 0*6 ; bill at front, 0*35; closed wings short 
of tail, 0*8 and 0*9. 

Female^ Valley^ April, — Length, 4*5 ; expanse, 7*4 ; wing^ 
2*4; tail, 1*95; tarsus, 0*75; bill from gape, 0*55; bill at 
front, 0*35 1 closed wings short of tail, 0*7. 

Upper mandible dusky, the lower pale fleshy ; tarsi li?id 
brownish ; the toes dingy greenish brown. 

Tliis Willow Warbler passes through the Nepal Valley on its 
way to and from its winter quarters in the plains. During the 
first-half of April it was fairly common in the Residency 
grounds ; it seemed to frequent small green-leaved trees rather 
tiian the pines, and its movements were rather sedate and 
deliberate. 

560.-— PhyUoscopus viridanus, Bly. 

MaUj Valley J April. — Length, 4*8; expanse, 7 5; wing, 
2*45 ; toil, 2*5 ; bill from gape, 0*6 ; bill at front, 0*45 ; tarsus, 
0*8 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*9. 

This species is fairly common in the central woods of the 
Nepal Valley in winter. It does not migrate until about the 
beginning of May. 

561.— PhyUoscopus aflBbiis, Tick. 

Two maUSy Valley^ March and April. — Length, 4*4 and 4*5 ; 
expanse, 6*7 and 6*8; wing, 2*3 ; tail, 1*9 and 2*0 ; tarsus, 0*75 
and 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*5 and 052 ; bill at front, 0*87 to 0*4. 

Two females^ Valley ^ May. — Length, 4*2 and 4*3 ; expanse, 
6-3 and 6*5; wing, 2*1 and 2*2; tail, 1*7 and 1*75; tarsus, 
'073 ; bill at fron^ 0*36 and 0*37 ; nostril to point of bill, 0*25. 



▲ OOHTRIBUnON TO THE OBKITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 807 

' Upper mandible dark browiiy the lower homy yellow ; tarsi 
fleshy, or greenish brown; toes dark browu; soles lemon 
yellow. 

Tickell's Willow Warbler was obtained in the valley of Nepal 
in October, and from the middle of March to the middle of 
May. It was tolerably common la the pine trees of the 
Besidency groands. 

561— Beguloides trochiloideSi Sund. 

Two males, Valley, 19M and 2\8t May. — Lengthy 4*3 and 
4-4; expanse, 67 and 7-2; wing, 2-23 and 2-4; tail, 1-8 and 
1-85; tarsus, 0-7; bill from gape, 0-54; bill at front, 035; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*8. 

Upper mandible brownish black, the lower deep yellow ; irides 
dark brown ; gape greenish yellow ; feet livid brownish. 

This species was only obtained in the Sheopnri Forest, in 
May, at an elevation of about 6,500 feet It frequented tree 
bashes, and had the usual lively leaf-searching manners of its 
tribe. Although not actually observed there, it no doubt fre- 
quents the central woods of the valley for a short time on its 
migrations, like the other species of Phylloacopua. 

565 ii«.— Beguloides humii. Brooks. 

Eleven males. — Length, 4*0 to 4'3 ; expanse, 6*5 to 7*0 ; 
wing, 2-2 to 2-34; tail, 1*6 to 1*92; tarsus, 0*75 to 0*8; bill 
from gape, 0*46 to 0*5 ; bill at front, 0*25 to 0*35 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*6 to 0*9. 

Ifine females, — Length, 3*7 to 4*1; expanse, 6*15 to 6*6; 
wing, 2*0 to 2*16 ; tail, 1*5 to 1-7; tarsus, 0*67 to 0*75 ; bill 
from gape, 0*45 to 0*5 ; bill at front, 0*25 to 0*34 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0'6 to 0*8. 

Bill dusky ; the base of the lower mandible deep yellow, 
greenish, or brown ; irides dark brown ; feet dark brown, the 
soles greenish yellow ; claws dusky horny ; the gape pale 
yellow. 

These twenty specimens were shot in the valley between the 
30th October and the 18th April. All are clearly referable to 
the form described by Mr. Brooks (S. F., YII., p. ISl) under 
the name of Reguloides humii. The fourth and fifth primaries 
are longest; the third slightly shorter than the fourth, and the 
second 0*25 shorter than the third ; the top of the head is 
brown, sometimes tinged with olive ; the supercilium is fulvous 
or pale buff; the coronal streak is only faintly shown in some 
specimens, in the majority it cannot be traced. 

The fact that all these Nepal birds agree with the form calU 
ed by Mr» Brooks humiif seema to strengthen his contention 



908 A OONTBIBTmOtf TO 7ES OBKItHOLOQT OdT HXPAL. 

that the difference on which he relies to separate iumii from 
the true supereiliosus is not due merely to the dryness or 
humidity of the localities in which the specimens were obtain* 
ed. Mr. Hume very justly points out that the colours of 
many birds are much deeper in specimens from Bikim than in 
examples of the same species found in the dry North-West ; 
and in the course of these notes I have often remarked on the 
darker hue of many species obtained in Nepal as compared 
with birds *from the Western Himalayas. But then, when this 
difference in tint obtains, the Nepal birds quite resemble Sikim 
ones ; whereas in the case of tiiis PhfUoieopus my specimens 
differ conspicuously from examples procured at Darjeeling'. 
The meridian of the Talley of Nepal is probablv nearly the 
eastern limit of R. kumiif as seems to be also the case with 
reference to PalaornU nipalensiiy Palaomia purpureuSj Mum* 
peia parading Bndynamis honoraia, &c., which are replaced in 
Sikim by allied forms. 

But granting that, as a matter of conTenienee, the Brown- 
headed Willow Warbler should have a name to distinoruish it 
from supereilioius^ It seems still doubtful whether Mr. Brooks' 
name of Aumii will stand ; it would be strange^ considering the 
long list of synonyms of which Phylloicopus supereilioaui can 
boast, if no author has previously managed to hit the browns 
headed form. Phgllopneuste regtdoidea of Hodgson should cer- 
tainly have grazed it, if not iAornaius of Blyth. 

This species is very common in the valley of Nepal in win- 
ter from October to nearly the end of April. It is by far the 
most abundant species of Piylloseopus found in the valley, and 
it frequents the central woods and the forests at the foot of the 
kills. It is generally found in pairs or small parties, on trees 
or sometimes in thorny rose hedges^ and is very lively, active 
luid noisy. 

Beguloides humii, Tar. 

Male^ Valley, 30th Oetober.^'Lenvth, 4*0 ; expanse, 6'6 ; 
wing, 2-2 ; tail, 1*7 ; tarsus, 0*66 ; bill from gape, 0-5 ; bill at 
front, 0*33 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*7. 

Bill brownish dusky, yellow homy at base of lower mandible ; 
irides dark brown ; feet dusky. 

This specimen precisely resembles A. iumiij Brooks, but has 
the outer tail feather on each side pure whUe ; the fourth quill 
is longest, and the tarsus is rather shorter than in my specimens 
of kumvL Mr. Hume has a specimen of kumii which shows % 
good deal of white about the head, thus showing that a partial 
albinism is occasionally found in the species. My bird has the 
white symmetrical and recalling the coloration of the tail fea- 



A iDlfTSIBUnOV TO THX OBVITHOLOOT OT NXPAL. 309 

ih&r% in ffiridipennia, eroeirPiLi and maeulipenniB ; hut as this 
may be a mere indiyidual yariation from the normal colouringi 
I do not propose a new name for the bird* 

566.— B^uloides proregulus, PalL 

Two male9j Valley ^ January and March. — Length, 3*55 and 
3*6; expanse, 6*15 and 6*25; wing, 20 aud 21 ; tail, 1*43 and 
1-5 ; tarsas, 0*65 and 0*73 ; bill from gape, 0*43 and 0*44 ; bill 
at front, 0*29 and 0*3; closed mrings short of tail, 0*5 and 
0*55. 

Female^ Valley, March. — Length^^ 3*5 ; expanse, 6*0 ; wing, 
1*9 ; tail, 1*4 ; tarsus, 0*65 ; bill from gape, 0*43; bill at front^ 
0*28 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*6. 

Upper mandible black ; the lower mandible dusky, yellowish 
at the base ; irides dark brown ; gape orange ; feet dingy greenr 
ish brown ; claws dusky ; soles yellowish green. 

This pretty species is tolerably common in the valley ot 
Nepal in winter. I found it only in the Residency grounds, 
where it frequented the pine trees in small parties. 

568.— Reguloides erochroas, Eodg$. 

Malcy Chitlang Valley , December. — Length, 4*15; expanse, 
6*5 ; wing, 2*35 ; tail, 1*75 ; tarsus, 0*8; bill from gape, 0*49 ; 
bill at front, 0*34 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*45. 

Male? Sheopuri Ridge, February. — Length, 4*3; expanse, 
7*1 ; wing, 2*4 ; tail, 1*75 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*5 ; 
bill at front, 0*33 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*65. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible and gape yellow ; irides 
dark btown ; feet dusky greenish, the solea greeniah yelbw ; 
claws dusky. 

The Bar-winged Warbler is a winter visitor to the hills round 
the valley of Nopal and the Chitlang Valley. It wflAs, always 
found hunting about in the bushes at elevations of rom about 
6,000 to 7,500 feet, but it was never abundant. It does not 
appear to frequent the central part of the Nepal Valley. 



572.— Abroniis xanthoschistus, Eodgs. 

Ten make. — Length, 4*1 to 4*85 ; expanse, 6*5 to 6*8; wing, 
2*15 to 2*3; tail, 1*7 to 18; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*75 ; bill from 
gape, 0*53 to 0*65 ; bill at front, 0*8 to 0*4 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*5 to 0*75. 

Seven femalee. — Length, 8*85 to 4*2 ; expanse, 6*0 to 6*65 ; 
wing, 2.-0 to 21 ; tail, 1*55 to 1*7 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*74 ; bill 
from gape, 0*5 to 0*55 ; bill at front, 0*3 to 86 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*5 to 85. 



310 A OONTBIBUnON TO THE OBKITHOLOGT OF KKAD. 

Upper mandible brownish black ; lower mandible horn j jel^ 
low ; irides blackish brown ; tarsus plambeous ; toes brownish ; 
soles yellow ; claws dusky. 

The Grey-headed Warbler is very common in the valley of 
Nepal, where it is a permanent resident. It frequents the cen* 
trat woods and the hills round the valley up to an elevation of 
about 7^000 feet. It is usually found sincrly or in pairs, in 
bushes and bush trees, and has a marked loud chirp. I may 
recall attention to the fact, long ago pointed out by Mr. Hume, 
that this species, the true aanihoaciistus of Hodgson, is the 
one figured in ^^ Lahore to Tarkand," Plate XX, under the 
name of Abrornis albosupereUiaris. 

578.— Abromis castaneiceps, Hodgs. 

Two males, Valley^ May and June, — Length, 8*9 ; expanse, 
6*0 and 6*3; wing:, 20 and 205; tail, 1*65 and 1*7; tarsus, 
0*6 and 0*64 ; bill from gape, 0*45 ; bill at front, 0*25 and 3*0 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*75. 

Upper mandible brownish black ; lower mandible buff horny 
or orange; irides dark brown; feet dingy brownish, the soles 
greenish yellow ; claws dusky. There are two distinct bars on 
the wing ; chin to breast bluish white ; a pure white baud 
down the belly, 0*35 in breadth on the fresh bird. 

This pretty species was only met with in the Sheopuri Forest, 
in May and June, at an elevation of 7,000 feet. It frequented 
tree-bushes, and was not at all common. 

584.— Henicuras maculatuSy Tig. 

MaiUj December^ CkUlang Valley, — Length, 9*3; expanse, 
12*7; wing, 4*2 ; tail, 4*4; tarsus, 1*2; bill from gape, 10; 
bill at front, 0*7 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*7. 

Male, Markhu Valley^ December, — Length, 10*6 ; expanse^ 
12*9 ; wing, 4*15 ; tail, 58; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 1*0; 
bill at front, 0*73 ; closed wings short of tail, 41. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown; feet and claws fleshy white. 
These two specimens must be referred to maculatue ; the lower 
surface is exactly the same as in maculatue from the Western 
Himalayas, but in one bird the spots on the nape are round 
as in guUatu8y while the white marks lower down are crescentic 
in shape. 

This beautiful Forktail is fairly common in winter on the 
streams in the Ohitlang and Markhu Valleys, and it occurs as 
low down as Hetoura. I cannot add anything to Dr. Jerdon's 
excellent description of its habits, except that I have on several 
occasions seen it fly into a bush and remain concealed for a 
few minutes. 



A OONTBIBXrnON TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 311 

584 &2^.— Henicuras guttatus, Gould. 

Two specimens {of which one was female) y Valley, November 
and December. — Length, 9*4 and 9*6 ; expanse, 12*2 and l^'b ; 
wingy 3*8 and 4*0 ; tail, 5*0 and 5*4 ; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 
0*97 and 0*98 ; bill at front, 0*7 ; closed wings short of tail, 
8*9 and 4*0 ; weigh t, 1*25 ozs. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet pale whitish fleshy. The 
black on the breast does not come so far down as in Sikim 
specimens of guUatue; the amount of white on the forehead is 
the same as in that species, Le.<, less than in macnlatus ; the 
interscapnlarj region is rather sparingly dotted with nearly 
round spots, but the black feathers lower down have regular 
crescent-shaped white marks. 

The birds are clearly more allied to giUtaius than to macuhr 
ius, and for this reason I have entered them here separately. 
But they are not typical, and I think that a large series of 
Forktails of this type, collected in the Nepal Valley, would 
prove that gtUtaius is not entitled to specific separation, unless 
indeed we suppose that the two species interbreed on the con- 
fines of their respective regions. 

The Spotted Forktail is tolerably common in the valley of 
Nepal, aoheriDg closely all the year to the streams descending 
from the hills ; it never approaches the central part of the valley. 



686.— Henicunis schistaceus, Eodgs. 

? MaUy Valley J February. -^Jjength^ 10; expanse, 12; wing, 
4 ; tail, 5*5 ; tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 0*95 ; bill at front, 
0*58 ; closed wings short of tail, 3*8. 

Bill black ; irides blackish brown ; feet fleshy white ; the tarsi 
Uvid in front; claws whitish. 

This species is a permanent resident in the Nepal Yalley, 
and occurs there in smaller numbers than the Spotted Forktail. 
It is more shy than the latter, I think, and when disturbed 
more frequently seeks shelter in a thicket. It was only noticed 
about the head waters of streams, where the banks were thickly 
covered with bushes. 

587.— Henicnras scouleri, Vig. 

Femalfif Valley, Febnuiry.^-'Lengtiif 5*0 ; expanse, 9*1 j wing, 
2-9 ; tail, 2*0 ; tarsus, 0*95 ; bill from gape, 0*6 ; biU at front, 
0*35 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*45. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet and daws pure fleshy 
white. 

This pretty little Henicurus is fairly common in the Neoal 
Yalley and the Nawakot district. In its habits it is much 

40 



312 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 

more confidiDg than maeulaiuSy gutUUtu and sehiataeeus, and 
affects lower and more open parts of the streams than those 
species. It is usually solitary, and often perches on bouldera 
in company with R. fuliginosua and Ch. leucocephalua. 

589 iis.— Motadlla hodgsoni, O. B. Or. 

Two malesj November and December. — Length, 7*8; expanse, 
11-3 and 11'35; wing, 37; tail, 37 and 38; tarsus, 09; 
bill from gape, 073 and 075 ; bill at front, 0*56 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*15 and 2*3. 

The bill is large and strong ; whole back and sides of neck 
black ; the eye set in a diamond-shaped patch of white. 

Two females, November. — Length, 7*5 ; expanse, 11 and 11*2 ; 
wing, 3*53 and 3*55 ; tail, 3*45 to 3*5 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 
0*74; bill at front, 0*52 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*2 and 2*25. 

Ni^e, sides of neck and rump black; back blackish and dark 
grey. 

A young birdy September. — Length, 8; expanse, 10*8; wing, 
8*45 ; tail, 3*5 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 72 ; bill at front, 
0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*0. 

The vertex only blackish ; chin white ; throat, breast and 
sides of neck black. 

Hodgson's Wagtail is common in the valley of Nepal and the 
Nawakot district, in winter. It arrives in the valley about the 
middle of September and leaves towards the end of April. 

This species is clearly distinct from kucopsie (luzoniennejj 
and seems to me to belong to a different section ; it is more 
allied to personala, and only resembles leueopris in size and in 
the assumption of a black back in summer. Observers in India, 
as a rule, meet with the Wagtails only in winter, and the 
statement that a certain species acquires a black back in 
summer. Or has that part always grey, cannot aid them greatly 
in identifying specimens in winter plumage or immature birds. 
Excluding maderaspatana^ which cannot be confounded with 
any of the other species found in India, there are three pairs of 
Wagtails, distinguished by constant characters, which may be 
arranged as follows : — 

A. A white stripe down the sides of the neck, separating the 
black of the head from that of the breast. 
a. With a black streak across the ear-coverts, through 
the eye to the base of the bill. 

1. Back always grey ; wing, 3*5 to 3*75 ; 

bill at front, 0*44 to ? ... ... oceularie. 

2. Back black ... ... amurenm^ 



* Thii {amwrtntU), u I hare pointed out elsewhere, ib japonica of fiwixihoe* 
Whethor hif name thottld be allowed to stand if a matter of opiiuon.<— Eo. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 313 

b. No black streak througb tbe eye. 

3. Back always grey ; chin and throat 
black in summer only ; small amount of 
white on wing; smaller; wing, 3*3 to 

3-6 ; bill at front, 0-4 to 0-46 ... alba.^ 

4. Back black in summer, often partly 
black in winter ; chin and throat always 
white; considerable amount of white on 
wing; larger; wing^ 3*56 to 3*75; bill 

at front, 0'5 to 3*53 ... ... leucapgii. 

B. Black of head joined to black of breast, no white streak 
down sides of neck. 
6. Back always grey ; less white on wing ; 
smaller ; wing, 3*45 to 3*7 ; bill at 
front, 0*45 to 0*5 ... ... persanata. 

6. Back black in summer, often partly black 
in winter ; larger amount of white on 
wing ; larger ; wing, 353 to 3*9 ; bill at 
front, 0*52 to 056 ... ... hodgsonu 

I have given the above table, not with the intention of ia- 
structing others, but rather to enable anv one to judge whether 
I have correctly identified the species I obtained in Nepal. 

MataeUla amurensis, I only know from the description and 
plate given by Mr. Seebobm (/&m, 1878, pp. 345-346); it has 
not been found in India, and is merely included because it pairs 
80 well with ocularU in tbe same way that leucopsis does with 
alba, and hodgsoni with personata. The dimensions of amurenais 
are not given ; nor is it stated whether it has the back grey in 
winter ; but this is probable, I imagine. 

Winter examples, or young birds, of hodffsoni not showing 
any black on the back can only be distinguished from personaUjL 
by the greater amount of white on the wing, by the conspicu- 
ously larger bill, and generally by the larger size. 

590.— Motacilla leucopsis, Oould. 

Three maUs^ September^ November^ December. — Length, 7*8 
to 8*1 ; expanse, 11*1 to 11*75 ; wing, 3*73 to 3*75 ; tail, 385 
to 4-2 ; tarsus, 0*9 to 0*95 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*73 ; bill at 
front, 0*5 to 0*53 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*3 to 2*4. 

Grown to nape black ; a broad black gorget ; chin, throat, 
and an irregular band down sides of neck, pure white. 

Two females^ September and December. — Length, 7*4 and 7*7 ; 
expanse, 11 and 11*3; wing, 3*55 and 3*62; tail, 3*6 and 

* Inclading dukkunenttB, Whether this ehould be retained as distiDCt is again a 
natter of opinioiu— Ed. 



314 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 

3*8 ; tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 0*7 and 0*75 ; bill at front, 
0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*05 to 2*2. 

The black goiget is narrow ; otherwise as in the males. 

Ttoo young birdSf September. — Length, 7 and 7'3 ; expanse, 
10-5 and 10*7; wing, 3-3 and 8*45; tail, 3*2 and 3*6; 
tarsus, 0*9 ; bill from gape, 0*69 and 0*7 ; bill at front, 0*45 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 1*95 and 2*0. 

No black on head or nape ; black gorget yery narrow ; other- 
wise as in adults. 

The White-faced Wagtail is common in the valley of Nepal 
in winter, and the whole way down from the Talley to the 
plains. It arrives in the valley in the beginning of September 
and departs towards the end of April. 

It seems to be generally admitted that the title of luzaniensis 
cannot stand for this species, and, on the other hand, Gould's 
name of leueopsis is certainly applicable to it. Mr. Hodgson's 
name of (Moide$ should not be used, I think, Because it seems 
impossible to make out from his plates the exact species to which 
he applied that term ; indeed, he probably did not distinguish 
the four distinct species of Motacilla which occur in the 
valley. 

Mr. Brooks (S. F., YII., p. 140) doubts whether leueapriM 
would be found in the Nepal Valley in winter ; but there can 
be no question as to the identification of my birds, and I sub* 
mit that the fact of a species migrating *' far south, even to 
the islands of the Indian seas," is no proof that some of its mem- 
bers do not winter in the Nepal Valley* 

591 ditf.— Motacilla alba, Lin. 

Two males J November and February. — Length, 7*35 and 7*6 ; 
expanse, 10*9 and 11*1 ; wing, 3*5 and 3*6 ; tail, 3*75 and 3*8 ; 
tarsus, 0-9 ; bill from gape, 0*66 ; bill at front, 0*45 and 0*46 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 2*25. 

In the specimen shot in November there is black gorget 
only ; in the February bird the black spreads up the throat. 

Jhive femaleSy November, February, March and May. — Length, 
7*4 to 7-6 ; expanse, 10*3 to 11 ; wing, 3*3 to 3*55 ; tail, 3*7 to 
3*8 ; tarsus, 0*8 to 0*9 ; bill from gape, 0*63 to 0*65 ; bill at 
front, 0-4 to 0*45 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*25 to 2*45. 

In all these specimens there is a white band down the sides of 
the neck. The bird obtained in November has a broadish black 
gorget ; the February examples have the gorget crescent-shap- 
ed ; the two horns of the black crescent spreading up the sides 
of the throat, but th^re is no black line below the eye, or so- 
called moustache. The March bird has the black higher up on 
the throat ; and the specimen shot on the 7th May has the 



A OONTBIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF MBFAL. 315 

wbole tliroat and chin black, a small spot or two of white 
only being visible on the latter region. 

Immature examples of lettcapsis are not easily distinguished 
from birds of this species in winter garb ; the only point thafe 
is then available for separating them is, as pointed out by Mr. 
Brooks, the superior amount of white on the wing of leucopsisi 

I have called my birds Ma and not dukAunensia, be- 
cause the general opinion (Hume, Dresser, Blanford, Seebohm) 
seems to be that there is no specific difference between the two 
forms ; moreover, my specimens exhibit very little white on the 
wing, and I have lately seen a young specimen, shot withia 
Indian limits, with the forehead, sides of neck, and throat 
strongly tinged with pale yellow — ^a point considered by Mr. 
Brooks to be distinctive of alba. 

This Wagtail is common in the valley of Nepal from October 
to nearly the middle of May. 

591 9t<a<.— Motacilla ocularis, Smnh. 

1 Female^ Valley ^ 7lh May. — Length, 7*6; expanse, 11; 
wing, 8*5 ; tail, 3*65 ; tarsus, 0*95 ; bill from gape, 0*67 ; bill 
at front, 0*44 ; closed wings short of 'tail, 2*25. 

Back pure grey ; a black patch on the hind head, and from 
the centre of this a black line passes across the ear-coverts 
through the eye to the base of the bill ; a black patch on the 
throat and breast ; the point of the chin white. 

Only one specimen of this Wagtail was obtained in the val- 
ley of Nepal in May, when it was probably passing through 
on the way to its breeding haunts. I have compared it with 
specimens of ocularis in Mr. Hume^s museum, and there can 
he no doubt that it must be referred to that species. As 
this is last of the Motacillaa which I have to notice, I may 
mention that no Wagtail of any kind is ever seen in the 
Nepal Valley from the middle of May to the beginning of 
September. 

592. — Galobates melanope, Pall. 

Four males, OetobeTy November and December. — Length, 7*0 
to 7-53 ; expanse, 10 to lOS ; wing, 8-23 to 335 ; tail, 373 to 
8-9 ; tarsus, Q-75 to 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*68 to 0*74; bill at 
front, 0*4 to 0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*2 to 2*35. 

Three femalesj September, November and May, — Length, 7*2 
to 7*8 ; expanse, 9*6 to 9*8 ; wing, 31 to 815 ; tail, 3*6 to 8*9 ; 
tarsus, 0-75 to 08 ; bill from gape, 063 to 0*7 ; bill at fronts 
0-46 to 0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 215 to 2*5. 

Bill dusky ; grey horny at base of lower mandible ; irides 
brown or dark brown ; feet fleshy brown. 



316 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE OBNITHOLOOT OF NXPAL. 

A specimen shot in the valley on the 18th April had the 
head slaty grey ; a narrow saperciliuDiy and a conspicuoaft 
jnandibnlar stripe pare white ; chin and throat black ; the 
feathers slightly margined with whitish ; UQderparts fall bright 
yellow. 

• This species is common in the valley of Nepal from the 
beginning of September to the end of April. It was also 
nameroas in winter in the Nawakot district, and along the 
conrse of the Markhn river. 

It is nsaally foand about the skirts of forests, near tanks and 
marshy ground, and along the stony banks of the streams ; 
it often perches on trees. 

594.— Budytes calcaratus, Eodgs. 

A Tellow-headed Wagtail was observed in the plains of 



bat it cannot be at all common. 

596.— Pipastes maculatuSi Eodgs. 

Eleven specimene, October to April, — Length, 6'13 to 6*6 ; 
expanse, 10 to 10*8 ; wing, 3*2 to 3*5 ; tail, 2*45 to 28 ; tarsas, 
0-75 lo 0'85 ; bill from gapo, 0*64 to 0-65 ; bill at front, 0-42 to 
0*46 ; closed wings short of tail, I'O to 1*5. 

Upper mandible black ; the lower livid at tip, pale fleshy at 
base ; irides dark brown ; feet pale reddish fleshy. 

The striations on the back vary a good deal in intensity, bat 
all the specimens are typical mcmulaCus, and cannot be mis* 
taken for trivialis. 

This species is very common in winter in the great valley, 
the Nawakot district, and the Chitlang and Markbu Valleys. 
It arrives in the Nepal Valley in October and migrates aboat 
the third week in April. There is little to be added to Dr. 
Jerdon^s excellent account of its habits. It often rans very 
easily and gracefully along the horizontal branches of trees 
in which it has sought refuge, and it always moves its tail np 
and down when it first perches. The note of alarm is a some^ 
what flat ^^pHUj pHU. I shot a solitary bird of this species on 
open stony ground in the Chitlang Valley. 

599.— Corydalla richardi, VieilL 

FemaUf Valley, 3rd March. — Length, 7'S ; expanse, 12*5 ; 
wing, 3*85 ; tail, 3*3 ; tarsas, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 0-85 ; bill at 
front, 0*6 ; hind toe, 0*5 ; hind claw, U '6 ; closed wings short 
of tail, 1*8 ; weight, I^25ozs. 



▲ CONTRlBUTIOlf TO THE ORNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 317 

Upper mandible black ; lower mandible fleshy, its base and 
the gape yellow ; irides dark brown ; feet reddish fleshy ; claws 
homy brown. 

This large Pipit is found in the valley of Nepal only in winter, 
and even then is decidedly rare. It frequents bare ground 
and fields of growing com, and is always wary and difficult of 
approach. 

600.— Gorydalla nifula, Vieill. 

Fifteen maiee. — Length, 6*1 to 6*75 ; expanse, 10*1 to ll'l ; 
wing, 81 to 3-45 ; tail, 235 to 2-76 ; tarsus, 09 to l\ ; bill 
from gape, 0*7 to 0*8 ; bill at front, 0*5 to 0*57 ; closed winga 
fihort of tail, 1*3 to 1*45 ; hind claw, 0*45 to 0*53. 

Seven females. — Length, 6*1 to 6*25 ; expanse, 9*6 to 10*8; 
wing, 3-1 to 3-2 ; tail, 2-3 to 2 6 ; tarsus, 095 to M ; bill from 
gape, 0-67 to 0*75 ; bill at front, 0*49 to 0*56 ; closed winga 
short of tail, 1*3 to 1*45 ; hind claw, 0*4 to 0*46. 

Bill blackish brown or dusky above and at tip ; base of lower 
mandible fleshy or homy yellow ; irides dark brown ; feet 
brownish, yellowish or huffy fleshy ; claws brown homy. 

Winter examples have the feathers above more broadly 
edged with rufous buff; and specimens obtained in June are a 
good deal darker above and less fulvous underneath than birds 
obtained in other months. 

The Indian Titlark is exceedingly common in the valley of 
Nepal throughout the year; it is also common in winter in 
the Nawakot district and the Markhu Valley. In the Nepal 
Valley the breeding season seems to extend from March to 
June. I obtained a fully-fledged nestling on the 4th June, 
and on the 5th of the same month I got a nest containing three 
hard-set eggs. 

605 &i9.-*Anthus rosaceus, Modgs. 

Four epecimene, December^ February and March. — Length, 6*4 
to 6*8 ; expanse, 10*6 to 11*1 ; wing, 3*4 to 3*6 ; tail, 2*6 to 
2-85 ; tarsus, 0*83 to 0*9; bill from gape, 0*66 to 0*7 ; bill at 
front, 0*47 to 0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*1 to 1*4 ; hind- 
toe and claw, 0*76 to 0*84. 

Bill dusky, blackish on culmen, and fleshy brown at base of 
lower mandible ; irides dark brown ; feet brownish fleshy ; clawa 
dusky. 

In these specimens the axillaries and the edge of the wing 
at the bend are bright yellow ; the chin is unspotted ; and the 
throat and breast show strong black longitudinal stripes. 

This Pipit is fairly common in the Nepal and Ghitlang 
Valleys, in winter ; it arrives in October and leaves about the 



318 A OOKTBIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 

end of March. It was found on grassy slopes, wet fields, and 
occasionally in fields of growing corn, and was always solitary. 

606.— Heterora sylvana, Eodgs. 

Pour males. — Length, 7*05 to 7*4; expanse, 9*8 to lO'S ; 
wing, 308 to 3-15 ; tail, 2*9 to 31 ; tarsas, 0*9 to 0*95 ; bill 
from gape, 0*78 to Q'8 ; bill at front, 0*53 to 0*55 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*75 to 2*1. 

Four females. — Length, 6*9 to 7*1 ; expanse, 9*4 to 9*8 ; 
wing, 2*95 to 305 ; tail, 285 to 30 ; tarsus, 0*87 to 0*95 ,* bill 
from gape, 0*7 to 0*8 ; bill at front, 0*52 to 0*56 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*85 to 1*95. 

Bill horny black or dusky above and at tip ; the middle of the 
lower mandible pinkish horny, and its base horny yellow ; gape 
fleshy yellow; irides brown ; feet pale fleshy ; the toes darker ; 
claws brown horny. 

The Upland Pipit is a permanent resident on the hills round 
the valley of Nepal, but never seems to descend to the 
central part of the valley. It is usually found on grassy slopes 
at an elevation of about 6,000 feet. 

609.— Ptenifhius erythropteras, Vig. 

Male, Valley^ Jun^.— -Length, 6*7; expanse, 10*4; wing, 
S'25 ; tail, 2*5 ; tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 0*85 ; bill at front| 
0*53; closed wings short of tail, 1*35. 

Upper mandible black ; the basal half of its margin blue grey ; 
lower mandible bluish grey at tip, leaden blue at base ; irides 
greyish brown ; feet pale pinkish fleshy ; claws brown homy. 
The tertiaries are wholly chestnut red on both webs, and are 
Jiot black tipped as stated by Jerdon. 

There is a aistinct pink tinge on the lower abdomen, and the 
breast is washed with grey. 

This species was only found in the Sheopuri Forest, at an 
elevation of about 7,000 feet in June. It frequented the smaller 
barish branches of the oak trees, pretty high up, and asso- 
ciated in small parties. 

615.*— Mesia argentauriSy Hodgs. 

Two matesy Nimboatar, December. — Length, 6*8 and 7*0 ; ex- 
panse, 9 and 9*1; wing, 2*97 and 303; tail, 2*85 and 2*9: 
tarsus, 0*95 and 1*0 ; bill from gape, 0*75 and 0*76 ; bill at 
front, 0*64 and 0*55; closed wings short of tail, 1*55 and 1*65. 

Bill ochre yellow, slightly greenish at the base ; irides dark 
or reddish brown ; feet yellow fleshy ; claws buff horny. 

This Hill Tit was very plentiful in winter from Nimboatar to 
Hetoura. It frequented the bushes by the road side, in flocks, 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THR OhNITHOLOGT OF NRPAL. 319 

and was very active and lively. The birds bave a chattering 
notei and when disturbed they follow one another, in single file^ 
from bnsh to bush. 

616.— Siva strigula, Hodgs. 

Seven malee. — Length, 6*1 to 6*2 ; expanse, 8*3 to 8'4 ; wing, 
2-7 to 2-75; tail, 28 to 295 ; tarsus, 095 to 10; bill from 
gape, 0*65 to 0*68 ; bill at front, 0*4 to 0*42 ; closed wings short 
of tail, 1-7 to 1*75. 

Six females, — Length, 5*9 to 6*0; expanse, 7'65 to 8*1 ; 
wing, 2-55 to 2*65 ; tail, 2*6 to 2*8; tarsus, 0*9 to 10 ; bill 
from gape, 0*55 to 0*65 ; bill at front, 0*38 to 0*42; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*6 to 1-8. 

Upper mandible dusky or blackish ; lower mandible grey 
horny ; irides brownish red ; feet dull grey or greyish plum- 
beous ; claws brown horny. 

The chestnut on the base of the uropygials extends down to 
within 1*0 lo 1*4 of the tips of the feathers. The female is 
smaller than the male, and has the colours rather more dull. 

These specimens have the colors deeper and brighter than 
examples from Simla. I cannot understand why Dr. Jerdou 
considered that this species and the next had a '^ Parian bilF' with 
the '' tip entire ;'' atrigula has the tip of the upper mandible 
distinctly notched, produced and bent over the tip of the lower. 

This Hill-Tit is a permanent resident on the hills round the 
Nepal Valley, at elevations of from 6,000 to 7,500 feet. It is 
very common in the Sheopuri Forest, frequenting moderate- 
sized trees, and tree-bushes, in small parties. lu winter it often 
feeds on berries. 

617.— Siva qranouroptera, Hodgs. 

MaUy Valley, /i«fy.— Length, 6*0; wing, 2*6; tail, 2*8; 
tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*7 ; bill at front, 0*55 ; closed 
wings short of tail^ 2*0. 

Bill grey horny ; brownish about the nostrils, and the base 
of the lower mandible yellow ; irides brown ; feet fleshy ; 
claws horny brown. The tip of the upper mandible is strongly 
notched. Winglet tipped white ; upper 7)arts tinged rusty ; lower 
surface pale drab, albescent on the middle of the abdomen. 

The Blue-winged Hill-Tit appears to be rare in the valley 
of Nepal. The only specimen secured was obtained on the 
hills bounding the valley to the north. 

618.— Minla ignotincta, Hodgs. 

Tu)o mzleSf Vallei/j May. — Length, 5*2 and 5*3; expanse, 
2*35 and 2 6 ; tiil, 2*3 and 2*4 ; tarsus, 0*7 and 0*8 ; bill from 

41 



320 A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 

gape, 0-55 and 0*62 ; bill at fronts 0*36 and 0*43 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1-25 to 1-6. 

Upper mandible black ; lower mandible bluish grey, yellow- 
ish at base ; gpape greenish yellow ; irides pale yellow and 
yellowish white ; feet dingy greenish yellow ; claws yellow 
horny. The mantle is dall maroon ; the primaries are mar- 
gined with crimson on their basal thirds, the distal two- 
thirds being margined yellow, and they are not tipped with 
crimson ; the chin and throat are white, the rest of the nnder 
parts being dull yellow. 

These specimens are identical with Darjeeling examples in 
Mr. Hume's Museum. 

This species is fairly common in the Sheopuri Forest in 
summer, at an elevation of about 6,500 feet ; and it certainly 
breeds there. 

619.— Minla castaneiceps, Bodgs. 

Three malesy May and June. — Length, 4'2 to 4*5 ; expanse, 
6-9 to 7-1 ; wing, 2*2 to 24 ; tail, 1-7 to 1-9 ; tarsus, 0-75 to 
0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*55 to 0*6 ; bill at front, 36 to 0*4 ; 
dosed wings short of tail, 0*7 to 0*8. 

Two females, May, — Length, 4'2 and 4*5 ; expanse, 6*7 and 
7-1; wing, 2*2 and 2*34; tail, 1*65 and 1*8 ; tarsus, 0*75 and 
0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*54 and 0*55 : bill at front, 0*35 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*75 and 0*85. 

Upper mandible dusky ; the lower livid, yellow at base; 
irides crimson (in one bird dark brownish red) ; gape yellow; 
feet dingy greenish yellow ; claws yellowish homy. The quills 
black, the first and second primaries narrowly margined on the 
outer web with white ; chin and throat yellowish ; the abdomen 
with an olivaceous tinge. Identical with Darjeeling specimens. 

This pretty little bird is common in summer on the hills 
round the Nepal Valley at the same elevation as ignoiincia. 
It was common in the Sheopuri Forest, frequenting tree-bushes 
in company with M. ignotinctay Yuhina gulans^ Sylviparus 
modestusy &c. None of the Hill-Tits were ever noticed in the 
central part of the valley. 

623.— Izolus flavicollis, Hodgs. 

Seven males. — Length, 5*1 to 5*4; expanse, 7*5 to 8*2 ; wing, 
2*43 to 2*6; tail, 2 to 2*25; tarsus, 0*75 to 0*8; bill from 
gape, 0*56 to 0*62; bill at front, 0*38 to 0*45; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*0 to 1*3. 

Four females, — Length, 4*8 to 5*2; expanse, 7*5 to 7*9; 
wing, 2-4 to 2*53 ; tail, 2 to 2*1 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*8 ; bill from 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 321 

gape, 0*56 to 0*6 ; bill at front, 0*3 to 0*45 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*1 to 1*2. 

Upper mandible brownish black; lower mandible fleshy 
brown, greyish horny at base ; irides light to dark brown, some- 
times reddish brown ; feet fleshy bnff ; claws pale brown horny. 
The sexes hardly difl^r in colour. The upper surface is tinged 
with olive ; the moustache is darker in the breeding season 
(being then nearly black) than in winter ; the lores are dark 
'brown ; and there is a conspicuous ring of white feathers 
round the eye ; the flanks are pale olivaceous streaked with 
white. 

The Yellow-naped Flowerpecker is common, and a perma- 
nent resident, on the hills round the Talley of Nepal ; it is also 
tolerably common in the upper part of the Chitlang Valley in 
winter. It is found at an elevation of not more than 5,000 feet 
in winter, but in summer it is only met with at elevations of 
from 7,000 to 8,000 feet ; it does not occur in the central part 
of the Great Valley. 

626— Ynhina gularis, Hodgs. 

Five females. — Length, 5*65 to 6*15 ; expanse^ 8*9 to 9 ; 
wing, 2*8 to 3*05 ; tail, 2*2 to 2*45 ; tarsus, 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill 
from gape, 0*73 to 0-78; bill at front, 05 to 0*55; closed 
wings short of tail, 1 to 1*3. 

Seven females. — Length, 5*65 to 6*0 ; expanse, 8*2 to 8*8 ; 
wing, 2-7 to 2-9; tail, 2*2 to 2*4 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*75 ; 
bill at fronts 0*5 to 0'55 ; closed wings short of tail, 10 to 1*35. 

Upper mandible black ; lower mandible horny brown ; 
irides brown or dark brown ; feet deep buff or orange ; claws 
dusky. The colour of the throat varies a good deal, but there 
is no appreciable difference in colour between the sexes. 

This Flowerpecker is a permanent resident on the hills 
round the Nepal Valley at elevations of from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. 
It is very common in the Sheopuri Forest at all seasons^ 
associating in flocks, and frequenting bushes and the lower 
branches of trees ; it is not at all shy, keeps up a continual 
twitter as it moves about, and often clings to moss-covered 
branches. It feeds on berries in winter, and often associates 
with Ytthina occipitalis. 

627.— Yuhina occipitalis, Hodgs. 

Four maleSf February, — Length, 5*1 to 5*2; expanse, 7*7 to 
7*8 ; wing, 2*5 to 2*54 ; tail, 2-0 to 2*25 ; tareus, 07 to 0*75 ; bill 
from gape, 0*67 to 0*7 ; bill at front, 0*5 to 0*53 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0'9 to 1*25. 



322 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 

Two femalee, fehruary and June. — Length, 5-0 and 5*15 ; 
expanse^ 7*3 and 7*5 ; wing>, 2*4 and 2*45 ; tail, 1*95 and 2*0; 
tarsasy 0*7 and 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*68 and 0*7 ; bill at front, 
0*5 and 0*52; closed win^ short of tail, 0*8 and 1*0. 

Bill reddish brown ; irides deep brown ; feet orange bafi ; 
claws horny brown. There is a marked white ring round the 
eye, and the black mandibular stripe is always distinct. 

The remarks made under the head of Y, gularis apply, 
mutatia mtUandUy to this species ; it occupies, however, a rather 
higher zone, and has a distinct and more pleasant note. 

631.— Zosteropspsilpebrosa) Tern. 

Sixteen epecimensy Valley. — Length, 3*9 to 4*5 ; expanse, 8*3 
to 7-0 ; wing, 2 to 2*2 ; tail, 1*4 to 1*75 ; tarsus, 56 to 0*65 ; 
bill from gape, 0-5 to 0*57; bill at front, 0*35 to 0*46; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*65 to 1*1. 

Bill black, base of lower mandible bluish grey ; irides yel- 
lowish hazel ; feet dark plumbeous ; claws brownish homy. All 
these specimens are typical palpebrosa ; Z. aimpUxj Swinhoe, 
is a smaller bird, and more green on the upper parts. Mr. BIad- 
ford gives the following dimensions of examples of rimplex 
fromSikim: Wing, 1-95 ; tail, 1*33 to 1*45; tarsus, 0*6 to 
0*62; bill from forehead, 035 to 0*37. 

The White-eyed Tit is exceedingly common in the valley of 
Nepal throughout the year. It is found in gardens, groves and 
all the central woods, but never ascends the hills. It breeds in the 
valley from April to June. I secured fully-fledged nestlings 
on the Srd May, and took a nest containing two fresh eggs on 
the 28th of the same month. 

632.— Sylviparas modestus^ Burt 

Five specimensy February — June. — Length, 3*4 to 3'85 ; ex- 
panse, 64 to 7*5 ; wing, 2*15 to 2*4; tail, 1*3 to 1*5; tarsus, 
0-6 to 0-67; bill from gape, 032 to 0*42 ; bill at front, 0*28 to 
0*25 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*25 to 0*45. 

Bill plumbeous, darker above and at tip ; irides dark bxowo; 
feet dark plumbeous ; claws leaden horny. 

This Tit is fairly common on the hills round the valley at 
elevations of from 6,000 to 8,000 feet. In the Sheopuri Torest 
it is often seen in parties, hunting in tree bushes and small 
trees. 

634.— .Sgithaliscas ersrthrocephalus, Vig. 

Male, May. — Length, 4*1; expanse, 6*1; wing, 2*03 ; t*i'> 
2*0; tarsus, 0*7; bill from gape, 0*37; bill at front, 0*23; 
closed wings short^of tail, 1*2. 



A OONTBIBCJTION TO TQE ORNITHOLOQT OF NftPAL. 323 

Three femalee^ Afay.— -Length, 3*9 to 4; expaoRe, 6*0 to 6*1 ; 
wingr, 1-95 to 1-98; tail, 18 to 205; tarsus, 065 to 066; 
bill from gape, 35 to 0*86 ; bill at front, 23 to 0*25 ; closed 
win^ short of tail, 0*9 to 1*15. 

Bill black; gape fleshy; irides pale jellow or yellowish 
oreamy ; feet bafiy yellow ; claws livid. 

The Red- headed Tit was tolerably common in the Sheopari 
Forest in May, at an elevation of about 7,000 feet It was then 
found in pairs frequenting small trees and bushes. It does 
not occur in the central part of the Nepal Valley. 

644.— Paras monticolus, f^ig. 

Eight maLa, — Length, 5 to 5*2 ; expanse, 8*25 to 8*6 ; wing, 
2-6 to 2-73 ; tail, 2*3 to 2*4 ; tarsus, 0*7 to 0*75 ; bill from 
gape, 0*47 to 0*54; bill at front, 0'S4toO'4; closed wings 
short of tail, 1 to 1*1. 

Six females. — Length, 4*65 to 5*05 ; expanse, 7*9 to 8*2 ; 
wing, 2*5 to 2-6; tail, 21 to 2*3 ; tarsus, 0*65 to 0*74; bill 
from gape, 0*45 to 0*5 ; bill at front, 0*33 to 0*4 ; closed wings 
abort of tail, 1 to 11. 

Bill black; irides dark brovm; feet plumbeous; claws 
dusky. 

The rump is always grey, contrasting with the olive green 
back ; the oater web of the outer tail feather is white on the 
distal two-thirds, black at the base. 

This pretty Tit is very common on the hills round the Nepal 
Valley throughout the year, at elevations of from 5,000 to 8,000 
feet; but it never enters the central part of the valley. It is 
also common in the upper part of the Ghitlang Valley in 
winter. 

646.— Paras nipalensis, Hodga. 

? Female^ Demghat^ Nawakot district^ Ifovember. — Length, 
5*5 ; expanse, 8*1 ; wing, 273 ; tail, 2*6 ; tarsus, 0*65 ; bill 
from gape, 0*45 ; bill at front, 0*4 ; closed wings short of tail, 
1*45. 

Bill brownish black, pale at tip ; irides deep brown ; feet 
pale bluish grey ; claws bluish grey horny, dusky at tips. 

The Indian Grey Tit was only met with in Nepal, in the 
Nawakot district, in November. There it was common along 
the valley of the Trisul Ganga, in orchards and small trees by 
the road side. 

647.— Machlolophus xanthogenys, Vig. 

Fifteefi epedmens. — Length, 4*7 to 5*3 ; expanse, 7*9 to 87 ; 
wing, 2-5 to 2*8 ; tail, 1*9 to 2 35 ; tarsus, 06 to 0*7 ; bill 



324 A CONTEIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 

from gape, 045 to 0*5 ; bill at front, 0-83 to 0'43 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*85 to 1*15. 

Bill black ; irides brown to blackish brown ; feet dark bluish 
plumbeous ; claws plumbeous. 

The Yellow-cheeked Tit is a very common and familiar bird 
in ihe Nepal Valley throughout the year. It frequents all the 
woods and gardens in the central part of the valley, where it 
seems to replace monticoluSj and is found at the foot of the hills. 
It is tolerably common in winter in the Ghitlang and Markhn 
Valleys. 

650.— Melanochlora sultanea, Hodgs. 

Male. — Length, 8*2 ; expanse, 13*3 ; wing, 4*5 ; tail, 4*2 ; 
tarsus, 0-86 ; bill from gape, 0'7 ; bill at front, 06 ; closed 
wings short of tail, i'2. 

Female. — Length, 7*5 ; expanse, 12*25 ; wing, 4*2 ; tail, 
3*7 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*68 ; bill at front, 0*56 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 1*75. 

Bill black ; irides dark brown ; feet plumbeous ; claws 
dusky. 

This fine Tit was fairly common in December, in the bushes 
and trees by the road side, from Nimboatar to Hetoura. 

660.— Corvus culminatus, Sykes. 

Four males. — Length, 18*7 to 19 ; expanse, 3*4 to 3*7 ; wing, 
11*5 to 12*7 ; tail, 7 to 7*4 ; tarsus, 1*9 to 2*13 ; bUl from 
gape, 2*3 to 2*45 ; bill at front, 2*15 to 2*35 ; nostril to tip of 
bill, 1*64 and 1*65 ; depth of closed bill at nostril, 0*8 to 0*9 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 1 to 1*75 ; weight, lib. to lib. 5 ozs. 

Two females. — Length, 17*25 and 17*7 ; expanse, 34 ; 
wing, 11 and 11*3 ; tail, 7*15 and 7*2 ; tarsus, 1*9 and 2 ; 
bill from gape, 2*15 and 2*2 ; bill at front, 2*05 and 2*16 ; 
anterior margin of nostril to tip of bill, 1*4; depth of closed 
bill at nostril, 0*8 and 0*84 ; weight (one specimen), 14 ozs. 

All these specimens are adult, with the tail fully grown ; 
the gloss on the feathers is principally purple, and the bill is 
as strong as in examples from the plains of Upper India. 

The Indian Corby is common in the central part of the 
Nepal Valley throughout the year ; it is also common in winter 
in the Nawakot district and the plains of Nepal. It is found 
along the banks of streams, principally in the vicinity of burn- 
ing ghats, and in woods. It is usually found singly or in pairs, 
never congregates to circle high up in the air, after the manner 
of the Black Hill Crow, and its caw is as distinct from that of 
intermedins as it is from the voice of C splendens. It breeds 
in March and April in the central woods of the valley. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 325 

661.— Gorvus intermedins, Adams. 

(1) Jfafe, Valley^ 6,000 feet, -dti^rtw^.— Expanse, 40*5 ; 
wing^, 18-3 ; tarsus, 2*4 ; bill from gape, 2*4 ; bill at front, 
2'32 ; anterior margin of nostril to tip of bill, 1*55 ; depth of 
closed bill at nostril, 0*85 ; closed wiogs short of ta^l, 1*65 ; 
weight, lib. 4oz8. 

(2) Female, Valley, 6,000 feet, -4ti^iw^.— Expanse, 87-5 ; 
wing, 12*4 ; tarsus, 2*1 ; bill from gape, 2*4 ; bill at front, 
2'26 ; closed wings short of tail, 2'0. 

The tail is imperfect, not fully grown. 

(3) Female, 8heopuri, 7,500 feet, June. — Length, 20"4 ; 
expanse, 3825 ; wing, 12*9 ; tail, 90 ; tarsus, 2*1 ; bill from 
gape, 2-3 ; bill at front, 2*25 ; nostril to tip of bill, 1*5 ; depth 
of closed bill at nostril, 0*84 ; closed wings short of tail, S*5 ; 
outer tail feather short of uropygials, 1'9. 

In (1) the tail feathers are not fully grown, but, imperfect 
as it is, the tail measures 8*9, the outer feathers being 1*5 short 
of the central pair ; in (2) the tail is still more imperfect (the 
central feathers have not nearly attained their full length), 
and it measures 8*0 ; (3) has the wings and tail perfect and 
fully grown. The gloss is rather more green than purple, and 
the culraen is somewhat less bowed than in the specimens 1 have 
entered as eulminaius ; the tail, it will be noticed, is consider- 
ably longer than that of culminatua, and this seems to be the 
only tangible point by which shins of the two forms can be 
separated. 

The Black Hill Grow is common on the mountains round the 
valley of Nepal at elevations of froxn 6,000 to 9,000 feet. It 
is generally seen in small parties, and has a regular habit of 
assembling in flocks of fifty or sixty birds, usually in the after- 
noon, and circling round and round in the air near the crest 
of the hills. After pursuing this exercise for some time the flock 
breaks up, and the birds take different directions in twos and 
threes* Its caw is quite different from that of eulminatus, more 
deep and hoarse, recalling the voice of the Raven. I first 
heard of this crow in Nepal from the natives, who told me that 
a black crow was found on the hills, exactly the same as the 
species found in the level parts of the valley, except that its 
voice was different. The breeding season of this bird seems 
to be later than that of culminatus. I shot a female off the 
nest, high up in an oak tree in the Sheopuri Forest, in June, at 
an elevation of over 7,000 feet. 

Mr. Sharpe would, I imagine, assign the name of levaillanii 
to the birds I have called intermedins, the latter title being, 
according to his view, a synonym of culminatus. But Adams' 



326 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NKPAL. 

description of the habits and localities of his Cormu iutermediu$ 
80 obviously ref^r to the long-tailed black Hill-Crow, that I 
doubt whether Mr. Sharpens view can be accepted. If levail^ 
lantiy Lesson, is the oldest name for the Hill-Crow, then inters 
mediiu must be a synonym of levaillanHj and not of eulmin<ihii^ 
the crow of the plains. 

I have not entered intermedins as distinct from culminattu in 
Ignorance of the weighty arguments brought forward by Mr. 
Hume (Lahore to Yarkand, pp. 237-239 ; S. R, IL, pp. 243-4, 
and y.^ pp. 461-469) in support of his view that there is no 
specific difference between the two forms. I am mainly in- 
clined to consider the birds worthy of separation because their 
habits and voice are so different. Mr. Brooks considers that 
the Hill Crow has the tail longer (often by fully one inch) than 
the bird of the plains, and the caw appreciably different. The 
point as to habits and voice is conceded by Mr. Hume, and my 
specimens bear out Mr. Brooks' view as to the length of the 
tail ; but, in face of the long list of careful measurements given 
by Mr. Hume of specimens from hills and plains, it seems im- 

f>08sible to maintain that the hill birds have the tail constantly 
onger. And if no constant diagnostic point can be laid down, 
by which skins of the two supposed forms can be separated, 
it follows clearly, I think, that only one species can bo 
recognized. 

663.— Gorvus splendens, Vieill. 

Three males, — Length, 17*2 to 17'8 , expanse, 34'5 to 35 ; 
wing, 11-7 to 11-75 ; tail, 7-3 to 75 ; tarsus, 1-78 to 1-8 ; bill 
from gape, 2*05 to 2*1 ; bill at frontj 1*93 to 1*95 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*4 to 1*7. 

Three females. — Length, 17 to 17*5 ; expanse, 82 to 33; wing, 
10*8 to 11 ; tail, 7 to 7*3 ; bill from gape, 1 95 to 2*0 ; bill at 
front, 1*84 to 1*9 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*5 to 2*2. 

This Crow is exceedingly common in the Nepal Valley, the 
Nawakot district, the Hetoura Diin, Bichiakoh, and the plains 
of Nepal. It is one of the most common birds in the valley 
throughout the year, and indeed occurs in such numbers there 
as to be quite a pest. It is found all over the central part of the 
yalley, but never ascends the bills. Its habits have been so 
exhaustively described that nothing further need be said on that 
head ; but I may note that I have, on several occasions, seen it 
capture and eat nestlings of Passer montanus. In the valley 
it lays in May and June ; some twenty nests were once 
examined on the 23rd June, and half the number then contained 
young birds. 



A CONTBIBXrriON TO THX OBKITHOLOOY OF NEPAB. 887 

609.— -Ghumlas bispeonlaris, Vig. 

MaUj May. — Length, 12*5 ; expanse^ 19*5 ; wing, 6*4 ; 
tail, 5*8 ; tarsus, 1-4 ; bill from gape, 1'25 ; bill at front, 0*92 ; 
dosed wings short of tail, 2*7. 

Female, Hay. — Length, 12*25 ; expanse, 19 ; wing, 6*3 ; 
.tail, 5*5; tarsus, 1-4 ; bill from gi^, 1*25 ; bill at front, 0*95 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 2*35. 

Bill dusky or blackish horny ; margin of eyelids dull briok 
red ; irides brown and reddish brown ; feet pale pinkish fleshy ; 
claws lirid. 

Dr. Jerdon does not mention the fine maroon patch on the inner 
part of the wing in this species. 

I only found this handsome Jay in the Sheopuri Forest, in 
May and June, at an elevation of about 7,000 feet It was 
found singly or in pairs feeding amidst dense bushes near the 
path, and, on being disturbed, it flew up into the nearest tree ; 
it was not common. 

671.— Uroeissa occipitalis, Bly. 

Four maleey May — Jtdy. — Length, 26 to 28 ; expanse, 24 to 
25*5; wing, 7*9 to 8*3 ; tail, 17*8 to 19*1 ; tarsus, 1-8 to 2 ; 
bill from gape, 1*65 to 1*7 ; bill at front, 1*45 to 1*5 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 14 to 15*8. 

TAree females, May-^July. — ^Length, 25-8 to 26 ; expanse, 28 
to 24; wing, 7*7 to 7*8 ; tail, 17 to 18; tarsus, 1*7 to 2 ; bill 
from gape, 1*65 to 1*7 ; bill at front, 1*4 to 1*46 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 14 to 14*6. 

Bill coral red, orange at tip; orbital skin fleshy yellow ; irides 
brown in three specimens, in the others not noted ; feet bright 
orange red, or coral red. 

Three young birds, July, August and October. ^liengi\ 20*3 
to 20*7; expanse, 23 to 24 ; wing, 7*4 to 78; tail, U*8 to 12 ; 
tarsus, 1*6 to 1*9; bill from gape, 1*63 and 1*66 ; bill at front^ 
1'34 and 1*4; closed wings short of tail, 8*2 to 9*0. 

Bill yellow along culmen and at tip, the rest livid, or dusky 
in parts ; irides brown ; feet orange ; claws dusky. 

I have compared these birds with a large series of oeeipitaUs^ 
and with a few specimens of so-called niagnirostris from 
Bnrmah, in Mr. Hume's museum, after reading all that has 
been written about the latter form. Certainly if magnirostria 
be distinct, some of my specimens would have to be referred to 
it; but 1 venture to think that magnirostris may be safely 
and profitebly considered a synonym of oecipitalis. The only 
supposed coDstent differences by which the Burmese race could 
be separated from the Himalayan, have been narrowed down 

42 



'328 A. OONTRIBUTION TO THE OBKITHOLOOT OF NEPAL* 

to tbe colour of the bill, feet and irides (cf. S. F.^ VI., p. 385.) 
A reference to my notes above will, I believe, show that even 
as to the colours of the soft parts no such constant difference 
exists Of course, it is impossible to make certain that different 
observers will note the colours of a bird in precisely the same 
words ; but I can say that at least three of my Nepal specimens 
have the bill even larger and deeper than in specimens from 
Burmah ; while the colour of the bill and feet, in the dry state, is 
as deep red as the finest Burmese birds. 

The Red-billed Blue Magpie is tolerably common in the valley 
of Nepal throughout the year, at elevations of from 4,500 to 
7,000 feet. It is usually found in the woods and forests, particu- 
larly about cleared spaces in the latter, away from human habi- 
tations ; but it is frequently seen close to hamlets and cowsheds, 
and on one occasion I found it breeding within a few yards 
of some houses on the hills. Its cry is very peculiar, a note 
singularly high and squeaking for such a bird. 

672.— Urocissa flavirostris, Bly. 

Male^ Valley, July, — Length, 24; expanse, 22; wing, 7*3; 
tail, 16*2 ; tarsus, 1*9 ; bill from gape, 1*66 ; bill at front, 1*4 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 1^*8 ; weight, 5*5 ozs. 

Female, Valley, Jnwc— -Wing, 7*1 ; tarsus, i'7 ; bill from 
gape, 1*6 ; bill at front, 1*4. 

Bill pale waxy yellow ; irides (in male only) bright yellow ; feet 
bright orange yellow. 

This species is not included in the first edition (1846) of the 
B. M. Catalogue of Mr. Hodgson's collections; it is entered 
in the second edition (1863), but the locality from which it was 
obtained is not stated. 

The Yellow-billed Blue Magpie is found on the hills rouQ(| 
the Nepal Valley, and in the Nawakot district, but does not 
appear to be at all common. A species of Urocisea is fairly 
common about Bichiakoh, but whether it is flamrostris or 
oeeipiialia I cannot say, as no specimens wore secured. 

674.— Dendrocitta nifa, Scop. 

MaUj near HeCoura, Becewber. — Length, 16*6 ; expanse, 
19*4; wing, 6*55; tail, 9*5; tarsus, 1*25; bill from gape, 
1'35 ; bill at front, 1*02 ; closed wings short of tail, 7*0. 

Bill black, bluish grey horny at base ; irides dark brownish 
red ; feet dusky. Rump decidedly paler than the upper back ; 
outer webs of secondaries ashy grey, darker than the coverts, 
with which they contrast markedly ; uropygials black at tip, 
a pale greyish band above this, and the rest of the feathers 
ashy grey ; lateral tail tlBathers with a broad aubterrninal black 
band, conspicuously tipped with fulvot^s. 



A OONTBIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF NEPAli. 329 

This species was fairly common in winter in the forests from 
Hetonra to Bichiakoh ; and in the plains of Nepal abont mangoe 
topes and Pipal trees. 

676.-^Dendrocitta himaJayensis, Bly. 

Ten males. — Length, 15 to 16*5; expanse, 16'6 to 17*6; 
wing, 5-3 to 5-75 ; tail, 8-6 to 95 ; tarsus, 1*05 to 1*2; bill from 
gape, 1*25 to 1*4 ; bill at front, 1*05 to 1*25 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 6-4 to 7-8. 

Seven femaUe. — Length, 14 to 15*6; expanse, 16*5 to 17; 
wing, 5-3 to 5-5 ; tail, 7*1 to 8'8 ; tarsus, 1-03 to 1*2 ; bill from 
gape, 1*2 to 1*3 ; bill at front, 1*05 to 1*2; closed wings short 
of tail, 5-1 to 7. 

Bill black ; irides reddish brown ; feet brownish black, in 
young birds leaden bljtck ; claws dusky. 

The Himalayan Tree-pie is very common in the valley of 
Nepal and about Pharphing throuq^hout the year; and it is 
common in winter in the Nawakot district, the Markhu Valley, 
and from Bhimphedi to Hetonra, but not lower down. In the 
valley it is common in the open forest at the foot of the hill, 
not ascending much higher than about 6,000 feet, and in the 
central woods. It has a number of notes, and one cry very 
commonly heard may be syllablized into KokU, ko — ko-^ko ; I 
never happened to see it feeding on the ground, but often found 
it in small bushes. 

681.---Stiinms vulgaris, I»in. 

Female^ Plains^ December. — Length, 8*7 ; expanse, 15*3 ; wing, 
5*1; tail, 2'65 ; bill from gape, 1*35 ; bill at front, 1*0 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*56. 

Bill dusky, pale homy along the margins ; irides dark brown ; 
feet dark reddish brown. 

The Common Starling was only found in small nnmbers in 
the plains of Nepal, in winter. It frequented stubbie fields in 
company with Acridothtree and Sturnopaetor. 

683.— Sturnopastor contra^ Lin. 

Mode, Plains, December, — Length, 6*4 ; expanse, 15 ; wing, 
4*7 ; tail, 2*9 ; tarsus, 1*3 ; bill from gape, 1*45 ; bill at front, 
1*17; dosed wings short of tail, 1*35. 

Bill yellowish horny, red at base ; orbital skin orange-red ; 
irides yellow ; feet yellowish fleshy ; claws dusky. Under tail- 
coverts ashy, and ear patch sullied white. 

The Pied Pastor is fairly common about houses in the 
Hetonra Dun ; and is very common in the Terai and plaios 



330 .▲ OONTBIBinPION TO THK ORNISHCHiOaT OP NKPAIi. 

of Nepalf in winter. It was generally Been in pairs^ about fieidsi 
roads and grassy plots, associated with Maiaaa and Starlings. 

681— Acridotheres tristis, Lin. 

Three moZe^.— Length, 103 to 10-6; expanse, 18 to 19; 
wing, 5-8 to 6-9 ; tail, 3-5 to 3*8 ; tarsus, 1-45 to 1*6; bill from 
gape, 1*25 to 1*3; bill at front, 0*85. 

Four femalee. — Length, 9*7 to 10; expanse, 16*7 to 17*2; 
wing, 6*3 to 5-65; tail, 3*1 to 3*5; tarsos, 1*45 to 1*5 ; bill 
from gape, 1*2 to 1*23 ; bill at front, 0*76 to 0*8 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*25 to 1*6. 

Bill yellow, blnish or greenish at base ; orbital skin bright 
yellow ; feet lemon yellow to dnll pale orange. 

This species is excessively common in the Nepal Valley^ the 
Nawakot district, the Chidang and Markhu Valleys, Be- 
tonra, Bichiakoh, and the Tend and plains of Nepal, In fact it 
is abundant in every part of Nepal I have visited, from the 
plains to an devation of at least 6,000 feet, wherever human 
nabitations are to be found, and where thick forest does not 
prevail. In the Great Valley it is a permanent resident, and 
together with Corvue eplendens and Paeeer montama (rather 
an unusual alliance as far as the latter species is concerned) 
first attracts the attention of a visitor interested in birds. 

686.— Acridotheres fdscas, Wagl. 

Four malee. — Length, 9*4 to 9*8 ; expanse, 15*2 to 15*8 ; 
wing, 4*9 to 5-0 ; tail, 8*1 to 3*6 ; tarsus, 1*35 to 1*5 ; bill from 
gape, 1'15 to 1*2 ; bill at front, 0*7 to 0*8. 

TkreefemoleB. — Length, 9 to 9*2 ; expanse, 14*35 to 15*4 ; wing, 
4*8 to 4*85 ; tail, 8*0 to 3*2 ; tarsus, 1*3 to 1*4 ; bill from gape, 
1*15 to 1*17; bill at front, 0*7 to 0*73; closed wings short 
of tail, 1*5 to 1-7. 

Bill orange, black at base ; irides bright yellow ; feet orange or 
orange yellow. 

This species is common and a permanent resident in the 
valley or Nepal, but does not occur in such great numbers as 
A. tristis. It is also found in tolerable abundance in the 
Nawakot district and the Hetoura Dun in winter. It breeds io 
the valley in May and June, laying in holes, in trees or walls ; 
the ^gs are very like those of A. irietisy but smaller — not so 
broad. I noticed on two or three occasions an Albino of this 
species, which was greatly persecuted by the crows* 

688.— Temenuchus malabaricus, Gm. 

Five males.— henfrthj 7*5 to 7*8 ; expanse, 11*9 to 12*6; 
wiog, 3*7 to 4; tail, 2*35 to 2*7 ; tarsus^ 0*9 to 0*95 ; bill from 



k OOITTBIBUTIOH TO THE OBNITHOLOOT OF NKPAL. 331 

^pe, 1*0 ; bill at front, 0*7 to 0*75 ; closed wings short of tail^ 
1-2 to 1-4. 

Three /ntiolM.— Length, 7 to 7'4 ; expanse, 11*8 to 12*25 ; 
wing, 3*7 to 4*0 ; tail, 2*3 to 2*4; tarsus, 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill from 
gape, 0*9 to 1 ; bill at front, 0*68 to 0*7 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 1-0 to 1-1. 

Bill yellow at tip, green in the middle, and dark blue at the 
base ; interior of mouth dark blue ; eyelids dark blue ; irides 
milky white to pale sky blue j tarsi yellowish fleshy ; toes brown 
fleshy j claws dusky homy. 

Males have the underparts more deeply ooloared than the 
females. The young bird (August) has only a faint tinge of rufous 
on the lower part of the abdomen ; bill yellowish homy ; base of 
lower mandible paler ; irides pale blue ; feet brownish fleshy. 

The Grey-headed Maina is common in the central woods of 
ihe Nepal Valley from the end of April to the end of September« 

693.— Eulabes intermedia,* A. May. 

This Hill Maina is oommon in the forests about Hetoura and 
Bichiakoh, but does not ascend the hills. It is a very common 
and favourite cage bird in Nepal. 

694.— Flocens baya, Bly. 

TenmateSf Valley j April — Jtdy. — Lenfi:th^5*4to5*9 ; expanse^ 
9-2 to 9*65 ; wing, 2*85 to 3*05 ; tail, 2 to 2*2 ; tarsus, 0*8 to 
0*85 ; bill from gape, 0-7 to 0*75 ; bill at front^ 0*7 to 0*75 1 
closed wings short of tail, 1*1 to 1*4. 

Eight femaleiy Valley^ April — August. — Length, 5*3 to 5*8 ; 
expanse, 8*9 to 9-1 ; wing, 2*73 to 2*8 ; tail, 1*9 to 2*1 ; tarsus^ 
0-8 to 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*7 to 0*75 ; bill at front, 0-7 to 
0*72; closed wings short of tail, 1*0 to 1'2. 

In the female at all seasons, and in the male in winter plumage, 
the bill is brownish horny, yellow at base of lower mandible ; 
about the end of April the bill of the male is dusky horny; 
and in May, June and July it is black, with a narrow yellowish 
line at the base of the lower mandible ; gape yellow or fleshy ; 
irides deep brown ; feet dark fleshy or brownish fleshy. 

The miue in breeding plumage has the head bright yellow-— 
and some of the feathers of the interscapulary region and of the 
rump edged with yellow. The breast is blotched, to a greater 
or lees extent, with yellow, and in some cases there is a com- 
plete band of yellow across the breast. 

Mr. Blanford (J. A. S. B., Vol. XLL, Part IL, 1872, p. 167) 
gives the following dimensions of six specimens of Ploeeus baya 

s Not raall J ipeeificaU J diaUnoty in mj opinion, firom E, javcmtm9i$j^l&D, 



^32 A OONTRIBUTION TO THE OBKITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 

from Calouttai Sikim and Cachar : Wing, 2*85 to 3*05 ; tafl, 
1-87 to 2-15 ; tarsas, 0-82 to 0*9 ; bill at front, 0-69 to 
0'77. Of the smaller form, Jerdon^s baya, he gives the measure- 
ments :— Wing, 2-6 to 275 ; tail, 1-7 to 18 ; tarsus, C-79 toO-9; 
bill at front, 0-65 to 0-69. Mr. Hume (S. F., VI., pp. 898-401) 
has fully discussed the differences between the two forms, and 
shown that Bly th's name of baya must apply to the larger species. 
My birds are all clearly referable to the large species, and 
although the adult breeding males have much more yellow on the 
breast than in any specimen seen by Mr. Mandelli or Mr. 
Hume from Sikim, still they have much less yellow on the back 
and breast than in the Continental species. 

The Weaver Bird is common in the Nepal Valley from the 
middle of April to the end of September. It is always 
social, and frequents rice fields, gardens, and the vicinity of ham- 
lets. It is found all over the central part of the valley, especially 
about large solitary trees— pipals and palms — but does not ascend 
the hills. It always breeds in company, the nests being attached 
to palm trees, solitary pipals, but more especially to the fronds 
of the fan palm of the valley, Chcemeropa martiana. It lays fron 
May to July. 

698.— Axnadina rubronigra^ Hodgs. 

T\oelve specimens, Valley. — Length, 4*4 to 4*65 ; expanse, 7*1 
to 7-5 ; wing, 2-1 to 2-2; tail, 1-5 to 1-6 ; bill from gape, 0*4 to 
0*45 ; bill at front, 0*48 to 0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*95 te 
11. 

Bill leaden blue; irides dark brown; feet dark plumbeous. 

Young birds, obtained about the middle of September, are 
uniform earthy, with, in some specimens, a small spot or two of 
chestnut appearing on the breast. The adults of this species 
have the bills stronger and deeper than in punctulata. The young 
birds above mentioned have the bill about the same size as in 
punctulataj adult. 

This Munia is common in the central part of the Nepal Valley 
from the end of May to October, frequenting rice fields and 
gardens. A nest taken on the 13th July in the Residency 
grounds was placed in a thorny hedge ; it was a large globular 
structure with a trumpet-shaped entrance at one side ; it contain- 
ed five white eggs, slightly set. 

699.— Amadina ponctidata, Lin. 

Twelve speci^t^nsy Valley. — Length, 4*3 to 4*9 ; expanse, 6'7 te 
70 ; wing, 2*1 to 2*25 ; tail, 1*5 to 1*75 ; till from gape^ 0*4 ^ 
0-45; bill at front, 0*43 to 5; dosed wings short of ui'i 
1 to 1*3. 



▲ COHTKIBITTION TO THS OBNITHOLOOT OF KEPAL. 333 

Bill plumbeous ; the upper mandible darker ; irides reddish 
brown and crimson ; feet plumbeous. 

About half of these specimens have all the feathers of the 
upper surface pale shafted ; and the rump is grey, dark 
barred. 

The Spotted Munia is as common in the valley of Nepal 
as the last species, but arrives earlier — quite at the beginning 
of May. All its habits are very well known. 

70&— Amadina acuticauda^ Hodgs^ 

Six speeimensj Valley, February. — Length, 4*3 to 4*65 ; 
expanse, 6*3 to 6*8 ; wing, 1*9 to 2*1 ; tail, 1*7 to 2*0 ; 
tarsus, 0*5 to 0*68 ; bill from gape, 04 to 0*43 ; bill at front, 
0-88 to 0*42 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*05 to 1*3. 

Upper mandible horny black, the lower plumbeous ; irides 
dark brown ; feet dark plumbeous ; claws dusky. 

I shot the six specimens of the Himalayan Munia entered 
above, in the valley of Nepal, on the 15th and 17th February ; 
and, strangely enough, I never observed it there at any other 
time It was found in large flocks frequenting euphorbia 
hedges, bamboo clumps, and solitary pipal trees. 

706.— Passer domesticus, Lin. 

Three males j ValUy, — Length, 5*85 to 6*1 ; expanse, 9*2 to 
9*6 ; wing, 2*9 to 3*1 ; tail, 2 3 to 2*45 ; tarsus, 0*75 ; bill 
from gape, 0*54 to 0*55 ; bill at front, 0*5 to 0*53 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 1*45 to 1*5. 

Bill dusky or blackish ; irides hazel brown ; feet yellowish 
fleshy ; claws brown horny. 

Young male, Kathmanduy 26/A May, — Length, 5*7 ; expanse, 
86 ; wing, 2*75; tail, 2*15; tarsus, 0*6; bill from gape, 
0*52 ; bill at front, 0*46 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*4. 

Bill brownish horny, pale at base below ; irides brownish 
black ; feet livid ; claws brown horny. Resembles the adult 
female, but the mantle is paler, and there is a faint dusky stripe 
down the throat. 

TwofemaUsy iTa^Amantfu.— Length, 5*7 and 5*85 ; expanse, 
9 and 9*15 ; wing, 2*9 and 2*95 ; tail, 2*1 and 2*3 ; tarsus, 
0*75 ; bill from gape, 0*55 and 0*56 ; bill at front, 0*5 and 
0^51 ; closed wing» short of tail, 1*6 and 1*7. 

Bill brownish homy, paler below ; irides light brown ; feet 
pale fleshy ; claws brown horny. 

TiDo young females^ Kathmandu^ May, — Length, 5*45 and 
6*5 ; expanse, 8*8 and 9 ; wing, 2*8 and 2*85 ; tail, 2 and 2*2 ; 
tarsus, 0*7 and 0*75 ; bill from gape, 0*62 ; bill at front| 0*46 ; 
closed wings short of tail^ 1*2 and 1*3. 



334 A OONTRIBUTION TO THB OBKITHOLOOT OT JSTSPAU 

Bill livid^ light hornj at tip ; gape yellow ; feet pale greyish 
fleshy. 

The House Sparrow is common in the Nepal Valley 
througbont the year, bat is strictly confined to the streets and 
squares of the towns and villages. It is never seen eren a 
hundred yards away from such localities. This, of oonxaCj 
is very common in the plains of Nepal. 

710.— Passer montanus, Lin. 

Seven epecimene. — Length, 5*5 to 5'8 ; expanse, 8*8 to 9*2 ; 
wing, 2*6 to 2-8 ; tail, 2*2 to 2*4 ; tarsus, 0*66 to 0-7 ; bill 
from gape, 0*5 to 0*55 ; bill at front, 0*4 to 0*46 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1-48 to 1*6. 

Bill black ; irides brown ; feet buff fleshy ; claws brown homy. 

This is the Common Sparrow of the Nepal Valley, a permanent 
resident all over the central level parts ; it is also common, in 
winter, in the Ohitlang and Markim Valleys. In the great Talley 
its breeding season lasts from March to the eud of Jaly> and 
it rears certainly two, and often three broods. I obtained nest- 
lings on the 16th April, and eggs as late as Uie middle of Joly. 

723.— Euspiza aureola, Fall. 

Three males^ Valley j February. — Length, 5'9 to 6'05 ; 
expanse, 9*3 to 9*6 ; wing, 3*0 to 8*03 ; tail, 2*6 to 2*6 ; 
tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*49 to 0*52 ; bill at front, 0*41 
to 0*44 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*25 to 1*45. 

TwofemaleSj Fa/%, /1;&r»ary .-^Length, 5*5 and 5*6; expanse^ 
8-6; wing, 2*75 and 2*8; tail, 2*3 and 2*85 ; tarsus, 0*8; bill 
from gape, 0*48 and 0*49 ; bill at front, 0*42 aud 0*43 ; closed 
wings. short of tail, 1*3 and 1*35. 

Upper mandible dusky ; lower pinkish fleshy, livid at tip ; 
irides brown ; feet fleshy brown ; claws dusky. 

Male above brownish, the feathers longitudinally sireaked 
with black, with patches of maroon, here and there, on the 
head, mantle, and rump ; beneath a gorget of maroon across the 
base of the throat, and the feathers of the flanks and orissum 
centred with blackish ; the female has no gorget and no maroon 
on the upper parts. 

This epecies is a winter visitant to tbe valley of Nepal. It 
is always found in flocks, frequenting fields and grassy banlcs, 
and perching on rows of small trees near hamlets. 

724.— Melophus melanicteras, Om. 

Two males. — Length, 6*5 and 6*65 ; expanse, 10*2 ; wing, 
S*2 and 3*3 ; tail, 2*9 and 3*0 ; tarsus, 0*75 ; bill from gape, &'6 ; 
bill at front, 0*52; closed wings short of tail^ 1*7 and 1*8. 



A CONTBIBUTION TO THE OBKITHOLOGT OF NBPAL. 335 

nree /emales.^LengHiy 6*3 to 6-4; expanse^ 9*9 ; wing, 3*0 
to 3-1 ; tail, 2-8 to 29 ; tarsus, 0-76 to 0-85 ; bill from gape, 
0*6 ; bill at front, 0'45 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*45 to 1*7. 

Two fcung males ^ in female plumage^ August and February, — 
Length, 6*7 ; expanse, lO'S and 10*5 ; wing, 3*25 and 3 3 ; 
tail, 2*85 and 2*95 ; tarsus, 0*8 and 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*6 
and 0*62 ; bill at front, 0*47 and 0*5 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 1-65 and 1-8. 

Bill dusk J, blackish above and fleshy at base of lower man- 
dible ; irides dark brown ; feet fleshy brown, the toes darker ; 
claws blackish, pale at tips. 

The immature male resembles the adult female in plumage, 
but is larger, has a stronger bill, and the wings are more brightly 
coloured. One of the females noted above has a patch of 
pure white on the hind head. 

This Bunting is a permanent resident in the Nepal Valley, 
affecting the central level portion, and the cultivated parts of 
the hills up to an elevation of about 6,000 feet. It is usually 
found in pairs, about bushes and hedges, and is not common in 
the vaUey. 

731.— Fyrrhula sipalensis, Hodga. 

Male, Valley, February. — Length, 7*0 ; expanse, 10'8 ; wing, 
3*4; tail, 8*1; tarsus, 0*65; bill from gape, 0*53; bill at 
front, 0*45 ; closed wings short of tail, 1*9. 

Bill greenish horny, black at tip ; irides dark brown ; feet 
fleshy ; claws brown horny. 

This Bull-Finch is only found on the hills round the valley 
of Nepal in winter, and is then by no means common. It was 
only met with once ; on descending from the Sheopuri Bidge, 
on the 16th February, a party of this species flew across the 
path and settled for a minute or so in a bush tree* 

73&— Garpodacus eiythrinus, Pall. 

Two females, Valley, \9th iipnZ.— Length, 5*8 ; expanse, 9*7 
and 9*8 ; wing, 3*1 and 315; tail, 2*35 and 2*4; tarsus, 0*75 ; 
bill from gape, 0*5 and 0*63 ; bill at front, 0*45 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*3 and 1*4. 

Bill grey horny, darker on culmen ; irides brown ; feet brown 
fleshy. 

This Rose Finch merely passes through the valley on 
its migrations, and does not, I think, remain there for more 
than a few days at a time ; my specimens were shot on treeit 
not far from the Residency grounds. It is often caged by the 
Nepalese. 

43 



336 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NVPAL. 

746.— Procarduelis nipalensis, Hodgs. 

Five males. — Length, 5*9 to 6*4 ; expanse, 10*3 to 11 ; wioj]r, 
3'4 to 3*7 ; tail, 2*5 to 2*8 ; tarsus, 0-86 to 0*9 ; bill from gape, 
0*53 to 0-55 ; bill at front, 0*43 to 0*45 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 0*9 to 1*25. 

Five females, — Lengtli, 5*8 to 6*3 ; expanse, 9*7 to 10*2 ; 
wing, 815 to 3*8 ; tail, 2*25 to 2*5 ; tarsus, 0*78 to 0*85 ; bill 
from gape, 0*52 to 0*54 ; bill at front, 0*41 to 0*44 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*85 to 1*15. 

Two immature males, in female plumage.^-Jjengthj 6*2 and 
6*3 ; expanse, 10*4 and 10*6; wing, 3*3 and 3*4; tail, 2*5; 
tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*52 and 0*53 ; bill at front, 0*43 
and 0*45 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*95 and 1*1. 

Bill dusky, darker on cnlmen and greyish at base of lower 
mandible ; irides dark brown ; feet fleshy brown ; the toes a 
shflde darker than the tarsi ; claws homy brown. 

The first primary is from 0*03 to 0*12 shorter than the second; 
the second, third and fourth primaries are subequal. The female 
has the back strongly striated with black ; the minor and se- 
condary coverts are margined on the outer webs with olivaceous 
buff, forming two wing bands, and the tertiaries are margined 
on the outer webs, near their tips with the same colour. Dr. 
Jerdon's statement about the female of this species '^ from breast 
to tail white^' must be a misprint ; the crissnm only is albescent, 
and the under tail-coverts are margined with sullied white or 
fulvous. The young male exactly resembles the adult female. 

This fine Rose Finch is common on the hills round the valley 
of Nepal, in winter only, at elevations of from 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 
It is found in parties or flocks about bushes, and in cleared 
spaces in the forests. It feeds on the ground, and is not at all 
shy. I found that it would return again and again to perch on 
the bare branches of a tree after being shot at. It was obtain- 
ed in the upper part of the Chitlang Valley in December and 
on Mount Sheopori in January and February. 

750.— Bypacanthis spinoides, Vig. 

Ttoenty-sia specimens^ Valley. — Length, 5 to 5*6 ; expanse, 
8-8 to 9*8 ; wing, 2*8 to 82 ; tail, 1*9 to 2*1 ; tarsus, 0*S to 
0*7; bill from gape, 0*46 to 0*54; bill at front, 0*4 to 05; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*7 to 0*9* 

Bill fleshy, brownish on culmen and dusky at tip ; irides 
light or darlc brown : feet brownish fleshy ; claws dusky. 

This species is found in great numbers in the valley of 
Nepal ; aud^ although it moves about a good deal, I think it 



A CONTBIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOQY OF NEPAL. 337 

miist be a permanent resid^it there : it was obtained from 
early in l^ebrnary to July. 

It frequents the central woods in flocks, and may often be 
seen in the Residency grounds about sunset, flying into the 
tops of the pine trees and moving^ about the upper branohes 
Tery actively^ while it utters a soft twittering cry. 

760*— Pyrrhulauda grisea^ Scop. 

Male^ Tarai, December. — Length, 5; expanse, 9*8; wing, 
3*02 ; tail, 1*93 ; tarsus, 0*7 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*6. 

Bill pale greyish homy; irides reddish brown; feet 
fleshy. 

This little Lark was common in the plains and Tarai of 
Nepal in winter, frequenting the roads and fields. 

761.— Calandrella brachydactyla^ Tern. 

Three malesy VaUey^ October. — Length, 6*2 to 6*3; expanse, 
11-7 to 12; wing, 3*8 to 3-9 ; tail, 2*2 to 2*5 ; tarsus, 0*8 to 
0-9 ; bill from gape, 0*55 to 0*57 ; bill at front, 0*43 to 0*44 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*55 to 0*75 ; hind toe and claw, 
0*67 to 0*7 ; weight, 09 to l*Ooz. 

Female^ Valley^ October, — Length, 6*2 ; expanse, 11*5 ; wing, 
3-7 ; tail, 2*2 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 0*55 ; bill at front, 
0*43; closed wings short of tail, 0*7 ; hind toe and claw, 0*65 ; 
weight, 0'9oK. 

Bill yellowish fleshy, dusky on culmen and black at tip ; 
irides brown ; feet fleshy ; claws horny brown. 

These birds differ greatly from the specimens of C brdchy' 
dactyla which I obtained in Eastern Turkistan and Ladak, and 
I can flnd no specimens in Mn Hume's museum to match them. 
They are large, brightly coloured, and very rufous in tone, 
the upper surface closely resembling some of the brighter 
examples of Alauda gulgula. The bill is shorter, deeper, and 
more stout than in any examples of brachydactyla I have seen. 
Mr. Ball (S. F., II., p. 423) gives the bill from gape of two 
specimens of brachydactyla as 0*65, and my birds from Tur- 
kistan and Ladak have the bills measured in the same way, 
0*6 to 0'63; in the Nepal birds the bills measure 0*55 to 0*57. 
This does not seem a great>difierence when reduced to figures, 
but comparing specimens the difference is very marked, not 
only in length but in depth. My Nepal specimens agree 
exactly with Mr. Hodgson's plate of Alauda conoitoma, which 
has been supposed to represent brachydactyla^ and have the 
hind claw no longer than in the latter species ; they have no 
spots or streaks on the throat and breast. 



338 A OONTBIBUTION TO THB OBNITHOLOOT OF NIPAL. 

This Lark passes through the Nepal Valley, bnt does not 
remain there many days. My specimens were shot on the 
2nd October. 

762.— Alandula rxytsl, Bly. 

This little Sand-Lark was pretty common in the plains of 
Nepalj close to the Tarai, in December. 

766.— Alauda duldvox, fToef^tf. 

MaUj Valley^ March. — ^Length^ 6*8 ; expanse^ 13*6 ; wing, 
4*3 ; tail, 2*9 ; tarsns, 0*95 ; bill from gape, 0*65 ; bill at front, 
0*43 ; closed wings short of tail^ 1 ; hind claw (straight) 0*5 ; 
weight, l*25ozs. 

Female^ Valley, March. — ^Length, 6*8 ; expanse, 12*8; wing, 
4 ; tail, 273; tarsns, 0*96 ; bill from gape, 0*65 ; bill at fronf^ 
0*42 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*95 ; hind claw, 0*5; weight, 
l*2ozs. 

Upper mandible dnsky ; lower mandible grey homy, liyid at 
tip ; irides dark brown ; gape fleshy yellow ; feet brownish 
fleshy, dusky on the joints ; daws dusky. 

This fine Lark is tolerably common in the valley of Nepal 
in winter. In February and March it is quite social in its 
habits, and frequents the fields. It retires from the valley 
about the end of March. 

767.— Alauda golgola^ Frankl. 

Female^ Valley, February. — Length, 6*2 ; expanse, 12 ; wing, 
3*85 ; tail, 2*65 ; tarsus, 0*95; closed wings short of tail, 0*85; 
hind claw, 0*45. 

Irides dark brown ; lower eyelid bluish grey ; feet brown 
fleshy. 

I enter this specimen apart from the preceding species, be- 
cause it is much smaller and less bulky ; but I cannot detect 
any other difibrence, and I doubt whether it is really distinct. 
It is probably an example of the race alluded to by Mr. 
Hume (S. F., I., p. 40) as the Skylark of the high Himalayan 

Slateau, with a wing measuring 8*8 to 4*0 ; and it may equal 
Ir. Brooks' dlauda guttata ; both of which Mr. Hume would 
include under the name of gulgxda. 

This Lark was only found in the Nepal Valley in winter, 
and its habits did not difier from those of duleivox. 

769.— Galerita cristata, Lin. 

The Crested Lark was fairly common in the plains of Nepal, 
near the Tarai, in winter^ 



A OONTBIBUnON TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 339 

772. — Crocopns phoBnicopteraSi Lath. 

MaUy Nawakot district^ Novewher. — Lengthy 13 ; expanse^ 
22-5 ; wing, 7*4 ; tail, 4*45 ; tarsus, 0*95 ; bill from gape, 
0*95 ; bill at front, 0-75 ; closed wings short of tail, 1'7. 

Bill very pale greyish homy ; irides straw colour, with an 
outer circle of blue; feet pure Indian yellow; claws bluish 
grey. The green tinge on the forehead extends to the top 
of the head. The chin and upper part of the throat paler 
and more greenish than the breast; the grey of the belly is 
pretty strongly tinged with yellowish green. 

Female^ Sawakot District^ NovemAer. — Length, 1£'5 ; ex- 
panse, 22*4; wing, 7*3; tail, 4*5; tarsus, 0-95; bill from 
gape, 0*98 ; bill at front, 0*78 ; closed wings short of tail, 
1-5- 

Bill very pale grey ; feet pure Indian yellow ; claws greyish 
blue. 

This fine Ghreen Pigeon was plentiful in the level portions of 
the Nawakot district in winter. It associated in large flocks, 
and was found on several occasions in solitary banian and 
pipal trees. 

778.— Sphenocercus sphenuras, Vig. 

I found this beautiful species in small numbers at Nimboatar 
in December. It breeds in some parts of the hills round the 
valley of Nepal ; and a nestling obtained thence on the 18th 
August measured: Length, 9*4; expanse, 16*8; wing, 5*7; 
tail, 3-8 ; tarsus, 0*85 ; bill from gape, 0*83 ; bill at front, 0*72 ; 
closed wings short of toil, 1*5. The base of the bill and orbital 
skin cobalt blue ; tip of bill pale blue ; irides brownish grey. 

783. — Alsocomus hodgsoni, Vig. 

This Wood- Pigeon is a winter visitor to the forests at the 
foot of the hills round the Nepal Valley. It is fairly common 
in certain places, («.^., at Qodaveri south of Patau,) from 
December to February, associating in small flocks. 

788. — Golumba intermedia^ Striokl. 

Five males. — Length, 13*2 to 13*6; expanse, 25*5 to 27; 
wing, 8*7 to 9*2; tail, 4*6 to 50; tarsus, 1*1 to 1-2; bill 
from gape, 0*95 to 1*0 ; bill at front, 0*75 to 0*8 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*85 to 1*2; weight, 10 to ll*5ozs. 

Three females. — Length, 12*3 to 13 ; expanse, 25 to 26*4 ; 
wing, 8*4 to 8*7; tail, 4*5 to 4*8 ; tarsus, 1*1 to 1*2 ; bill from 
gape^ 0*95 to 1*0 ; bill at fronts 0*75 to 0*8 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*5 to 0*9. 



840 ▲ CONTRIBUTION TO THE OBKITHOLOOT OF NBPAL. 

Bill horny black ; irides orange ; feet purplish red ; claws black. 

The Blue Bock Pigeon is very common in the valley of 
Nepaly where it is a parmanent resident. It was also fairly 
oommonj in winter^ in the Nawakot district, the Markhu Valley 
and the plains of Nepal. It is found in considerable numbers 
about all the large temples in the valley, and large flocks are 
often seen feeding in the fields ; when out in the open it 
is very shy and wary^ as it is constantly fired upon by the 
Nepalese. 

790.-— Golumba lenconota, Vig. 

Specimen from UlU north of Valley. — Lengthy 12*8; ezpansey 
26*0; wing, 8*95; tail, 5*1; tarsus, 1*2; bill from gape, 
I'O ; bill at front, 0*66 ; mid-toe and claw, 1*35 ; closed wings 
abort of tail, 1*2 ; weight, lOozs. 

Bill homy black ; irides yellow ; feet bright light red ; daws 
horny black ; mouth bright fleshy red. 

This Pigeon is found in the upper northern regions of Nepal, 
but never occurs in the Nepal Valley. I kept a specimen in 
confinement for several months ; it was very tame and not at 
all active. It never attempted to perch, but remained on the 
ground, generally in a corner of the room. When approached 
by Pheasants or other birds kept with it in the aviary it uttered 
the purring coo common to all pigeons, and used to strike 
at the birds with its wing when they came too near, 

792— Turtur orientalis, Lath. 

8uf maUe. — Length, 12 to 12*9 ; expanse, 21*7 to 23*7 ; wing, 
7*3 to 7*95; tail, 5 to 5*6; tarsus, 1*0; bill from gape, 0*9 
to 0*95; bill [at front, 065 to 0*71; closed wings short of 
tail, 1*5 to 2'5 ; weight, 6*5 to 7*5 ozs. 

Six females. — Length, 11*75 to 12*5; expanse, 20-5 to 22*8; 
wing, 6 85 to 7*6; tail, 5 to 5*6 ; tarsus, 0*97 to 1*13; bill from 
gape, 0*87 to 0*95; bill at front, 0*6 to 0*75 ; closed wings short 
of tail, 2*0 to 2*6 ; weight, 6 to 7*5 ozs. 

Bill black or dusky horny ; tumid base of* bill, gape, and 
orbital skin purple ; irides golden yellow to orange red ; feet 
purple ; claws dusky. 

These twelve specimens must certainly all be referred to one 
species, and they seem to show that Turtur meena cannot be 
separated from Jerdon's *' Turtur rupicolus, Pallas." Mr. Hume 
has often insisted that meena is quite distinct from rupix)lu8j the 
former having girey under tail-coverts, while the latter has them 
white (** Lahore to Yarkand," p. 277 ; ^^ Nests and Eggs," pp. 
500-502 ; S. P., VI., pp. 421-422). Now my Nepal birds have 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 341 

tbe ander tail-coverts coloured as follows :— White (2) ; white, 
tinged greyish; greyish white ; light ash grey (2); ashy grey 
(2) ; blaish grey (2) ; mixed slaty and pale greyish ; dark bluish 
grey. The lower tail-coverts in fact show every gradation from 
white to deep bluish grey, while the birds in other respects are 
closely similar ; some specimens are rather more rufous on the 
belly than others, but it is impossible to divide the series by 
any one point Turtur meena may differ from rupicolua by 
some constant characters^ but I veuture to say that the two 
supposed species cannot be separated by the colour of the lower 
tail-coverts. I follow Mr. Dresser in assigning the name of 
orientalis to my specimens, which, I believe, represent the two 
races hitherto looked upon^ in India, as distinct.* 

This Dove is fairly common in one part or another of the 
Nepal Valley throughout the year. In May, June^ and July it 
is only found in the forests, at elevations of from 7,000 to 8,000 
feet, where it breeds. From August to December it is plentiful 
in the central woods of the valley. From January io March 
only a few birds are to be found in the central part of the val- 
ley, the majority having moved down to warmer regions ; and 
in the latter part of March and throughout April it is again com-* 
mon in the central woods. I ako found it common in the 
Nawakot district in November and in the plains of Nepal in 
December, It is usually seen in parties of from six to ten, high 
up in trees ; and its note is a low, deep, kuTj kur, ku, 

795.— Turtur snratensis, Om. 

Six males. — Length, II to 12; expanse, 16*9 to 17*2; wing, 
5*55 to 5*7 ; tail, 5*5 to 5*9 ; tarsus, 0*85 to 10 ; bill from gape, 
0*88 to 0-9 ; bill at front, 0*6 to 0*66 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 3*3 to 3-7. 

Four femalet — Length, 10*4 to 11*4; expanse, 16 to 17; 
wing, 5-25 to 5*5 ; tail, 4*9 to 5*8 ; tarsus, 0*85 to 0*9 ; bill 
from gape, 0'8 to 0*85 ; bill at front, 0*6 to 0*66 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*9 to 3*6. 

Bill horny black ; gape and orbit purple ; irides brown, hazel, 
vellow brown, orange yelbw, and yellow; feet purple red ; daws 
black. 

The Spotted Dove is a permanent resident in the yalley of 
Nepal, not ascending the hills. It is common in winter in the 
Nawakot district, the Chitlang Valley, Bichiakoh and the 
plains. 

* I am bound to note tliRt luTmg examined aU tliese speoimens I came to a 
pnmelj oppoeite condurion.— Bd. 



342 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE OlEOnTHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 

796.— Turtur risorias, Zin. 

Male J Nepal Plains j December. — Length, 12*25; expanse, 
21-77 ; wing:, 7'2 ; tail, 5-45 ; tarsus, 1-0 ; bill from gape, 0*93 ; 
bill at front, 0*68 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*0. 

Bill horny black; irides crimson ; feet dark purplish. 

This specimen is large and deep tinted ; in the latter respect 
quite resembling a specimen from Kaleegunj on the Brahma- 
pootra in Mr. Hume's collection ; and differing markedly from 
the pale examples obtained in Bajpootana. 

The Ring Pove was found in small numbers only in the He- 
tonra Dun, but was common in the Nepal plains, in winter. It 
never occurs in the valley of Nepal. 

797.— Turtur tranquebaricus, Herm. 

This Dove was common in the Hetoura Dun, at Bichiakoh, 
and generally in the S&l Forest near those places, in winter. 

803.— Pavo cristatus, Lin. (Mujur.) 

The Common Peafowl is found along the outer base of die 
Sandstone Range, about Bichiakoh, but not in any great num- 
bers ; it does not extend further in, nor does it here ascend the 
bills even to the height of 2,000 feet, to the best of my belief. 
The bird certainly does not occur in the wild state in the valley 
of Nepal, although domesticated birds are often seen there. I 
once saw a party of seven Peafowl at Bichiakoh in December; 
early in the morning, the birds had come down to the stream to 
drink, and on being alarmed they ran to a plot of ground over- 
grown with tall grass and from thence flew off, singly, to the 
shelter of the forest. 

804.— Lophophorus impeyanus. Lath. (Dafai.) 

Male. — Length, 26*8; expanse, 36*0; wing, 11; tail, 8*8; 
tarsus, 2*7 ; epur, 0*47 ; bill from gape, 1*85 ; bill at front, 2*05 ; 
wings short of tail, 6*1; mid-toe and claw, 8*0; crest, 3*0; 
weight, 5 lbs. 6 ozs. 

Bill grey horny at tip, dusky at base and along colmen ; 
irides brown ; orbital skin brilliant turquoise blue ; lower eye- 
lid grey, black spotted ; feet dingy greenish yellow ; daws and 
spurs dusky. 

This fine species seems to be fairly common in the interior of 
Nepal at high elevations, but it does not occur within that part 
of the country which Europeans are allowed to visit. I procor- 
ed several specimens which had been trapped and brought to the 
valley for sale ; the birds bore confinement very well and were 
sedentary and rather stupid. Jerdon gives Dafia as the Bengali 



A OONTRIBUTION TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 343 

name of CeriomU iotyra^ but in Nepal the term Daft or Ddfia is 
invariably applied to L. impeyanus. CroHopMon tibetanum is 
called BhoU Dqfl 

805«— Geriornis satyrai Lm. {Manal.) 

Two nudes, — Length, 26*5 ; expanse^ 34*5 ; vnng, 10*4 to 
10-9; tail, 10-5 to 11*0; tarsus, 3*25 to 3*3; bill from gape, 
1-5 to 1-6 ; bill at front, 1*0; wings short of tail, 80 to 8*2 ; 
apnr, 0*8 to 35. 

Bill brown homj or blackish, pale at tip ; irides deep brown ; 
skin of neck, throat, and orbits fine purplish blue ; the g^lar 
wattles orange in parts ; horns lazuline blue ; feet pale fleshy ; 
claws and spurs brownish grey homy. 

This beautiful Horned-Pheasant, always known to the Nepa- 
lese by the name oiMonaly is said to be common in the hills 
north of the valley, about four days* march from Eathmandu ; 
of course I never had an opportunity of observing its habits; the 
birds whose measurements are entered above were snared by 
natives and brought to the valley, alive, for sale. 

807.— Ifhagenes craentns, Hardw. (ChilimS.) 

The Blood-Pheasant is apparently rather rare in Nepal, and of 
coarse it is never found anywhere near the valley. Two cock 
birds which had been snared were shown to me ; one of these 
had three spurs on the leg, and the other^ although in full adult 
plumage, showed no trace of a spur on either tarsus. 

808 &is.— Pacrasia nipalensis, Oould. (Pokhras.) 

Three tna/^/.— Expanse, 27*5 to 290; wing, 8-8 to 9-1; 
tarsus, 2*5 to 2*7 ; bill from gape, 1*2 to 1*4; bill at front, 1*22 ; 
nostril to tip, 0*6 to 0*7 ; spur, 0*23 to 0*63 ; crest, 3*5 ; weight, 
1 lb. 15 ozfl. to 2 lbs. 

Four /«maZ##.— Expanse, 27*0 ; wing, 81 to 8*6 ; tarsus, 
21 to 2-5 ; bill from gape, 1*15 to 1*25; bill at front, 0*9 to 
0-92 ; mid-toe and claw, 2*55 to 2*6 ; lower tail-coverts short of 
end of tail, 2*80 to 2*45 ; weight, 1 lb. 8 ozs. to 1 lb. 14 ozs. 

Bill dusky or blackish, the extreme tip and base of lower 
mandible grey horny ; irides dark brown ; lower eyelid fleshy ; 
feet dingy lavender horny ; claws dusky homy. 

The Nepal Pukras was first discriminated by Mr. Gould, who 
noted its character in Proc. Zool. Soc, April Uth, 1854, and in 
July of the same year figured and described it in Part YI of 
liis " Birds of Asia," clearly pointing out in what respects it 
differed from maerolopha. Dr. Jerdon, in the " Birds of India,'' 

44 



844 A OOKTRIBUTIOK TO THB ORKITHOLOOT OF HBPAL. 

was diBDOsed to doubt the diBtinotness of the two forms, and be 
was lea to this opinion from an examination of the figure of 
the bird only ; for he had no opportunity of examining a speci* 
men of the trae nipalensis. In the appendix to the '^ Birds of 
India/* however, he noted that Blyth considered P. mpalemu 
apparently a ^ood species. 

In the D. M. Catalogae of Mr. Hodgson's collection (1846^ 
p. 126 J Puerasia tnacrolopha is entered, bnt in the second edi- 
tion of that Catalogne n86S, p. 68), Hodgson's specimens of 
Pukras are called Puerasia duvaneeUij and P. nip€deiui$, Gtonld, 
Is added as a synomyn. Mr. Hodgson does not seem to have 
bestowed any name of his own on the Nepal Pukras, and it 
Is to be presumed that he considered his bird the same as 
maerolopha, Lesson. 

In the beginning of 1877 Mr. Hume urged me to procure 
specimens of the Nepal Pukras, in order that the question of 
its identity with, or distinctness from, maerolopha might be 
definitely settled. This proved no easy task, as the bird does 
not occur in any part of the hills so far to the east as the 
valley of Nepal, though not uncommon in the western portion 
of the Nepal Himalaya. However, after waiting for some six 
or seven months, I received the seven birds whose measurements 
are here entered, from Jumla in Western Nepal, through the 
kindness of my friend General Umber Jung, a nephew of the 
late Sir Jung Bahadur. Three other specimens were subse- 
quently seen in confinement in the valley, and these also had 
been brought from Jumla. 

Unfortunately I can give no details about the habits of this 
Pheasant fi*om personal observation ; it is said to be plentiful 
about Jumla where it is found not far from the snows. In 
confinement the birds becatne very tame and seemed to prefer 
green leaves and shoots, &c., to grain, for food. 

There can be no doubt that Puerasia nipalensis is thoroughly 
distinct from P. maerolopha; the former is a smaller bird, 
darker, and much more richly coloured than the common 
Pukras. Although Mr. GK)uld has said all that is necessary on 
this point, it may be worth while again to draw attention to the 
characters by which the two species may be at once dbtin^ 
guished. 

In maerolopha the male bird has the body above, the sideA 
of neck and breast, and the flanks, light ashy with a narrow 
black stripe down the centre of the feathers, including the 
shaft ; in nipalemiM the feathers of the corresponding parts are 
velvet black, narrowly fringed at their margins with grey, 
while the shafts of the feathers are either white with a line of 
chestnut on each side, or wholly chestnut. 



A GQNTRIBUriOlf TO THB OBKITHOLOGT OF NXPAL. 345 

- The female of P. nipaUmis, beeidea being smaller and darker 
than the hen of maerolapha, has the colors much more intense, 
and with a greater admixture of rufous ; and the tail feathers 
are nearly idi ohestnut. 

jB09.— Phasianus walliclu, Hardw. ( Ohihir). 

This Pheasant appears to be not uncommon in the hills north 
of the vallejj judging from the number of snared birds one saw 
in Kathmandu ; but I never had an opportunity of shooting this 
bird in Nepal, and consequently can add nothing as to its habits. 

810 &i9.— Qallophasis leucomelanas, Lath. (Kalij). 

Ektan niaZe«.— Length, 23*0 to 260 , expanse, 26 to 29*5 ; 
wing, 8-7 to 9-2 ; tail, 109 to 12*3 ; tarsus, 2*8 to 3*05 ; bill 
from gape, 1*25 to 1*35; bill at front, 1*04 to 1*25; 
nostril to tip of bill, 0*7 to 0*76 ; closed wings short of tail, 7*6 
to 9*5 ; spur, 0*35 to 0*6 ; crest, 2*4 to 2 8 ; weight, 1 lb. 12 ozs. 
lo 2 lbs. 4 088. 

Eleven females.— lAng^\ 19*3 to 20*5 ; expanse, 25*0 to 27*0 ; 
wing, 7-8 to 8-5 ; tail, 7*3 to 8 7 ; tarsus, 2*3 to 2*9 ; bill 
from gape, 1-2 to 1*3; at front, 1*05 to 1*15; nostril to tip 
of bill, 0*7 to 0*73 ; crest, 105 to 1*8 ; weight, 1 lb. 6 ozs. to 
1 lb. 12-5 ozs. 

fiill grenish horny, dusky or black on base of culmen and 
about the nostrils ; orbital skin fine crimson ; irides dark brown ; 
lower eyelid grey with black spots ; feet brownish grey horny, 
the toes being usually a little darker than the tarsus ; olaws 
brownish homy ; spurs dusky. 

MaU. — Head and crest, neck above, upper back, wings, and 
tail glossy bluish black ; the feathers of the interscapulary 
region white shafted ; rump and upper taiUcoverts blue black ; 
the feathers white shafted and narrowly tipped with white, the 
white fringes varying from about 0'05 to 0*18 in width; 
phin and ear-coverts dull black ; throat and breast greyish white ; 
the feathers long and sharp pointed ; abdomen, vent, and under 
tail-coverts dull greyish brown. 

Female* — Rich brown, nearlv all the body feathers faintly 
white shafted ; the feathers of the back and wing-coverts rather 
broadly tipped with greyish white ; rump and upper tail-ooverta 
lighter brown than the central tail feathers with which they 
qontrast; middle tail feathers deep rufescent brown, rather 
boldly vermicellated with black, the outer webs being markedly 
darker than the inner ones ; lateral tail feathers dark ; the lower 
^nrfaoe generally lighter than the back, with prominent pale 
fringes to the featl^rs, which are of a deeper shade of brown 
near the shafts* 



346 A OONTBIBnnON to THX OBNITHOLOGT OF KIPAL. 

• 

Tcung, — A chick captured on tbe 10th of Jane, whose winer 
measured only two inches, had the feet orange and the bul 
greenish yellow homy ; tbe head was rufous brown ; the body 
above dark brown ; each feather of the wing-<K>verts and scapu- 
lars having a blackish subterminal bar and a fulvous tip; 
beneath sullied fulvous. Toung birds of both sexes about three 
months old resemble the female, but have the bill livid at tip, 
the orbital skin pale fleshy red and the feet livid brownish. At 
this stage the black subterminal bars on the upper feathers are still 
well marked. The young male assumes the black plumage 
when about five months old (such at least was the case in two 
specimens I had in confinement) , but at this age it still shows 
traces of the original brown colour about the feathers of the 
neck and upper back, and in this state it probably represents 
Latham's '^ Nepal Pheasant" (Ind. Orn. II., 682). 

The adult male of this species diifers from O. alboeriskuua in 
having a small black crest instead of an ample white one ; in the 
white tips to the feathers of the rump and upper tail«covertB 
being much narrower and further apart ; and in the tarsi being 
more slender. From melanotm it difiers in having the rump 
and upper tail-coverts white tipped ; in the feathers of the throat 
and breast being darker and more grey ; and in having the tarsi 
much more slender. 

From honfieldi it differs conspicuously in having the feathers 
of the throat and breast greyish white and lanceolate instead of 
pure black and rounded ; and in having the rump and upper 
tail-coverts much more narrowly tipped with white. 

The adult female resembles melanotua much more closely than 
either albocriatatus or horsjieldii. It differs from melanotus in 
having the feathers of the upper surface more broadly margined 
with greyish white ; the middle tail feathers are more broadly 
yermicellated, though not so prominently as in cUbocrisiatuBf 
the edgings to the feathers of the lower surface contrast more, 
and the rump contrasts more with the middle tail feathersi 
in this respect recalling honfieldi^ but in no other. 

The bird I have above described is, no doubt, the PluuianuM 
Utuiamelanus of Latham, Ind. Orn. II., 633. Eirkpatrick, in 
his *' Account of the Kingdom of Nepal'' (1811, p. 132) gives 
a good figure of this Ealij, showing its distinctive points, viz,, 
black crest, white-barred lower back, and grey-white throat and 
breast, and says : '^ The Ehalidge is met with in the 
thickets which overrun the gorges of the mountains near Noa- 
kote/' Ac. Mr. Hodgson, curiously enough, seems to have 
overlooked the distinctness of the species. In his drawings, 
now in Mr. Hume's possession, he gives an excellent figure of 
our bird, but labels it Gallopicuis alboerUtatm (!), an impos* 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THX OBHITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 347 

Bible tiUe, seeingr that the bird has a black crest. In both 
editions of the B. M. Catalogne of Mr. Hodgson's collection 
{1846 and 1863) Gallophana leuconielanua h entered ; bnt then 
iUboeriitaitu is added as a synonym, which is clearly an error. 

Bnt it may be, and indeed has been, held that the I^fepal 
Ealij is a hybrid between albocristattis and meUmotus. In dis- 
proof of this theory I can now bring forward ample evidence. 
The Nepal Kalij is a most interesting species^ exactly inter- 
mediate in coloration and in habitat to the White-crested and 
Black-backed Ealij-Pheasants, and is possibly the older form 
from which the other two have branched off to west and east^ 
and become modified. During the two years I resided in Nepal, 
I tried in vain, both personally and by the offer of rewards, to 
obtain a specimen of either alboerialcUus or melanotusj which, 
on the ** hybrid'' theoryj shonld have been found there inter- 
breeding. I have seen scores of the Nepal Kalij (of which 
at least thirty were adnit males) and tney were all exactly 
alike and constant to the definition above given of the species. 
Any one seeing only a single male bird of leueomelanua would 
perhaps naturally conclude that it was a hybrid ; but when the 
two supposed parent-species are found to be entirely absent from 
the large tract of country where the Nepal Kalij abounds, 
while the character of the latter are constant in a large series 
of specimens, the conviction that it is a thoroughly good species 
seems to me irresistible. 

The Nepal Kalij extends to the east nearly as far as the Aum 
I believe, melanotus being found east of that river only ; of the 
range of our bird to the west I have no certain information, but 
QaUophatU aliocrittaiuB probably replaces it in the extreme 
western portion of the Nepal territories. 

Q. Uucomelanua is common, wherever thick forest is found, from 
Hetourain the Dun to the valley of Nepal; in all the wooded hills 
surrounding the latter up to an elevation of nearly 9,000 feet ; 
and in every forest about Noakot. It is usually seen in pairs or 
in parties of from three to ten, often feeding on the ground 
near cultivated patches at the borders of forest. The birds 
seem very fond of perching on trees, and it is usually in this 
position that one comes across them in forcing one's* way 
through forest which has a dense undergrowth. On such 
occasions the Kalij first gives notice of its whereabouts by 
whirring down with great velocity from its perch and then run- 
ning rapidly out of sight to the shelter of some thicket. In 
the winter the birds roost on trees at the foot of the hills, and 
the plan for making a bag is to post oneself about sunset 
under some trees which they are known to frequent and await 
their coming. The birds are then soon heard threading their 



348 A OOKXBIBUTION TO THB OBKITHOI1O6T OF HIPAL. 

way through the jungle to wards their favourite irees^ and at 
onoe fly up and perch. When onoe settled for the ni^ht in this 
way they are not easily alarmed, and I have shot four or five 
birds in quick succession before the rest of the party would 
dear out to quieter quarters. 

Occasionally too one can get a shot at the Kal^ as they cross a 
hill path through the forest on their way to or from some stream. 

Great numbers of the Nepal Kalij are snared and brought into 
Kathmandu for sale. The birds bear confinement in the valley 
very well, lind I reared several chicks to maturity. 

812.— GallttS ferrugineuSi Om. 

The Oommon Jungle Fowl is not uncommon about Hetoura 
and Nimboatar, and again in the Noakot district ; but it does 
not occur in any part of the valley of Nepal. Its habits and 
haunts are so well known that nothing further need be said 
here about these points. 

818.— Prancolinu3 vulgaris, Steph. (Titar). 

Three males, Valley, — Lengthy 12'8 to 13*5 ; expanse, 30 to 
e\ ; wing, 5-8 to 6*2 ; tail, 3*6 to 3*75 ; tarsus, 1 65 to 1*8; bill 
from gape, 1*05 to 1*1 ; bill at front, 0*93 to 0*98 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 2*35 to 2*5 ; spur, 0*15 to 0*25. 

Bill black, upper mandible, pale horny at extreme tip ; irides 
deep brown ; feet orange ; claws horny black ; spur browa 
horny. 

The Black Partridge is fairly common on the hills round the 
Nepal Valley from March to October ; and in the Nawakot 
district, the Hetoura Diin, and the plains of Nepal from Novem* 
ber to February at least, but perhaps throughout the year. 
In the valley it is found, in suitable localities, from the foot of 
the hills to an elevation of 6,000 feet It frequents grassy slopes 
on the skirts of forest, where the trees are far apart, or bush- 
covered ground near cultivation ; and in these localities on the 
bills it may constantly be heard uttering its well-known cry from 
April to July. In the Hetoura D&n I found it in rather high 
grass, never far from water and cultivation ; and in the plains 
U was very common in waste ground overgrown with bushes. 

820.~Gaccabis chukar, J. B. Or. (Chakor). 

TufO tno^^s.— Length, 15 and 15*2; expanse, 22*6 and 23; 
wing, 6*5 and 6*7 ; tail, 4*2 and 4*3 ; tarsus, 1*66 and 1*7 ; bill 
from gape, 1*06 and 1*1 ; weight, 1 lb. 3 ozs. and 1 lb. 5 ozs. 

Two femaUi. — Length, 13 and 13*1 ; expanse, 20 and 20*2 1 
wing, 6*2 and 6*3 ; tail, 3*3 ; tarsus, 1*6 and 1*65 ; bill from gape, 
0*94 and 1*0 ; weight, 15 ozs. 



A coirrftiBxn^toK vo thb okkithologt ot nvpal. 849 

Bill coral red, with a brownish tinge on cnlmen ; iridea 
hazel brown and reddish brown ; edge of eyelida brick red ; 
feet red^ paler than the bill. 

These specimens are deep tinted, much darker than examples 
of the same species from Ladak and Yarkand. 

The Ohukor is common on certain parts of the hills round 
the valley of Nepal, at elevations of from 5^000 to 6,000 feet^ 
from March to October. It freqnents rounded grassy bills, 
where the small nullahs are fringed with bushes, and where 
there is no forest ; in such localities, especially near patches of 
cnltivatioUy and on bits of stony ground, flocks of Chukor are 
sure to be found. About the end of October the birds descend 
the hills and assemble on the confines of the warmer valleys 
for the winter; where they can feed in the rice fields which 
have been reaped, in fields of growing corn, &o. 

It breeds from May to June, usually at an elevation of about 
6,000 feet* On the 5th Juue a nest of the Chukor was found 
at Kakni Powah ; it was on the ground, under the edge of a 
rock, and well sheltered by ferns and small bushes* The nest 
was a mere pad of grass and leases, and contained seven nearly 
fresh eggs, which were neatly arranged, six in a circle, with the 
small end pmnting inwards^ and the seventh egg filled up the 
centre. 

824.— Arboricola torqueolus, Valenc. {Peunra). 

Femaky July. — Length, 10*9; expanse, 19 ; wing, 5*7 ; tail, 
2*75 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; bill from gape, 0*9 ; bill at front, 0*76 ; 
nostril to tip of bill, 0*3 ; closed wings short of tail, 20 ; weight, 
7*5 ozs. 

fiill black, the culmen and gonys brownish ; irides brown ; 
spot at gape and orbital skin purplish red ; feet brownish olive 
horny; claws pink horny. The upper surface is strongly 
undulated with black. 

This Partridge is found on the hills round the valley of 
Kepal, in densely-wooded nullahs. I saw four or five specimens 
during the time I was in Nepal, but I cannot say whether it is 
common there. 

825.— Arboricola rofogolariSi Bly.-^A.. rufipeai 

Hodga. 

Male, Valley, June, — Length, 9*2 ; expanse, 17-0 ; wing, 5'0 ; 
tail, 2*2 ; tarsus, 1*35 ; bill from gape, 0*9 ; bill at front, 0*64 ; 
nostril to tip of bill, 0*32 ; mid- toe and claw, 1*6 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 1*3. 

Bill black ; gape and orbital skin pink fleshy ; irides dark 
brown ; feet red. 



850 A CONTBIBUnOK TO THE OBNITHOLOOT OF HIPAL. 

This Hill Partridge is found on the hills ronnd the Nepal 
Valley in similar localities to those frequented b j torqueolus : 
and it appears to occur in about the same numbers as that 
species. 

Dr. Jerdon says that this species ^^ tras discriminated by 
Blyth from specimens sent from Darjeeling, and we are igno- 
rant of its rang^e west of Sikim" ; but as a matter of fact it was 
first discriminated by Hodgson from specimens obtained in 
Nepal, and that naturalist gave it the appropriate title of rufipe$. 

829.— Ootumix communiSi Bonn. 

Four males. — Lenorth, 7*6 to 7*8 ; expanse, 13*8 to 14; wing, 
4-2 to 4*4 ; tail, 1*65 to 1*8 ; tarsus, 1*0 to 1*05 ; bill from gape, 
0*6 to 0*65 ; bill at front, 0*4 to 0*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 
0-4 to 0-9 ; weight, 8*2 to 3*75 ozs. 

Four females.^ Lengthy 7*6 to S'O; expanse, 14 to 14*3; 
wing, 4*35 to 4*6; tail, 1-7 to 20 ; tarsus, 1*0 to 1*1 ; bill from 
gape, 0-63 to 07 ; bill at front, 045 to 0*47 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*4 to 06 ; weight, 3*5 to 3*75 ozs. 

The Common Quail is found in great numbers in the vallej 
of Nepal from the middle of October to the middle of Decem- 
ber, and from about the third week in March to the end of 
April. It is abundant in the Nawakot district in November 
and in the plains of Nepal in December. In November the 
Quail swarm in the Marwa crop and rice fields of the valley. 

833.— Tumix plumbipes, Hodgs. 

MaUj Valley J September. — Expanse,* 11*5 ; wing, 3*4 ; tarsus, 
0*9 ; bill from gape, 0*7 ; bill at front, 0*52 ; weight, 1*25 ozs. 

Bill grey plumbeous, dusky above ; irides milky white ; feet 
pale plumbeous ; claws greyish horny. 

Clnn and upper portion of throat greyish white ; neck and 
breast fulvous, conspicuously barred across with black; abdomen, 
crissnm and under tail-coverts light bright ferruginous. Iden- 
tical with specimens from Sikim. 

This Bustard Quail appears to be rare in the valley of Nepal. 
It was observed in winter in some of the cultivated lowlands 
of the Nawakot district. 

845.— Gharadrius iulvus, Om. 

Three malesy Valley^ September and October. — Length, 9*4 to 
9*8 ; expanse, 20*6 to 20*7 ; wing, 6*4 ; tail, 2*4 to 2*9 ; tarsus, 
1*7 ; tibia bare, 0*8 ; bill from gape, 1*05 to 1*1 ; bill at front, 
0*92 to 0*93 ; closed wings reach to end of tail. 

* An immatttze bird.— •▲. O, H. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 351 

Bill dull black ; irides dark brown ; feet plambeons black. 

This Golden Plover arrives in the valley of Nepal about the 
beginning of September, and is common there, in cut rice fields 
and swampj ground throughout that month and to nearly the 
middle of October. I obtained it as early as the 4th Septem- 
ber. On its migration north, in the spring, it does not appear 
to make any stay ia the valley. 

849 bis.—SgiaiitiB pladda^ O. R. Gr. 

FemaUy November. — Lengthy 8*7 ; expanse^ 18*3 ; wing, 58 ; 
tail, 3'3 ; tarsus, 1*25 ; bill from gape, 0*9 ; bill at front, 0*78 ; 
tibia bare, 0*4; closed wings short of tail, 0*4. 

Bill black, extreme base of lower mandible yellow ; irides 
dark brown; margin of eyelids ochre yellow; feet pure ochre 
yellow ; claws black. 

This species was only met with in November on the banks 
of the streams in the Nawakot district. It appeared 
to be always solitary, and was not common. 

849.— iEgialitis dubia, Scop. 

Twelve epedmens, — Length, 6*0 to 6*5 ; expanse, 13*8 to 14*2 ; 
wing, 4-15 to 4*63 ; tail, 2-15 to 265 ; tarsus, 0*9 to I'D ; tibia 
bare, 0*2 to 0-38; bill from gape, 0-52 to 0*6; bill at front, 
0*48 to 0*53; closed wings short of tail, 0*1 to 0*6. 

Bill black ; base of lower mandible and gape orange or yel- 
low ; margin of eyelids gamboge yellow ; irides dark brown ; 
feet dusky or dingy greenish ; claws black. 

A specimen in immature plumage, shot in the valley on the 
15th April, measured : — 

Length, 5*8 ; expanse, 12*7 ; wing, 4 ; tail, 2*2 ; tarsus, O'S ; 
bill from gape, 0*5 ; bill at front, 0*42 ; closed wings short of 
tail, 0*3. 

AH these specimens seem to be clearly referable to one species 
only, and yet some of them are small enough for ^. minuta as 
given by Jerdon. I have examined specimens labelled minuta 
in Mr. Hume's collection (one with a wing, 4*25), and I cannot 
see how they are to be separated from dudia. If minuta is 
a good species, it is to be hoped that some one will define the 
points by which it can be discriminated from dubia,* 

This Ringed-Plover is very common in the Nepal Valley from 
September to June, but only a few birds are to be seen in July 
and August. I found it common in winter in the Nawakot 
district and the plains of Nepal. 



* See 8. F., VII., 227 n and 300 ». In the spring and summer the lege of dubUt 
become jeUow, those of miwUa do not— Sd. 

45 



352 A OONTBlBUTiON TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF MBPAt. 

865.— LobivaneUus indicaSi Bodd. 

Seven specmetu, — Length, 12*6 to 13*6; expansei 28 to 30; 
wing, 8*9 to 9*4; tail, 4*75 to 4*9 ; tarsus, 2*8 to 3*35; tibia 
bare, 1*4 to 1*7; bill from gape, 1*35 to 1*6; bill at front, 1*3 
to 1*5 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*5 to 0*6. 

Bill coral red, the terminal third black ; gape, margin of eye- 
lids, and wattles coral or dark red ; irides lake red, in one spe- 
cimen creamj, marbled with reddish spots ; feet pale yellow, 
greenish on the joints ; daws black ; wing spur rosy horn j. 

The Red-watded Lapwing is common in the valley of Nepal 
thronghont the year, frequenting rice fields, swampy grounds, 
and the neighbourhood of streams all over the central part 
of the valley. It was found in abundance in the Nawakot 
district, the Hetoura Dun, and the plains and Tarai of Nepal in 
winter. 

857.— Hoplopterns ventraliSy Cuv. 

Male, Valley J May. — Length, 12; expanse, 25 ; wing, 7*8 » 
tail, 3*9 ; tarsus, 2*5 ; bill from gape, 1*33 ; bill at front, 1*25 i 
closed wings short of tail, 0*3; tibia bare, 1*0; wing spun 
0*85. 

Mahj Bichiakohj December. — Length, 11*75 ; wing, 8*0; 
tail, 8*76; tarsus, 2*65; bill from gape, 1*35; bill atfron^ 
1*15 ; wing spur, 0*43 ; wings reach to end of tail. 

Bill, feet, and claws blacK ; irides dark brown ; wing spur 
black. 

The Indian Spur-winged Plover is fairly common in the val- 
ley of Nepal, (where it certainly breeds,) but in summer only. 

In winter I found it in small numbers on the stream at Bi- 
chiakoh. It is never seen away from the banks of rivers or 
shingly islands in the midst of them. 

863.— Grus antigone, Lzn. 

Common in the Tarai, and often kept in confinement in the 
Nepal valley. 

865.— Orus cinerea^ JBechsL 

Common, in winter, in the Tarai and Hetoura Ddn ; passes 
over the Valley on migration, but never seems to alight there. 

866^— Anthropoides virgo, Lin. 

Common in the Hetoura Dun and Tarai in winter; passes over 
the valley in migration, and occasionally alights there for a short 
time. Very commonly kept in confinement in the vaUey* 



A CONTniBUTION TO THE 0BNITH0L06T OF NEPAL. 353 



^ 
S' 



867.— Scolopax rasticola, Lin. 

Two n.€des. — Length, 14 and 14*3 ; expanse, 24 and 25 ; 
wing, 7*5 and 7*8 ; tail, 3*5 and 3'6; tarsus, 1*45 and 1*5 ; bill 
from gape, 2*85 and 3 ; bill at front, 31 and 3*15 ; mid-toe, 
1*55 and 1*6; closed wings short of tail, 1*0 and 1*1 ; weight 
(one specimen), 9*4 ozs. 

Ttoo females. — Length, 13*3 and 13*6 ; expanse, 24*8 and. 
26 ; wing, 7*7 and 775; tail, 3*3 and 35 ; tarsus, 1*4; bill 
from gape, 2*9 and 2*95 ; bill at front, 3*15 and 3*2; mid-toe, 
1*5 and 1*52; closed wings short of tail, 0*6 and 1*0; weight, 
9*4 and 9*5 ozs. 

Bill grey fleshy, dusky at tip, and pale at base of lower 
mandible ; irides dark-brown ; feet fleshy grey or livid, darker 
on the joints ; claws dnsky horny. 

The Woodcock arrives in the valley of Nepal early in 
November, and leaves at the end of February. It frequents 
most of the small woods in the central part of the valley, 
and may be found along the foot of the hills where damp thin 
tree forest occurs. Its favourite haunts are the boggy bits 
of ground at the edge of woods, and in such a spot I shot a 
Woodcock in the Residency grounds within a few yards of 
some houses. It is not at all common in the valley, and can 
only be obtained by hard work and with the aid of many 
beaters. 

868.— Qallixiago nemoricola^ Hodgs. 

This Snipe appears to be rare in the valley. It was only 
noticed on two occasions, in winter, on the skirts of forest at 
the foot of the hills. 

869.— Qallinago solitaria, Hodgs 

Ttoo males. — Length, 12*05 and 12*1 ; expanse, 20*5 and 
21*5; wing, 6*5 and 6'7 ; tail, 3*1 and 3*4; tarsus, 1*25 and 
1*3 ; tibia bare, 0*15 and 0*2 ; bill from gape, 2'7 and 2*75; 
bill at front, 2*76 and 2*8; closed wings short of tail, 0*4 and 
0-65 ; weight, 5*25 ozs. Tail of 20 and 22 feathers. 

Two females. — Length, 12*1 and 12*4; expanse, 21 and 
21*4; wing, 6*7 and 6*85; tail, 3*3 and 3*35; tarsus, 1*25 
and 1*3 ; tibia bare, 0*15 ; bill from gape, 2*75 ; bill at front, 
2*83 and 2*87 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*35 and 0*5 ; 
weight, 5*5 ozs. Tail of 16 and 20 feathers. 

Bill plumbeous, black at tip, and the base of the lower 
mandible yellowish brown ; irides dark-brown ; feet dull olive^ 
or pale yellowish green, the soles yellowish; claws homy 
black. The modified tail feathers are from fonr to six on each 



854 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 

side, gradually increasing in width from the ontermost^ and 
none of them so narrow as in 6r. sthenura. 

The Solitary Snipe is not nncommon in the valley of Nepal 
from October to the beginning of March, being represented 
in larger numbers than either the Woodcock or Wood Snipe. 
It is found at the foot of the hills all round the valley, on 
sloping grass-covered ground, in the nullahs of small stream- 
lets running down from the hills. It is as often found in 
pairs as singly^ and does not seem ever to seek the shelter of 
bushes or forests. Its flight is slower and heavier than that 
of either the Pintail or Common Snipe. 

870.— GaUinago sfhenura^ Kuhl. 

Sixteen males. — Length, 9-9 to 10*9 ; expanse, 16-3 to 17'3 ; 
wing, 5-0 to 5-85 ; tail, 2*3 to 2-5 ; tarsus, 1-2 to 1-25; bill 
from gape, 2*2 to 2-45 ; bill at front, 2*2 to 2*43 ; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*5 to 0*8. 

Ten females. — Length, 10*1 to 11; expanse, 16*7 to 17-5; 
wing, 5-17 to 5*5 ; tail, 2*2 to 2*6 ; tarsus, 1-2 to 1*25 ; bill 
from gape, 2*8 to 2*6; bill at front, 2*45 to 2*6. 

Five birds (male and female) weighed from 3*3 to 4 ozs. 

In all these specimens the axillaries and under wing-coverts 
are strongly barred with brownish black. The narrow lateral 
tail feathers vary in number from six to nine on each side ; 
but they are not always symmetrically developed : for in six 
examples with the tails apparently quite perfect I found the 
number of these feathers to be, 6-7, 7-8, 7-28, 7-8, 8-9. In 
four specimens these narrow tail feathers could not at first 
be detected, but on carefully holding aside the tail-coverts, 
the modified feathers were clearly seen just growing, and 
often not more than a tenth of an inch in length ; in other 
respects these four birds were of fnll size and apparently adult. 

The Pin-tailed Snipe is exceedingly common in the valley 
of Nepal, in winter, arriving at the end of Augnst ai^ 
migrating northwards about the beginning of May ; it is most 
abundant in September and October, and again in Mai^h 
and April. It frequents rather drier ground tl^an the Common 
Snipe, being often found in fields grown with potatoes, mus- 
tard, radishes, &c.; audit proclaims itsafiinity to 0. soUtana by 
occasionally associating with it, in the colder months, about 
the grassy ground at the foot of the hills. But it is also 
constantly foimd in company with the Common Snipe. Its 
flight may be slightly heavier than that of the latter species, 
but where both birds occur in numbers, I believe the most 
experienced sportsman will be quite unable to distingoisli 
(fallinaria from sthenura on the wing. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THIB ORKITHOLOOY OF NEPAL. 355 

There has been considerable discussion in the pages of ^^ Stbat 
Fbathers^' about the differences between the Common and Pin^- 
tailed Snipes. 1 had an excellent opportunity of observing both 
those species in the Nepal Valley^ and may here be permitted 
to make a few observations on what has been written by Gapts* 
Marshall and Butler, Mr. Cripps, Mr. Parker and Mr. Hume* 
In the Brst place, I would say that my observations most 
thoroughly confirm every word that has been written by Mr. 
Hume on the distinctions of these two species. The same sexes 
being compared, gallinaria has always a longer bill than sthenura ; 
the latter species has also the tarsus shorter and stouter^ the 
mid-toe averages O'l shorter, and the colours of the upper parts 
are more dull and contrast less (and by this character alone I 
have often separated the two species in a bag, without examining 
any other point) The barring of the under wiDg-coverts and 
axillaries is a most constant character, and is^ perhaps, the best 
point by which the Pintail may be discriminated from the Com- 
mon Snipe ; for, as I have above shown, the narrow lateral tail 
feathers are sometimes so rudimentary that they may be easily 
overlooked. I would suggest that some of the specimens con-* 
sidered by Messrs. Marshall and Butler to be scolopacina may 
possibly have been Pintails in which the modified tail feathers 
were not grown ; and this would explain their view that the 
under-wing coverts and axillaries were .often as strongly barred 
in one species as in the other. As to the size of the two species 
there is clearly very little difference : the expanse and length of 
wing are the same ; five specimens of sihenura weighed from 3 3 
to 4 ozs., and four specimens of scdopacina had precisely the 
same weight, i.tf., 3*3 to 4 ozs. But scolopaeina has the total 
length, 0-2 to 04 ; the tail, 03 to 04 ; the tarsus, '07 to '05 ; and 
the bill, 0*4 to 0'5 longer than in sthenura, sex for sex ; and so 
far Jerdon's statement about sthenura '^ of slightly smaller size 
than the Common Snipe,*' is fairly borue out. 

871.-~4}aJUinago gallinaria^ Gm. 

Six males, — Length, 10-3 to ll'l; expanse, 16-3 to 17*2; 
wing, 4-9 to 5-4; tail, 2-5 to 29 ; tarsus, 1-25 to 1*3 ; bill from 
gape, 2-6 to 267 ; bill at front, 2 55 to 2-65. 

Nine females, — Length, 10*8 to 11*3; expanse, 16*5 to 17*5 ; 
wing, 60 to 5-5 ; tail, 25 to 30 ; tarsus, 1-3 to 132 ; bill from 
gape, 2-63 to 29 ; bill at front, 27 to 30. 

Weight of four specimens (males and females) 3*3 to 4 ozs. 

The Common Bnipe arrives in the valley of Nepal about the 
1st of September and retires early in May. Although it may 
be shot in the valley in any month between the dates above 
indicated, it is most numerous on its migrations, being more 



856 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGT OF NBPAL. 

common from September to about the middle of November, and 
in March and April. I found it rather scarce in the Nawakot 
district in November. It is always found in the wet fields and 
swampy grounds in the central parts of the valley, and seems 
to avoid the crop fields and the ground at the foot of the hills. 
It occurs in the valley in about one-third of the numbers of 
etAenura* 

872.— Gallinago gallinnla, Zin. 

Seven specimens. — Lengthy 7*9 to 8*4 ; expanse, 13*3 to 14*5 ; 
wing, 412 to 4-53 ; tail, 2 to 2-35 ; tarsus, 09 to 0*95 ; bill 
from gape, 1*55 to 1*64 ; bill at front, 1*6 to 1*7 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*25 to 0*7 ; weight, 1*6 to 1*8 ozs. 

The Jack Snipe arrives in the valley of Nepal in the begin- 
ning of September, and does not leave until about the middle 
of April. It is most common in the valley during October, 
Kovember and March, and is found in the Nawakot district ia 
November. It was generally found in fields of growing com 
or other crops. 

875.— Limosa sgocephala, Zin. 

Female^ Valley y 7th September. — Length, 19'5; expanse, 80; 
wing, 8*9 ; tail, 3*65 ; tarsus, 3*4 ; bill from gape, 4*85 ; bill at 
front, 4*8; tibia bare, 2*1; mid-toe and claw, 2*2; weight, 
9 ozs. ; closed wings reach to end of tail. 

Bill with the basal half pale yellowish homy, tinged reddish ; 
the distal half brownish black, darkest at extreme tip ; irides 
dark brown ; feet dusky, with a greenish gloss ; the claw of 
the mid-toe curves upwards, is square at the end, and the inner 
edge is finely toothed. 

The God wit is a winter visitant to the Nepal Valley, but does 
not appear to be common there. 

877.— Numenius lineatuSi Cuv. 

Female^ Valley^ 2nd October, — Length, 23*8 ; expanse, 42 ; 
wing, 12 ; tail, 5*15 ; tarsus, 3'5 ; bill from gape, 5*7 ; bill at 
front, 5'65 ; tibia bare, 1*9; closed wings short of tail, 0*7; 
weight, 1 lb. 4 ozs. 

Bill black towards the tip, the base of the maxilla fleshv 
brown, and the base of the mandible reddish fleshy ; irides dark 
brown ; feet pale bluish grey ; claws dusky. 

The Curlew is a winter visitor to the valley ; it is found along 
the banks of the streams, is rather rare and always shy. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 357 

880.— Machetes pngnax, Lin. 

Females Vallqfy 4<i September. — Lengthy lO'l ; expanse, 
19*9 ; vvingy 6*1& ; tail^ 2*15 ; tarsus, 1*6 ; bill from gape^ 1*26 ; 
bill at front, 1*2 ; mid-toe, 1*2 ; tibia bare, 0*9 ; closed wings 
reacb beyond tip of tail, 01. 

Bill black ; feet dark plumbeoas. 

MaUj younffy Valley y \^h September, — Length, 10 ; expanse, 
20*5 ; wing, 6*4 ; tail, 2*6; tarsus, 1*6 ; bill from gape, 1*3 ; bill 
at front, 1*2 ; mid-toe and claw, 1*3 ; tibia bare, 0*9 ; closed 
wings beyond tip of tail, 0*1 ; weight, 2*75 ozs. 

Female , young ^ Valley j September, — Length, 9*7; expanse, 
19 6; wing, 6*0 ; tail, 2*5 ; tarsus, 1*5 ; bill from gape, 1*25 ; 
bill at front, 1*15; tibia bare, 0*8 ; mid-toe and claw, 1*24 ; 
dosed wings beyond tip of tail, 0*2. 

Bill dull black, base of lower mandible homy brown ; irides 
dark brown ; feet dull greenish plumbeous ; claws black. 

Not uncommon in the valley of Nepal in September, on its 
way from the north ; found on the banks of small streams in 
the central part of the valley, or on damp meadow land. 

885.— Tringa temmincki, Leisl. 

Two maleSy Valley, October and /^tfcem&er.— Length, 6 and 
6*1 ; expanse, 12 and 12*3; wing, 8*8 and 4; tail, 1*95 and 
2*05 ; tarsus, 0*7 and 0*75 ; bill from gape, 0*67 and 0*69 ; 
bill at front, 0*65 and 0*7; tibia bare, 0*2 and 0*3 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*1 and 0*25 ; weight, 0*75 and 1 oz. 

Bill black, greenish brown athase ; irides dark brown ; feet 
dull brownish green ; claws black. 

This Stint was fairly common in the valley of Nepal, from 
the middle of September to April, and was observed in the 
Nawakot district in November. It was found along the sandy 
banks of rivers, often associated with JB. curonicus. 

892.— Tetanus ochropus, Lin. 

Siaf specimens. — Length, 9*5 to 9*9 ; expanse, 17*5 to 18*6; 
wing, 5*53 to 5*9 ; tail, 2*4 to 2*65 ; tersus, 1*3 to 1*5 ; tibia 
bare, 0*6 to 0*8 ; closed wings reach beyond end of tail, to 
0-35. 

Bill plumbeous black, greenish at base; irides dark brown; 
feet dull greenish. 

The Green Sand-piper is very common in winter, along the 
streams in the Nepal Valley, the Nawakot district, Markhu, 
and the Tarai and plains. It arrives in the valley early in 
September, and departs in April or early in May. 



358 A CONTRIBUTION TO THK OUNITHOLOOT OF NEPAL. 

893.— Tringoides hypoleucus, Lin. 

Nine specimens. — Length, 7*4 to 8*9 ; expanse, 12*8 to 14*7 ; 
wing, 4 to 4*6 ; tail, 24 to 2*75 ; tarsus, 85 to 1*0 ; tibia 
bare, 0*25 to 04; bill from gape, 106 to 1-3 ; bill at front, 0-95 
to ri3; closed wings short of tail, 0*5 to 0*95. 

Bill slaty, black at tip ; irides dark brown ; feet pale dingy 
green ; claws black. 

The Common Sand-piper has the same distribution and time 
of arrival and departure as T. ochropus. It is, I think, rather 
more abundant than the Oreen Sand-piper, in the hills at least. 

894.— Totanus glottis, Lin. 

Two males. — Length, 18*2 and 13'75 ; expanse, 23*2 and 
24; wing, 7-4 and 7*6; tail, 8 25 and 3*5; tarsus, 2*25 and 
2-4; bill from gape, 2-3; bill at front, 2*13 and 2-16; tibia 
bare, 1*05 and 1*5. 

Two females, — Length, 14 and 14*5 ; expanse, 24*5 and 25 ; 
wing, 7-7 and 78 ; tail, 33 and 3-8 ; tarsus, 2-6 and 2-6 ; bill 
from gape, 2*45 and 2*65 ; bill at front, 2*8 ; closed wings reach 
to end of tail. 

Bill plumbeous at base, horny black at tip ; irides dark 
brown; feet dull greenish, greenish plumbeous, and pure 
light plumbeous. 

This species is fairly common in winter, in the Nepal Valley, 
the Nawakot district, and the Tarai and plains, along the 
course of the streams. The earliest date on which it was ob« 
tained in the valley was the 4th September. 

903.— Fulica atrap, Lin. 

Male, — Length, 160; expanse, 30; wing, 8*7; tail, 2-8; 
tarsus, 2-2; bill from gape, 1*45; bill at fronts 1 '9; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*5 ; weight, 1 lb. 

Irides crimson. 

Female. — Length, 15-4 ; expanse, 30 ; wing, 7-8 ; tail, 2*7 ; 
tarsus, 2-1; bill from gape, 1-45; bill at front, 1-66; closed 
wings short of tail, 0-8 ; weight, 14 ozs. 

The Coot is a winter visitor to the Nepal Valley, where it 
remains, in very small numbers, throughout the cold season; 
upon some tanks and ponds. 

910— Porzana baiUoni, Vieill. 

Male. — Length, 7*2; expanse, 11*5; wing, 3*55; tail, 2*2; 
tarsus, 1-05; bill from gape, 075; bill at front, 0*6; mid-toe 
and daw, 1-47 ; closed wings short of tail, I'l ; weight, 
1*75 ozs. 



A OONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOOT OF KBPAL. 359 

FewuUe. — Length, 7*2 ; tail, 2*0 ; tarsus, 1*1 ; bill from gape, 
0*76; bill at front, 0*64; mid-toe and daw^ 1*5; weight, 
1*5 ozs. 

Bill dark green, dusky along culmen ; irides bright red ; feet 
pale dingy green. 

The chin and npper part of the throat white ; a broad bluish 
grey supercilium reaches to sides of occiput. 

Baillon's Crake is common in the valley of Nepal, from 
July to December, but is never seen or heard daring the first 
half of the year. It particularly affects the fields of trans- 
planted rice, and from thence its peculiar call may be heard in 
the morning and evening, and often by night, as soon as the 
plant has attained a height of about a foot or so. Its cry is 
loud and consists of three or four syllables, slowly repeated 
at first, and then the same notes are given in rapid succession, 
so as to form a long drawn chattering cry, «.jr., tuk, tuk, tui, 
— tuk tuk ink tuk tuk tuk^ kur. 



918.— Ciconia nigra^ Lin. 

Femakj Nawakot District^ November. — Length, 40*7 ; ex- 
panse, 75*5 ; wing, 21 ; tarsus, 7*6 ; tibia bare, 4*25 ; bill from 
gape, 7*7 ; bill at front, 7*65. 

Bill dark red, paler at tip ; orbital skin red ; irides dark 
brown ; legs and feet dull red. 

Two founff birdsj VaUejfj October. — ^Length, 40*5 and 41 ; 
expanse, 75 and 76*5 ; wing, 21*5 and 21*85 ; tail, 9*5 and 9*8 ; 
tarsus, 7*5 and 7*6 ; tibia bare, 3*8 and 4*1 ; mid-toe and claw, 
3*8 ; bill from gape, 7*8 and 7*45 ; bill at front, 6*6 and 6*75 ; 
closed wings short of tail, 0*8 and 0*9; weight, 5 lbs. 7*5 ozs. 
and 5 lbs. 11 ozs. 

Bill homy creen, brownish at base ; orbital skin purplish 
brown ; irides dark brown ; legs and feet dingy greenish, the 
upper part of the tibia huffy ; claws greenish horny. 

The Black Stork is common in the valley of Nepal and the 
Nawakot district from the end of September to December, and 
perhaps throughout the cold season. Its habits are much the 
same as those of the next species. 

920.~Dissiira episcopa, Bodd. 

Two tnflfc*.— Length, 36 and 87*5 ; expanse, 72 and 74 ; 
wing, 20 and 20*5 ; tail, 7*7 and 8 ; tarsus, 6*83 and 7*0 ; bill 
from gape, 6*42 and 6*7 ; bill at front, 6*1 and 6*5 ; closed 
wings reach beyond end of tail, 0*8 and 1*2; tibia bare, 4*4 
and 5 ; weight, 5 lbs. and 6 lbs. 1 oz. 

Two /««afe«.— Length, 35*3 and 37 ; expanse, 70 ; wing, 
19-6 and 20; tail, 7*6 and 8*2; tarsus, 6*7 and 7; bill from 

46 



1^' 



360 A COKTBIBUTION TO THB OBMITHOIiOQY OF KBPAL. 

^ape, 6'5 and 6*9 ; bill at front, 6 and 6*5 ; tibia barn, 4*8 and 
5 ; closed wings beyond tail, 0*6 and 0*7 ; weighty 4 lbs. 8 oss. 
and 5 lbs. 2 ozs. 

Bill blacky the culmen, tip, gonys and margins deep red* 
bare skin of head dark plnmbeons ; eyelids pale grey^ dosky 
along their margins ; irides crimson ; junction of sclerotic with 
cornea coal black; exposed part of sclerotic bright yellow; 
naked skin (0*5 broad) along whole length of ulna bright 
vermilion ; legs and feet deep dull red ; claws homy black. 

The White-necked Stork is common iu the valley of Nepal 
from May to December, and in the Nawakot district in Novem- 
ber. It frequents rice fields, the banks of streams and pondsi 
usually in small parties. It is less shy and consequently more 
easily approached than C* nigra, 

924 6i9.— Herodias alba, Zin. 

Female, Valley^ December. — Length, 40*6 ; expanse, 61*0 ; 
wing, 17*0 ; tail, 7*2 ; tareus, 7*0; bill from gape, 6-0 ; bill at 
front, 4*85 ; tibia bare, 4*8 ; weight, 3 lbs. ; dosed wings reach 
to end of tail. 

Bill yellow, dusky at tip ; orbital skin pale green ; irides pale 
straw colour ; tibia dingy greenish ; feet black } claws plnm- 
beons black. 

The Large White Heron, which seems to be quite distinct 
from the preceding species, is a winter visitor to the Nepal 
Valley and the Nawakot district. It occurred in the valley in 
smaller numbers than B. torra^ and was not observed in the 
plains. 

925.— Herodias torra^ B.-Ham. 

? Male, Valley^ September, — Length, 86 ; expanse, 54 ; wing, 
14*2 ; tail, 5'8 ; tarsus, 62 ; bill from gape, 5*3 ; bill at front, 
4*3 ; til)ia bare, 3*8 ; mid-toe and claw, 4*4 ; closed wings reach 
to end of tail. 

Bill yellow ; orbital skin greenish ; irides light straw color ; 
legs and feet black. 

The Lesser White Heron is a cold weather visitor to the 
valley of Nepal. It arrives early in September, and is fairly 
common up to December, but is not noticed later. It was 
tolerably common in the Nawakot district in November and 
in the Tarai and plains in December. 

927.— Herodias garzetta, Lin. 

This species is common in the Tarai and plains, and in parts 
of the Nawakot district, in winter. A few birds stray to the 



A OOMTBIBUTIOM TO THE ORNITHOLOQT OF NEPAL. 361 

valley in antamn (possibly on their way from Nawakot to the 
plains) J bat the Little Egret is never common there. 

929.— Bubnlcus coromandus, Bodd. 

Xine ipecimensj Valley , June — September, — Lengthy 19-5 to 
21-7 ; expanse, 85 to 37-6 ; wing, 9'6 to 10-5 ; tail, S-4 to 4*0 ; 
tarsus, 8 to 3-5 ; tibia bare, 14 to 18 ; bill from gape, 2-8 to 
8-1 ; bill at front, 215 to 2-4, 

Kll homy yellow to orange yellow ; orbital skin yellow or 
greenish yellow; irides bright light yellow ; tibia dull yellow or 
greenish yellow; tarsns black or greenish dusky; toes and 
claws black. 

The Cattle Heron is a permanent resident in the valley of 
Nepal, and is very common from the beginuing of March to 
the end of November. It is also common in the Nawakot dis- 
trict in November, and in the Tarai and plains in December. 

930.~Ardeola gra]rii Sy^. 

Six epeeimene. — Length, 17*5 to 20^7 ; expanse, S5'8 to 29 1 
wing, 7*5 to 8-7 ; tail, 2*8 to 8*1 ; tarsus, 2*1 to 2*4 ; tibia bare, 
0-75 to 0*95; bill from gape, 2'93 to 8*2; bill at front, 2*2 
to 2*6. 

Bill blue at base, greenish yellow about the middle, and 
black at tip ; orbital skin greenish ; irides bright light yellow j 
feet dull greenish yellow. 

The Paddy Bird is very common and a permanent resident 
in the Nepal Valley, the Nawakot district, and the Tarai and 
pUiua of Nepal. In the valley it breeds from May to July. 

937.— Ifycticorax grisenSi Zin. 

Six epedmens, — Length, 20 to 24 ; expanse, 88 to 43 ; wing, 
10*8 to 11*5 ; tail, 4*1 to 4*5 ; tarsns, 2*7 to 2*9 ; tibia bare, 0*6 
to 1*08 ; bill from gape, 8*6 to 8*9 ; bill at front, 2*8 to 8*0. 

Bill black above and at tip, the sides mottled dusky and 
greenish, and the base of the lower mandible yellow or pale 
greenish horny ; gape and orbital skin pale greenish ; irides 
scarlet or blood red ; feet pale greenish yellow ; claws dusky 
homy. 

The Night Heron is a common bird in the Nepal Valley, and 
resides there permanently. Although it is moat frequently seen 
iying out after sunset to its feeding grounds its habits are 
not purely nocturnal. I have often seen it flying aboul 
during the day, feeding in rice fields and swamps ; and I 
have shot it at mid-day in such places, in June and July. It 
commonly haunts the edgea of tanks. 



362 A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 

954.— Gasarca ratila, Pall. 

Female^ December.'^^liengih, 24 ; expanse, 45*5 ; wing^ 14 ; 
tail, 6; tarsus, 2*1; bill from gape, 2*1; bill at front, 1*6 ; 
closed wings reach to end of tail. 

Bill black ; irides blackish brown ; feet blacky the webs with 
a purplish tinge ; claws homy black. 

The Brahminy Duck is a winter visitor to the valley, but is 
never very common. It arrives about the end of September 
or the beginning of October^ and some of the birds remain in 
the valley until about the middle of December; after the 
latter date it is not found again until about the middle of 
March, and throughout April. It was found in small numbers 
in the Nawakot district in November, and about streams and 
wet fields in the Tarai and plains in December. 

957*— Spatula clypeata, Lin. 

MaUf Valley J November. — Length, 20*1 ; expanse, 80; wing, 
9*0; tail, 3*8; tarsus, 1*2 ; bill from gape, 2*95 ; bill at front, 
2*5; closed wings short of tail, 1*4; mid-toe, 1*85. 

Bill orange, brownish above ; feet orange, the webs dusky. 

The Shoveller is a winter visitor to the Nepal Valley, being 
most common there on its migrations to and from the plains, bat 
especially in October and November. A few birds, however, 
probably remain in the valley throughout the cold season* 

961.— Ohaulelasmus streperas, Lin. 

Male, Valleyy November. — Length, 19*4; expanse, 33*6 ; wing, 
lO'l ; tail, 3*9 ; tarsus, 1*4; bill from gape, 2*0 ; bill at firon^ 
1*6 ; closed wings short of tail, 0*6 ; weight, 1 lb 4 ozs. 

Female^ Valley, April. — Length, 18*5 ; wing, 9*6 ; tail, 3*7 ; 
tarsus, 1*4 ; bill at front, 1*4. 

The Gadwall is a winter visitant to the Nepal Valley, bnt 
does not remain there throughout the cold season. ' It is pretty 
eommon from September to nearly the end of November, and 
again in March and April. 

962.— Dafila acuta^ Lin. 

Four males. — Length, 22 to 25 ; expanse, 32 to 36*5 ; ymg, 
10*3 to 10*9 ; tail, 4*8 to 5*8 ; tarsus, 1*6 ; bill from gape, 
2-4 ; bill at front, 2*05 to 2*1. 

Three females.— Lsmgih, 20 to 21*5 ; expanse, 32 to 33*5 ; 
wing, 10 to 10*2; tail, 4*2 to 4*8; tarsus, 1*45 to 1*6; bill 
from gape, 21 to 2*3 ; bill at front, 1*78 to 1*95. 

Bill black above and at tip ; the sides of the upper mandible 
and the basal part of the lower slaty or homy grey ; irides 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORNITHOLOGY OF NEPAL. 363 

dark brown ; feet slaty or dark grey ; the webs purplish slaty ; 
claws blackish plambeons. A male weighed 1 lb 10 ozs., and 
a female lib 2oz8. 

The Pintail is the commonest of the Duck tribe in the Nepal 
Valley in winter. It is most abundant from September to 
November, and in March and April, bat it is to be found in the 
valley throughout the cold season. 

963.— Mareca penelope, Lin. 

Male, Falleyy November. — Lengthy 18*1 ; expanse, 38 ; wing, 
10*1 ; tail, 4*0 ; tarsus, 1*4; bill from ^pe, 1*6 ; bill at front^ 
] *4 ; closed wings reach to end of tail ; weight, 1 lb 4*5 ozs* 

Bill dusky plumbeous, black towards the tip ; irides dark 
brown ; feet dusky plumbeous. 

The Widgeon is found in the valley of Nepal throughout 
the cold season, but not in any great numbers. 

964.— Querquedula creccai Lin. 

Male. — Length, 16; expanse, 24*2; wing, 7*2; tail, 3*2; 
tarsus, 1/2; bill from gape, 1*65; bill at front, 1*5; closed 
wings short of tail, 0*65 ; weight, 10*5 ozs. 

TAree females. — Length, 13'b to 14*7; expanse, 28 to 24; 
wing, 6 9 to 7*2; tail, 3*2 to 8*25; tarsus, 1*1 to 1*15; bill 
from gape, 1*55 to 1*6 ; bill at front, 1*4 to 1*46 ; closed wings 
short of tail, 0*2 to 0*4 ; weight, 8 to 9*5 ozs. 

Common in the Nepal Valley and the ^Nawakot district 
throughout the cold season. 

965.— Qaerquedula circu^ Lin. 

Male. — Length, 15*6 ; expanse, 25 ; wing, 7*7 ; tail, 3*0 ; 
tarsus, 1*1; bill from gape, 1*85; bill at front, 1*66; closed 
wings short of tail, 1*7. 

TuH} females. — Length, 14*8 and 15*4; expanse, 24*6 and 
24*8; wing, 7*3 and 7*4; tail, S and 3*2; tarsus, 1*0 and 
1*1; bill from gape, 1*66 and 1*7; bill at front, 1*5; closed 
wings short of tail, 1*6. 

The Oarganey Teal is found during the whole of the cold 
season in the Nepal Valley and the Nawakot district, but is 
perhaps rather less common than Q. crecea. 

969.— Fuligola nyroca, Oaid. 

The White-eyed Duck passes over the valley on migration, 
but does not appear to make any lengthened stay there. It 
was very common in December on a lake about two miles from 
Bichiakoh. 



384 ▲ covTBiBirriON to the ornithologt of vkpal. 

972— Hergus merganser, Lin. 

Only observed, ia Nepal^ along the coarse of the Tadi rivet 
in the Nawakot district 

975.— Podiceps mmor, Lin. 

Three specimens, Valley. — Length, 9'4 to 9'6 ; expanse^ 16'5 
to 16-6; wing, 3-9 to 3*95 ; tail, 14 ; tarsus, IS to 14 i bill 
from gape, 105 to 11 ; bill at front, 07 to 0-78, 

The Little Grebe is tolerably common on the tanks ixi. the 
Nepal Valley from the beginning of September to the otmidiUo 
of May. 

JB85.— Sterna seena, Spkes, 

Female, Valley , llth September. — Length, 15 9; expanse, 
3S ; wing, 10*23 ; tail, 7*2 ; tarsus, 0*8 ; bill from gape, S'^l^ ; 
bill at front, 1*4 ; closed wings short of tail, 2*0 ; weight, S o^b. 

Bill, mouth, and tongue deep yellow ; irides brown 9 ^^^ 
bright coral red ; claws black. 

This Tern merely passes through the Nepal Valley, aboixl* the 
beginning of winter and of sammer, and does not remain snore 
than a few days over the streams. 

1005.— Phalacrocorax carbo, Lin. 

The Large Oormorant was not uocommoa along the Vri^^ 
Ganga, in the Nawakot .di^trictj io Noyember. 

1008.— Flotus melanogaster, Penn. 

Fairly common on the lake near Bichiakoh in December* 

IIL 



It may be useful now to give some nominal lists, whicb 
show at a glance the station of the species included 10 ^^^ 
paper. 

The following is a list of the 243 species found in the rJi'1^7 
of Nepal. This number might be considerably augmented ^X 
a careful study of Mr. Hodgson's manuscript notes ; bX^ 
greatly regret that I have not had the necessary leisnr^ ^^ 
accomplish this task, which, however, must be done by 9^^?^ 
one before a complete history of the Birds of India c&tB *^ 
written: — 



1. Valtur monAehm. 

5. Otogyps caWui. 
S^tt. QjyB fulveioeiii. 
^Ur. Otp* bimalayeiitii. 
Aiitr. Gyps tonniraitrii. 

6. Ftoudogypi beng»l<Bi«ia, 

7. Orpaetufl barbatiu. 

8. Fafoo peregrinua. 



11. Faloo ju^gor. 

lOi Fkleo ohiqnera. 

17* Carchneu tinnmieEilai. 

SI. Altar palumbarioi, 

28. Altar Wiiu. 
S76i9. AgoUa nip«Iaiint» 

83. Kisaetot fuciataa. 

89. SpilomiB eheeUt. 



▲ OONTBIBUTION TO THE ORNlTHOLOQT OF HKFAL. 365 



45. HaliaStog lenoorjrplmi* 

46. Buteo fbroz. 

47. Buteo pluinipei. 

60. Oireiu ojaneus. 

61. Cireas maornroi. 
64. Cireas nraginotiu. 
66. Haliattur indns. 
66. MilriM gorioda. 
666if. Milnu melanotii. 
60t«r. MUtus affinia. 
60. Strix JATaniom. 

64. Sjmium newarenie. 

P646<«. Syniinni bodgioiu. 

71. Bubo nipaleiuU. 

76. Soops Uttia. 

79. GUuddium ouenloidet. 

82. Hirundo ruakioa. 

SBhi$. Hirundo nipalenrig, 

89. Cotyle sinenait. 

91. Ptyonoprogne rup«ftrii« 

100. CyDiennt affinit. 

108. CoUooalia nnioolor. 
I076w. Caprimulgnt jotaka. 

P Caprimal|^as sp. 

117. Meropa Tiridia. 

183. Coraciai indioa. 

189. HalcTon imymeiiaia. 

134. Alcedo benf^Iensis. 

160. Paleomifl Mhiatioepa* 

168. PaUDomifl fiMoiataa. 

166. Pieui majoroidea. 
1686i«. Pious uieo|piitUi. 

178. Gkcinus oeoipitalis. 

174. ChrysopUegma ehlorolopliiia. 

178. Mioroptemus phaoceps* 

186. Vivia innominata. 

191. Hegalsma marshalloram. 

196. Megalsma asiatiea. 

196. Megalsma franklini. 

197. Xantholsma hmmacaphala. 
199. Cuculus oanoma. 

900. Cuottlus siriattts. 

906. Hierocoeeyx Tariui. 

907* Hieroooocyz sparveroidaa. 

818. Cooejates ooromandna. 

814. Sudynamya honorata. 

816. Bhopodjtea tristis. 

939. ifithop^ga nipalenaia. 

8M. Ciimjna asiatioa. 

840. Pipnaoma agile. 

841* Hyaanthe ignipeetua. 

847. ISchodroma muraria. 

848. Sitta hinudayeoaia. 
851. 8itta cilmamomeiTenkria. 
864. ITpnpa epopa. 

868. Lanina tepnronotua. 

868. Lanina nigricepa. 

869. ToWooivora melaaehlata. 

870. Oranoalna madi. 

871. Periorocotua apeoioaua. 
87S. Perioroootua bre?iroatria. 
878- Buchanga atra. 

880. Buchaoga longioaudata. 

888. Muacipeta pandiai. 

804. Ohelidorhynx hypoxantba. 

996. Culieicapa oeYloaenaiai 

898 Alaeonaz temcolor. 



801. Stoponda melaaopa. 

804. Oyomia mbeculoiaea. 

816. NiltaTa maogrigorio. 

819. Siphia atrophiata. 
8106«a. Siphia rnfogularia. 

821. Siphia auperciliaria. 

828. Erythroatema albidlla. ^ 

848. Myiophoneua tamminekL 

847. CMnclua aaiatioua. 

861. Cyanocindua oyanna. 

852. Petrophila eiythrogaatra. 

858. Petrophila einclorhynoha. 

855. Qeocichla oitrina. 

856. G^oichla unloolor. 
858. Geooiehla diiaiTniliai 

861. Merula bonlboul. 

862. Merula alboeinota. 
865. Turdna atrigularit. 
871. Oreoeinda dauma. 
882. Orammatoptila atriata. 
888. Aldppe nipatonaia. 
400. PomaUvrhinua mfioollia. 
405. Pomatorhinua etythrogeayit 
407. Garrulax leuoolopbua. 
411. Oartulaxalbogttlaria. 

415. Trochalopteron erythfoeephal 

425. Trochalopteron linaatuffl* 

428. Actinodura nipalenaia. 

429. Malaeiaa capistratua. 
444. Hypnpetea paafoidaa. 
447. Hypdpetea maoddlandL 
458. Otooompaa leuoogenya. 
461. Molpaatea pygeiia. 

466. Phjllomia Ki^dirieku. 

470. Onolua kundoo. 
471 iar. Orioloa tenmroatrit* 

476. Copayehua aauiaria. 

483. Pratinoola indieua. 

486. Pmtineola ferrena, 

488. Butidlla hodgaouL 

508. ButiciUa frontalia. 

505. Bhyaoomia fiUigindaoi. 

506. Chimarromia leaoooepbahii. 
608. Kemura ojranura. 

518. Calliope pectoralia. 

514. Cyaneouia aueeica. 

580. Orthotomua autoritti* 

547. Suya crlnigera. 

659. Phylloaoopua nitidua. 

660. Phylloaoopua TiridanQa* 
561. Phylloaoopua affinia. 
564. Beguloidea troohiloidet. 
6655ia. fiegnloidea humiL 
566. Beguloidea proreguloa. 
668. Begttlddea erochroua. 
572. Abromis zanthoadiiatua. 
678. Abromia caataneioepa. 
584. Heniourus maoulatua. 
684M«. Henicurua j^ttatui. 

686. Henicurua achiataoeni. 

687. Henicurua aoouleri. 
6895»a. MAtadllahodg;8oni. 
600. Motadila leuoopaia. 
5916t«. Motadila alba. 
6l9\quat Motadila ocukria. 
592. Calobatea melanope. 
696. AnthoB maculatua. 



366 A COKTBIBUTION TO THE OBNITHOLOGT OF liTXEiL. 



609. Oorjdalla riehardL 

600. Gorydalla rnfuk. 

606. Anthos rotaoetu. 

606. Heterura ajWana. 

609. Pteruthiufl erythropterof. 

616. Sira strigula. 

617* Siva eyanaroptera. 

618. Minla ignotinota. 

619. Minla oa«taneiceps. 
638. Izuliu flaTioollis. 
686. Yahina gularii. 
627. Yuhina oocipitalia. 
631. Zosteropt palpebrosa. 

685. Sylnparus modwtua. 

684 .ffigithaliieui erythroeephtloM, 

644. Panu monticoltu. 

646. Parus nipdeniis. 

647. MaoUolophus xanUu^enyi. 

660. Corvus oulminatus. 

661. Corvut iotermedioa. 

668. Conms gplendens. 

669. Oarraliu bispeoalaria. 
671. UroeiMa ooapitalia. 
678. Urocina flavirostrif . 
676. Dendrooitta himalayeiifis. 
684. AeridoUifflres triatis. 

686. Acridotherea ftuoos. 
688. Sturnia malabarioa. 
694M. Plooaua baya. 

698. Amadina nibroniffra. 

699. Amadina punotuTata. 
708. Amadina aouticauda. 
706. Paaser indieua. 

710. Paner montanva. 

788. Eiupiia aureola. 

784. Melophos melanictanui 

781. Fyrrhala nipaleniis. 

788. Ciurpodaoua enrthruiiia. 

746. Ph)cardaeUa mpalensis. 

760. Hypaoanthif epinoidea 

761. Cuandrella bnushydaetyU. 

766. Alauda duldvox. 

767. Alauda gulgula. 

778. Sphenooeroul tphenunis. 

788. Alsooomuf hodgioni. 

788. Oolumba intermedia. 

798. Turinr arieotalia. 



706. Tnrtur luratenaia. 

8106»t. Qallophaais leuoomeliniia. 

Franoolmus rulgarie. 

Caceabis ehokar. 

Arborioola torqueolus. 

Arboricola rufognlariB. 

Cotumiz communia. 

Tumiz plumbipea. 

Charadnna folTua. 

JBffialitie dubia. 

LobivanelluB indieua. 

Hoploptenu Tentralii. 

Anthropoidee virgo. 

867. Seolopax ruaticola. 

868. Gallinago nemorioola. 
Oallinago iolitaxia. 
Oallinago atlienura. 
Gallinago gallinaria. 
Oallinago gallinula. 
Limoaa egocephala. 

877. NumeniuB lineatua. 
880. Machefcea pu^naz. 

Tringa temfflinoki. 

Totanna oohropua. 

Tringoidea hypoleacna. 

Totanua glottia. 

Fulica atra. 

Porsana baillonL 

Cicx>nia nigra. 

Diaaura epiaoopa. 
9246tt. Heroduaalba. 

986. Herodiaa torra. 

987. Herodiaa garaetta. 

929. Bubulena oonxmandna. 

930. Ardeola grayi. 
937. Nyetiooraz griaena. 
964. Caaaroa rutila. 

967. Spatula olypeata. 

961. Cnaulelaamna atreperna. 

968. Dafila acuta. 

963. Mareoa penebpe. 

964. Querquedula oracea. 
966. Querquedula oirda. 

969. Fuligula nyroea. 
976. Podioepa minor. 
986. Sterna aeena. 



818. 
880. 
884. 
885. 
829. 
833. 
846. 
849. 
866. 
867. 
866. 



869. 
870. 
871. 
878. 
876. 



886. 
808. 
893. 
894. 
908. 
910. 
918. 
920. 



I must preface my list of the Birds of Nawakot by q **^^^°^ 
the following extract from Mr. Hodgson's Essay on '*Nay^* 
and its Tribes :'* 

** The genera of mammals and birds obseryed dnring *- j'* 
ried visit, under disadvantageous circumstances, were Nemaf*^ ^ 
{ghorat)j StyloeeroB {ratwa)^ Maries (flavifftUa), Seiurop^"^ 
{magn^icua), Sciurua (locria)^ all common to the ^^^j^ 
Valley ; OarvtUy Pastor y OoraeiaSy Alaudaj AnthuSj Mot^*^^ 
Budytea, Pyrgita^ Phanieura, Saaicola, PJuBnteornis^ DicT^^t 
Ittucieapa, Tichodroma (muraria)j Picus, PakeorniBt Clc^^S^ 
chuB (Ibidorhynchus, Gould), Totanus, Tringa^ Egretta, A^* 
Querquedula^ Carboj MerguSy Turtur^ Euplocomue, OalbUi 
(Jungle Cockj hankiva)^ ChdetopuSf Perdue, CotmnijCy Bemt 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THB ORNITHOLOGT OF NEPAL. 367 



podtM8. Of these, Galltis, Coracias and Palaomis, unknown 
to the Greater Valley, proclaim the quasi'Indiaxi climate of 
Nawakot ; as Carbo and Mergus^ also unknown there^ do its 
largrer rivers. 

For the rest, the species, as well as the genera^ are those 
common to both districts. The Wall-creeper of Europe, sup- 
posed to be confined thereto^ is frequent in both.'' 

This passage contains, I believe, the only notice hitherto pub- 
lished of the Mammals and Birds of the Nawakot district. 
Mr. Hodgson's visit to the district must have been made in 
winter ; the only time I saw that part of Nepal was towards 
the end of November. With reference to Mr. Hodgson's enu- 
meration and remarks, I would note that Coracias and FakBomU 
are not unknown to the valley of Nepal ; and that Ceryle^ 
Taceocua and Groeopua must be added to the genera found in 
Nawakot, but absent from the Great Valley. A complete list of 
the birds of the Nawakot district would doubtless show a large 
number of species never found in the Nepal Valley. 

The following is a list of the 94 species^ as yet known to 
occur in the Nawakot district : — 



6. Fteudogyps bengalenni. 

17. Oerehneii tinnimeulufl. 

28, Aitur badiuB. 
AquilA sp. 

64. CiroQS AmginoiaB. 

66. MilTUi goTindft. 

64k STminm oewarenio^ 
Seopt P pennatut. 

79. OUuoidiiim caouloidat. 

856it. Hirundo nipalentia. 

89. Co^le sinensu. 

91. Ftjonoprogne rupeatrif. 

100. Cjpaellus affinis. 
Caprimuleua sp. 

188. Coradas mdiea. 

129. HalcTon ■myrnensia. 

184. Alcedo b«ogalenaia. 

186. Ceryle nidia. 

149. Palsornia pnipureoa. 

160. Palsornis Mhif tioepi . 

167. Piciu mafliL 

Pieuf tp. 

196. Hegalsma anatioa. 

281. Taooocua infiueata. 

247. Tichodroma mararia. 

269. Laniua nigrioepfl. 

870. Graucalus maciL 

871. Perioroootus speoiosoa. 
878. Perioroootua bnyiroairii. 
878. Bnchanga atra. 

894. Chelidorhjnz hjpozaotha. 

296. Gulioieapa oe^Ionenaia. 

847. Cindoa aaiaticiu. 

401. Pomatorhinus femigmoauf f 

407. Garrulax lencolophiu. 

458. Otooompt a leoeogenys. 

461. Molpaatef pjgasoa. 



476. Oopfjohus aaularifl. 

488. Pratmoola indicua. 

488. Buticilla hodgsonL 

606. Bhjaoornis fuliginonia. 

606. Chimarrornis leuoooephalof . 

680. Orthotomua sutoriua. 

687.. Heniounif soouleri. 

6895ta. Motacilla hodgaoni. 

690. Motacilla leucopsii. 

698. Calobatea melanope. 

694. Bttdytea caloaraU P 

696. Anthoa maoalatua. 

600. C6rjdalla rufula. 

646. Parol nipalenaia. 

660. Conrui culminatiia. 

668. Oorrus splendena. 

678. UrooiMa flarirostrif. 

676. Dendroeitta himaJayantii. 

681k Aoridotherea triatta. 

686. Aeridotheres foaoaa. 

706. Paaaer indiooa P 

767. Alauda gulffula P 

778. CrocopiiapboBniooptonia. 

788. Columba intermedia. 

798. Turtur orientalia. 

796. Turtur auratenaia. 

8106tf. Gkillopbaaia leneomalanaa. 

818. Gallua ferrugineua. 

818. Franoolinua Tulgazii. 

880. Caeoabia ohukar. 

889. Cotumix oommnnia. 

838. Tumix plumbipea. 

8486it. .figialitiaplacidA. 

849. JEnaUtia dubia. 

866. Looivanellua iudioua. 

870. Oallinago atbenura. 

871. Gallixiago gaUinaria. 

47 



368 A OONTRIBUTIOH TO TBI ORNITROLOGT OF NSPAL. 



678. OalliiuifoCftUiiivlk. 

879. Ibidorhynona strutlienL 

866. Tringa temmincki. 

802. Totanut oehropua. 

898. Tringoidei hjpoleaoui. 

894. ToUntu fj^lnttii. 

010. Forsana bailioBL 

918. Ciconia tofirtk, 

020. Diuura ei 



026. Htoodlaf torn. 

027. Berodias ganetta. 
029. Bttbaleoa eoromandtia. 
080. Ardeola grayi. 

964. Caaaroa nitila. 
962. Dafila acuta. 

064. Qaerquedala creeea, 

965. Querquedula eircta- 
972. Mmvos mtrgtataet. 

1006. PhalaoiDeoraz eubo. 



^pucopa. 
9246tf . Herodiaa alba. 

My list of the birds fccmd in the plains of Nepal, the Tarai, 
Sftl Forest, Diin and Lower Hills is too imperfect to be Trorth 
giving in detail. I will here Only note the 88 species foand 
in those parts of Nepal, but tiot observed in the Great Valley 
or the Nawakot district :-^ 

4to. OlooDmpta eniertk. 
466. Ph^llortiM aurifrons. 
472. Oriolui melanoeephalni. 
474. Aoaldpoi traillL 
694. Bodjrtea ealoaraU. 
616. Maaia argentauria. 

ItolanooUora tultaiiaa. 

D«ndMdtta nifa. 

Btamua Tulgaria. 

Stttrnopastor oontnu 

SalabM intermedia. 

Pttrbulauda griaea. 



Circus melanoleUetttf. 
76* Carine brama. 
147^. Paieornia nipaleniis. 
148. PaliBoniit torqnatol. 
168. Tungipioua pygnuBiUk 
171. Gectnoa •triolatus. 
192. Megalttma hodgtont 
266. Tephrodoniia ^ndieerimla. 
267^ Uemipua eapitoUa. 
tol. Buehanga eoraleeoena. 
282. Cbaptia enea. 
S84. BiMemttrua malabaroidea. 
286. Chibia hoCtentotta. 
402. Pomatorfainns icliiitieapa. 
480. Sibia pioaoidei. 
482. Malaeoeeroiu tenioolor. 
448. HemizuB flavala. 
461. Crioiger flaYeolut. 
466. Bubigola flavifeiitria. 



660. 
674. 
681. 
688. 



760. 
762. 
796. 
797. 
808. 
868. 
866. 
1008. 



Aialidttla raTtal. 
Turtvr rieonua. 
Tartar tranqoiriMuieaa. 
PaYo eriatatas. 
Gnu antigoae. 
G^rua eAmmanie. 



Plotua melanogaatar. 

To complete the enumeration of the birds included in this 
paper, the following six species, found in higher and more nor- 
therly regions than the Nepal Valley, are added : — 



790. Colamba leaeonota. 
804. Lopbopborue impejanui. 
806. Oenomifl satjra. 



807. Itbageaee ementaa. 
808^. Paeraaia nipalenaia. 
809. Phananaa waUicbi. 



To sum up : 243 species are recorded from the valley of 
Nepal; 13 speciee found in the Nawakot district, bat not 
obtained in the Nepal Valley ; 88 species from the plaint '^^ 
Lower Be^ion of Nepal, not included in the lists of birdB f*^°* 
the Great Valley or Nawakot ; and 6 species from the tJpP«^ 
Begion of Nepal, not found in any of the localities previoaur 
mentioned ; making, in all, a total of 800 species. A cot^P^^f 
list of the birds to be found in the Territory of Nepal, iocla<i- 
ing residents and migraatS| would probably not fall sbort ot 
700 species. 



369 



Bt Sgbopb B. Doio, Esq., C.E. 



It is with ooiuiderabU hesi^tion tb^t I Fontore to plao^ 
before the raadera of ^^ Strat Fjbathbbs^' an account pt my 
obaerTationa on the nidifioation of some few bird^ in th^ 
*• Badtern Nanra." 

I feel that I am very ignorant of ornithology as a soienoe^ 
haying only lately directed my attention to the aubject ; bn^ 
on the other hand, I have been very fortunate in discovering the 
breeding haunts of several species, of whose pidification iu 
India, little or nothing has been hitherto known, so that a brief 
record of the results of my discoveries may not be altogether 
valueless. 

I have, tJiereforCj at the requ^t of the Sdilorj strung together 
a few notes on the subject in which I have end^fivoured to put| 
the information I have gathered into as concise a form as 
possible. 

Any little success which has attended my lefforts is due first 
to the assistance I have received from my n-iend. Captain £. A. 
Butler, and secondly to the kindly interest taken in my work 
by Mr. Hume. 

I propose to divide my paper into thre^ sections, and, as the 
'^ Eastern Narra^' is probably a ttrra ineognita to many^ will 
begin by giving a brief description of it. 



Section I. 



The Eastern Narra: lis Oeographioal p(>eitum, Us physical fsa* 
iurtSf and a teniaiive list of the bir4s iphicA breed there. 

The Eastern Narra is supposed formerly to hav^ been a 
branch of the Indus. At present, however, except in years of 
flood, its only connection with the river }s by an artificial chan- 
nel some twelve miles in length, taking o£P from the river at 
Rohree, For the first two hundrecf miles of its course the 
Narra runs through the territory of H. H. Meer All Murad, the 
banks on both sides being a sandy desert. In about north lati-« 
tude 26^15' it debouches into the plain, and hugging with its 
left bank the sand hills along the desert, it runs in a southerly 
direction parallel to the Jlndas, and at a distence of about 80 
miles from it, until it finally empties itself into the Buun of 
Kutch at Lukput. 



370 



bibdb' nestiko on the ''eastern nabba/' 



The river, thns briefly described^ gives its name to a tract of 
country bounded on the east by the deserts adjoining Jejsul- 
meer and Marwar^ and on its west by the Hydrabad dis- 
tricts. 

The physical features of the country are, I may say^ quite 
different to the rest of Sind. Instead of the bare dry plain of 
which the greater portion of the province consists, there is 
here a carpet of evergreen grass with a dense tamarisk, babool 
and knndy (Acacia sp,) jungle, interspersed with large deep 
lakes running miles into the sand hills, and having a perennial 
stream of water running through the valley. The consequence 
is, that the district is a perfect paradise to all aquatically- 
inclined birds, which breed and thrive there, in the greatest 

E refusion. The following is a list of all the birds which I 
elieve to breed in the district. Of those entered in italics, I have 
not actually taken the eggs, but from personal observations 1 
have every reason to beUeve that they are permanent residents 
and do breed there. 



No. in 

Jerdon. 

2 

6 

6 

11 

16 



Tentative list of Birde breeding in tie Eastern Narra. 

Sdentifie "Same, 



28 
29 
88 

88 

4a 

48 
€6 

66 
60 
70 
78 
76 
84 



100 
118 
117 
118 
188 
189 
184 
186 
148 
168 
160 
182 
212 



Otogjpa oalviu, 8eop. ... 
Pseudogyps bengmleniii, Om, 
Neophron gmginuinas, Lath, 
Faloo jogger, J, S, Or* 
Taleo ehimura^ Doiid. ... 
Af tor badios, Qm, 
Aquila elamaa, FalU 
Aqnila ▼indnuuia, Frankl. 
NUaetnt fueiatui, FMU. 
Oircaetna gallicua. Om. ... 
le 



HaliaStoi leaoorypliuBi PaU. 

Butaafcor teesa, FrankL ... 

Halioitur indut, Bodd, ... 

HilTUfl gofinda, Sykes 

Xlantu eosruleug, Deif, ... 

Bubo ooromandns, Lath.... 

Keittpa eejfUmetuU, Gfm, 

Carinebrama, Tern. 

Hinindo filifura, Steph. ... 

Cotyle linenne, J. ST. Gr. 

Oyp$eUu$ affinUt J. S. Or. 

Caprimul^mahrattenais, Sjkef. 

Merops TiridiBf Lin. 

Mero^phiUfpiwu, Lim. 

Conuaaa indioa, Lin. 

HalcTon Emymenam, Lin. 

Aloeao ben^enna, Gm.... 

Ceiyle rudu, Lin. 

Palsomia torquatuB, Bodd. 

Pieui $indiamutj Oomld,.., 

Tieui mahratUims, Lath, 

Braehyptemus dilutna, B)y. 

OoeesfitsB Jaeobinut, Bodd, 
9l7quiiU Centroooco)[z maximoBi Hume. 
284 Cinnyrii anatiea, Lath. ... 

266 Lanitti lahtora, Syket, ... 



Months in which Eggi woe tikai. 

16th February to 16th April 

16th NoTomber to 16th Deoemb«. 

March, April. 

1st to 16tn Febmary. 

March. 

April. 

NoTember, Beoember. 

Jannary. 

December. 

May, June. 

NoTcmber, December. 

April. 

March. 

19'oTember to ApriL 

August. 

December. 

December. 

March, April, 

May to September. 

Febmary. 

May, June. 

February to August. 

April. 

JuljT. 

April, May. 

April. 

March, ApriL 

March, April, and Oetobsr. 

Majr. 

April. 

ApriL 

ApriL 

June, July. 

June, July. 

MajTt June. 

ApnL 



birds' nesting on thb ''kastbrn nabba.'' 



371 



Tentative list of Birds breeding in tie Eastern Narra. — (Gontd.) 



JeHon^ Sdentifio NaniA. 

S67 Xanina er^thrcmohu, Yig, 

200 Lanios Tittatiifl, Valeiio. 

278 BnohttDga atra, Harm. ... 

9S6 Pyetarig iinmuU, Qm. ... 

432 Malacooerena terrieolor, Hodga. 
488 ChatarriuBa oaudata, Dwbl 

439 Chatarrhoa earlii, Bly. ... 

443 Lafcicilla burnaai, Blj. ... 

469 Otooompaa leaootia, Gk>uld. 
402 Molpaatea hemorrhona, Gm. 

470 Orioiut kumdoo, ByhM, 

480 Thamnobia cambaienaia, Latfi. 

481 Pratineola caprata 

632 FrixuA flaTiTentria, Beleaa. 

643 DfymcBea inoroata, Sykea. 

660 Burneaia graeilia, Lidit. 

661 FranhlUUa inehanani. Big. 
689 MotaeiHa wuuUratpatmmt, Qm. 
600 ' CoiydalU rafnla, Yieill. 

663 Coima aplendeoa, VieiU. 

074 Pendxoeitta rufa, Soop. 

aSlbis. Siurnua minor, Hume. 

684 Acridotherea triatia, Lin. 

686 Acridotherea ging^inianua, Lath. 

094 P/oeeKf phiiippmtu^y Lin. 

095 Plooeua znanyar, Horu. 
090 PZaeeva bengaletuu, Idn. 
703 Amadina malabarioa, Lin. 
700 Paaaer domeaticna, Lin. 
711 Gymnoria flaTioolIia, Frankl. 

700 Fyrrhmiauda ffriiea, Scop. 
7006f« Fyrrknlanda nulanaMehm, Cah. 

701 Calandrella hraekgdaetgla^ Lnfh 
709 Gblerita oriatata, Ion. 

788 Colomba intermedia, Striokl. 

. 796 T%rtwr iurateiui$, Lin. 

790 Tartar riaorioa, Lin. 

797 Tartar tranquebaricoaf , Herm. 

802 Pteroclea exuataa. Tern. 

808 Faw erittatmtt lAn. 

818 Francolinua Tulearia, Stepb. 

822 Ort^gonua pondioerianaa, Gm. 

829 Cotnmi9 communit, Bonn. 

840 Coraorioa eoromandelioua, Gm. 

842 Glareola orientalia, Leacb. 

8426ia Glareola pratinoola, Lin. 

866 LobiTanellaa indioua, Bodd. 

868 JBioeuM rwurviroHrig, Owe. 

859 (Edionemoa aeoiopax, 8. G. Gm. 

878 Bhynohsa bengalensia, Lin. 

898 Himantopoa oandidua, Bonn. 

901 Hydrophaaianua cbirorgua, Scop. 

902 Forphyrio poliocepbalua, Lath. 
904 Gnlliwex einertuM^ Qm. 

906 Gallinala cbloropua, Lin. 

907 Brythra pbcBnioara, Penn. 
917 Xenorhynchaa aaiattooa, Lath. 
923 Ardea cinerea, Lin. 



Montha in which thej breed. 

April. 

April, Jane. 

April, May. 

July, Aagoat. 

Jane. 

March to October. 

March to October. 

March, June, and September. 

May to Aagaat. 

July, Augaat. 

JaljTi August. 

ApriL 



April to Aagutt. 
Mm ~ 



irch, June, and September. 
March. 

March, Jane, and September. 
ApriL 
April. 
April. 

July, Aagaat. 
May. 

February to Jane. 
May, June, July, and Angoafe. 
May. 

July, Aagaat. 
July, Auguat. 
July, Auguat. 
Apnl to September. 
Januai^ to December. 
May, June. 
February, March. 
February and March. 
April and May. 
April and May. 
February to December. 
April. 

3iUrch to September. 
April. 

February, March, April. 
Juljr. 
April and October. 



April. 



Lay, June. 
July. 
May. 
May;. 

April, May, June. 
April and May. 
April and May. 
May, June. 
June. 

July, Auguat 
June, July, Auguat. 
June. 
June. 
June. 

October, November, December. 
June to September. 



* Entered aa P. hayOf 8. F., V., 823, the proper aaaignment of the two namea not 
having then been aacertamed.*— A. O. H. 

t Entered erroneouai^ aa kwrnUii, 8. F., L, 218» the two apeciea not then haTing 
been diicriminated.— A. O. H. 



372 



BIEDS' NBftTIMa ON IHC '^ SA8TBEN ITAIBA.'^ 



Tsntative list of Birds bradin^ in th$ EasUm Nana.^ (Conoid.) 



No. in 
Jerdon. 

984 

926 

926 

987 

989 

930 

931 

932 

983 

934 

936 

937 

938 

939 

940 

941 

942 

943 

962 

968 

969 

976 

986 

987 
1006 
1006 
1007 
1008 



ficiflntiflo Fame. 

ArdM purpurea, Lin. 
Herodiaa torn, B. Ham. 
Herodiat intermedia, Half. 
Herodiaa ganetta, Lin. 
Bubnleus ooromandui, Bodd. 
Ardeola ffraji, S^kes. 
Btttoridet jaTaniea. Honf. 
Ardetta flaneoUia, Lath. 
Ardetta einnamamea^ Qm. 
Ardetta finenau, Om. 
Ardetta minuta, Lin. 
Njctiooras griaeua, Lin. 
Tantalus leuooopphaloa, Foret. 
Platalea leueorodia, Lin. 
Anastomus oaoitana, Bodd. 
Ibii melanoeephala. Lath. 
Inocotis papilloeuti Tem. 
Faloinellat igpoeus, S. Q-. Ghn. 
Dendrooygnajavanica. Hortt 
Drntdrocygnafnlva^ Om. 
Anas pcBcilorhjneha, f oiet. 
Podieepi miner* Qm. 
BUma aeena, 8jfk§9. 
Sterna melanogaetra, Tem. 
Phftlacroooraz earho, Lin. 
Phalacroeorai fueeieolHi, Stenh. 
Phalaorocorax pygmsui, PaU. 
Plotua meianogneter, Penn. 



Honthi in wbieh Egga were tiken. 

June to September. 

Jfdj, Angoat. 

July, Auguat. 
. July, Auguet. 

July, Auguat 
, June^ July. 

June, July, Augast. 
, June, July. 
. June, Jaly, Auguat. 
, June, July, Auguat. 
. June, July. 
, June, July, Augual. 
, October, November. 
. October, November. 

August. 
, October, November, 
, June to Norembtr. 
. June, July. 

Juoe, July. 
>. June, July. 
. BCay, June, Septambw. 
. July, Augnet. 
,. June, July. 
. June, July* 
,. November. 
.. July to Beeembef. 
.. June to Decvnber. 
,. June to Deoambf r. 



n. 



" Detailed notes regarding certain species the nidifioatian of tokiek 
IMS not previously been noticed in India.*** 



Spboies Noticed. 



(1) 118. Oaprimulgus mahraUsnsii* 

(2) 443. Laticilla'bumen.'* 

(3) 681 his, Stumus minor* 

(4) 690 Pastor roseus. 

(6) 842. Qlareola orimUaUs. 



(6) 842 his, GUreola pratineoU, 

(7) 932. Ardetta flavieolHs. 

(8) 943. Faleinellus igne^i* 

(9) 10D5. OraeulMS carbo. 



(1.) 113.— Gaprimuli^ mahrattensis. 

This Night Jar is (he onlj permanent resident of the genos in 
these districts ; G. unmni appears in September^ as a migrsnt, 
but stays for a very short period. The eggs of C. mahrattsfM 
are always two in nambery of a light pale stone ground-coloar, 
with large blotches of neutral tint ; these latter fade considerably 
after the egg is blown. The nest which is merely a slight 

• Of iheee nine epecies Mr. Boig ia vealiy only irtt for thd fiva after vhiokl 
have plaoed a atar. 



BIRDb' nesting on the ''eastern KABR4/' 373 

hollow scraped in tbe ground is nearly always situated on a bare 
piece of '' kulhr*^ or salt ground, sometimes under a small 
bunch of grass, at o.thers under a dry bramble^ or at times right 
out in the open without any attempt at concealment. The size 
of the eggs varies from 1*10 to 1*20 in length and from *75 
to *85 in breadth, the average of 12 eggs being 1*13 in length 
and '80 in width. 

(2) 443.— Latidlla bumesi. 

This bird is in certain localities very numerous, but invari- 
ably confines itself to dense thickets of reed and tamarisk 
jungle. The discovery of my first nest was as follows : — 

On the 13th March, while closely searching some thick grass 
along the banks of a small canal, I heard a peculiar twittering 
which I did not recognise. After standing perfectly still for a 
flhort while, I at length caught sight of the bird which I at 
once identified as L. bumeiu Leaving the bed of the canal 
in which I was walking and making a slight detour, 1 came sud- 
denly over the spoil bank of the caual^ on to the place where 
the bird had been calling. My sudden appearance caused the 
bird to get very excited, and it kept on twittering, approaching 
me at one time until quite close^ and then going away again a 
short distance. I at once began searching for its nest, and out 
of the first tussock of grass I touched, close to where I was 
standing, flew the female who joined her mate, after which both 
birds kept up a continuous and angry twittering. On opening 
out the grass I found the nest with three fresh eggs in it, 
placed right in the centre of the tuft and close to the ground. 

The eggs were of a pale green ground colour, covered with 
large irregular blotches of purplish brown, and not very unlike 
some of the eggs of Paner fiamcollu, k.{\At this I found 
several nests, but they were all building, and were one and all 
deserted, though in many instances I never touched the nest^ 
often tiever saw it, as on seeing the birds flying in and out of 
the grass with building material in their bills, I left the place 
and returned in ten days time, but only to find the nest de- 
serted. In one case where a single egg had been laid, I found 
that the bird before deserting the nest had broken the egg. 
In July I again got a nest and shot the parent birds ; the eggs 
in this nest were quite of a difierent type, being of a Very pale 
cream ground colour, with large rusty bloteh^, principally con- 
fined to the larger end. 

The nests of this bird are composed of coarse grass, the inside 
being composed of the finer parts ; they are 4 to 5 inches 
external diameter and 2^ inches internal diameter, the cavity 
being about li inches deep. The months in which they breed 



374 BIRDS* NBSTIKG ON THE '^EASTERN KARRA." 

are^ as far as I at present know, Marcfa^ Janei and September. 
The eggs vary in size from '65 to *80 in length and from *50 
to '55 in breadth. The average of 7 eggs is '72 in length and 
*54 in breadth. 

(3) 681 di^.—Stumus minor. 

Last year I mentioned to my friend. Captain Bntler, that 
1 had noticed Starlings going in and out of holes in trees 
along the *' Narra'' in the month of March, and that I 
thonght they most be breeding there. He said that I most 
be mistaken, as S. vulgaru never bred so far south. As it 
happens we were both correct — he in saying S. vulffaris did 
not breed here, and I in saying that Sktrlinga did. My 
Starling turns out to be the species originally described from 
Sindh as Stumua minor by Mr. Hume, and as I have now 
sent Mr. Hume a series of skins and eggs, I trust he will give 
us a note on the subject of our Indian Starlings.^ In February 
I shot one of these birds, and on dissection found that they 
were beginning to breed. Later on early in March, I again dis- 
sected one and found that there was no doubt on the sabject, 
and so began to look for their nests. These I found in holes in 
^^kundy" trees growing along the banks of the Narra, and also 
situated in the middle of swamps. The eggs were laid on a 
pad of feathers of Platalea Uucorodia and Tantalus leueoeephdus 
which were breeding on the same trees, their young being 
then nearly fledged. The greatest number of eggs in any one 
nest was five. The first date on which I took eggs was the 13th 
March, and the last was on the 15th May. 

The eggs are oval, broad at one end and elongated at the other ; 
the texture is rather waxy, with a fine gloss, and they are of a 
pale delicate sea green colour. 

The birds during the breeding time confine themselves closely 
to their breeding ground, so much so, that except when close to 
their haunts, none are ever seen. 

The size of the eggs varies from 1*00 to I'lO in length, and 
from *70 to *80 in breadth. The average of 12 eggs is 1*03 in 
length and '79 in breadth. 

(4) Pastor roseus. 

Although I have not as yet discovered the breeding pkce of 
this bird, I think it as well to put on record what little I have 
noticed, in the hope that it may be of assistance in eventnallj 
finding out where it goes to breed. I began watching the birds 
in the middle of April and every week shot one or two and 
dissected them, but did not perceive any decisive signs of their 
breeding until the 10th May, when I shot two mues, both of 

* Sat he9H alr0Qd^ ion§i vid^ ante, p. 174» 



J 



birds' nesting on the ^'eastbbn narra.'^ 375 

wbich had their testes as highly developed as they could possibly 
be, being fully an inch long and :^ inch wide each. Again on the 
15th May out of seven that I shot in a flock, six were males, the 
generative organs fully developed, the seventh was a young 
female in immature plumage, the ovaries being quite unde- 
veloped ; the birds were feeding in the bed of a dried up swamp, 
along with flocks of Stumus minopj and were constanUy flying 
in flocks, backwards and forwards^ in one direction. . Unfortu- 
nately, important work called me to another part of the dis- 
trict, and when I returned in a fortnight's time, I could not 
see one. Where can they have gone ? And they remain away 
such a short time I I have seen the old birds return as early 
as the 7th July accompanied by young birds barely fledged, 
and I should not be at all surprised if these birds are fouud 
to breed in some of the native stales on the east of Sind. That 
they could find time to migrate to the Caspian SSea and Central 
Asia to breed and return again by the middle of July I cannot 
believe, especiallv after having found them so thoroughly in 
breeding trim, while still in the east of Sind. 

Another suspicious circumstance is the absence of females in 
the flocks I met with. Perhaps some of my readers may have 
an opportunity of finding out whether Pcator rosens occurs in 
the districts lying to the east of Sind, in the month of June, 
as there is no doubt that the breeding time lies between the 
20th May and the commencement of July. 

(5). 842.— Glareola orientalis.* 
(6). 842 dis.— Glareola pratincola. 

On the 4th May I came across a lot of birds which were 
new to me, and so I shot some to id^itify ; from the persistent 
way in which the others kept flying round and round I con- 
cluded that they must be breeding, and on searching for their 
nests I found some half dozen all empty, and so thought that 
they were beginning to lay. I accordingly left the place, and 
returned on the 7thy when I found after searching about that 
what I had taken for new nests were really old ones, the place 
round about being covered with the broken egg shells, however 
by patient searching I collected over fifty eggs. The breeding 
ground was about 15 acres in extent, (the actual portion where 
most of the nests were placed, was only about an acre) and was 
a salt plain with patches of coarse sedge here and there on it, 
the whole being surrounded by dense tamarisk and rush jungle, 

and was situated about half a mile from the bank of the ^'Narra." 

■ ■ ■ 

* 8m alio Mr. Oatea' account of the nidification of thia'tpecies, S. F., TIL, 48. 

48 



376 birds' nesting on the ^'eastern narra. 



»» 



The nests were slight hollows scraped in the gronnd, and were 
generally situated close to where the soil had been rooted up 
by wild pigs, or in the centre^ or by the side of a lamp of dried 
cpw dung ; this latter was the favorite situation. The greatest 
number of eggs in any nest was three* This seemed to be the 
normal number, but some contained only two^ and one had a 
single egg and one young one just hatched. I shot several 
specimens which I have preserved and sent* to Mr. Hume for 
identification along with their eg^s. As one or two of the 
specimens appear to me to be undoubted orientalisj I have 
entered this note against both, as I conclude that both most 
have been breeding in company. I also found Cursorius coro- 
mandelicus and Lobivanellus indicus breeding in the same place. 
These birds have a most peculiar habit of lying stretched on 
the ground with their wings spread out; they not only did this 
while I was visible searching for their eggs, but when I had 
disappeared and lay hid in the dense jungle 1 saw them through 
my glasses going through the same antics. As far as I could 
judge it was done when any other birds approached the nest 
or young, and was evidently a sign of anger. Two birds which 
I shot while thus extended were both males. The ground 
colour of the e^gs is a light dirty green in some, in others a 
drab, covered all over with dark purple blotches denser in some 
than in others and sometimes forming a zone at the broader 
end ; some are in shape broad ovals, others nearly spherical; they 
vary in len